Guangdong ([kwàŋ.tʊ́ŋ] (listen); formerly romanised as Kwangtung or Canton Province) is a province in South China, on the South China Sea coast. Guangdong surpassed Henan and Shandong to become the most populous province in China in January 2005, registering 79.1 million permanent residents and 31 million migrants who lived in the province for at least six months of the year; the total population was 104,303,132 in the 2010 census, accounting for 7.79 percent of Mainland China's population. This also makes it the most populous first-level administrative subdivision of any country outside of South Asia, as its population is surpassed only by those of the Pakistani province of Punjab and the Indian states of Bihar, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous and important cities in China. The population increase since the census has been modest, the province registering 108,500,000 people in 2015.
Most of the historical Guangdong Province is administered by the People's Republic of China (PRC). However, the archipelagos of Pratas in the South China Sea are controlled by the Republic of China (ROC, a.k.a. Taiwan), and were previously part of Guangdong Province before the Chinese Civil War.
Since 1989, Guangdong has topped the total GDP rankings among all provincial-level divisions, with Jiangsu and Shandong second and third in rank. According to state statistics, Guangdong's GDP in 2017 reached 1.42 trillion US dollars (CNY 8.99 trillion), making its economy roughly the same size as Mexico. The province contributes approximately 12% of the PRC's national economic output, and is home to the production facilities and offices of a wide-ranging set of Chinese and foreign corporations. Guangdong also hosts the largest import and export fair in China, the Canton Fair, hosted in the provincial capital of Guangzhou.
|• Chinese||广东省 (Guǎngdōng Shěng)|
Map showing the location of Guangdong Province
(and largest city)
|Divisions||21 prefectures, 121 counties, 1642 townships|
|• Secretary||Li Xi|
|• Governor||Ma Xingrui|
|• Total||179,800 km2 (69,400 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||1,902 m (6,240 ft)|
|• Density||600/km2 (1,600/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||7th|
|• Ethnic composition||Han – 99%|
Zhuang – 0.7%
Yao – 0.2%
|• Languages and dialects||Cantonese and other Yue languages, Hakka, Min Nan languages (Teochew & Leizhou Min), Tuhua, Mandarin, Zhuang|
|ISO 3166 code||CN-GD|
|GDP (2018)||CNY 9.73 trillion|
US$1.47 trillion (1st)
|• per capita||CNY 87,763 |
|HDI (2017)||0.786 (high) (5th)|
"Guangdong" in Simplified (top) and Traditional (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"Eastern Expanse"|
|Literal meaning||[an ancient name for southern China's Yue people]|
"Guǎng" (simplified Chinese: 广; traditional Chinese: 廣) means "expanse" or "vast", and has been associated with the region since the creation of Guang Prefecture in AD 226. Guangdong and neighbouring Guangxi literally mean "expanse east" and "expanse west". Together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong (Liangkwang; traditional Chinese: 兩廣; simplified Chinese: 两广; pinyin: liǎng guǎng; Cantonese Yale: léuhng gwóng; literally: 'Two Expanses') Vietnamese: QuangDong Province. During the Song dynasty, the Two Guangs were formally separated as Guǎngnán Dōnglù (廣南東路; 广南东路; 'vast south east region') and Guǎngnán Xīlù (廣南西路; 广南西路; 'vast south west region'), which became abbreviated as Guǎngdōng Lù (廣東路; 广东路) and Guǎngxī Lù (廣西路; 广西路).
"Canton", though etymologically derived from Cantão (the Portuguese transliteration of "Guangdong"), refers only to the provincial capital instead of the whole province, as documented by authoritative English dictionaries. The local people of the city of Guangzhou (Canton) and their language are called Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents and Chinese dialects outside the provincial capital.
The Neolithic era began in the Pearl River Delta (珠江三角洲) 7,000 years before present (BP), with the early period from around 7000 to 5000 BP (c. 5050–3050 BC), and the late period from about 5000 to 3500 BP (c. 3050–1550 BC). In coastal Guangdong, the Neolithic was likely introduced from the middle Yangtze River area (Jiao 2013). In inland Guangdong, the neolithic appeared in Guangdong 4,600 years before present (BP). The Neolithic in northern inland Guangdong is represented by the Shixia culture (石峽文化), which occurred from 4600–4200 BP (c. 2650–2250 BC).
Originally inhabited by a mixture of tribal groups known to the Chinese as the Baiyue ("Hundred Yue"), the region first became part of China during the Qin dynasty. Under the Qin Dynasty, Chinese administration began and along with it reliable historical records in the region. After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, near what is now part of Guangzhou. The region was a independent kingdom as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. The Han dynasty administered Guangdong, Guangxi, and northern Vietnam as Jiaozhi Province, southernmost Jiaozhi Province was used as a gateway for traders from the west—as far away as the Roman Empire. Under the Wu Kingdom of the Three Kingdoms period, Guangdong was made its own province, the Guang Province, in 226 CE.
As time passed, the demographics of what is now Guangdong gradually shifted to (Han) Chinese dominance as the populations intermingled due to commerce along the great canals, and abruptly shifted through massive migration from the north during periods of political turmoil and nomadic incursions from the fall of the Han dynasty onwards. For example, internal strife in northern China following the rebellion of An Lushan resulted in a 75% increase in the population of Guangzhou prefecture between the 740s–750s and 800s–810s. As more migrants arrived, the local population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced.
Together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit (political division Circuit), or Mountain-South Circuit, in 627 during the Tang dynasty. The Guangdong part of Lingnan Circuit was renamed Guangnan East Circuit guǎng nán dōng lù in 971 during the Song dynasty (960–1279). "Guangnan East" (廣南東) is the source of the name "Guangdong" (廣東; 广东).:227
As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Southern Song court fled southwards from its capital in Hangzhou. The defeat of the Southern Song court by Mongol naval forces in The Battle of Yamen 1279 in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song dynasty (960–1279).
Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive trade links with the rest of the world. European merchants coming northwards via the Straits of Malacca and the South China Sea, particularly the Portuguese and British, traded extensively through Guangzhou. Macau, on the southern coast of Guangdong, was the first European settlement in 1557.
In the 19th century, the opium traded through Guangzhou triggered the First Opium War, opening an era of Western imperialists' incursion and intervention in China. In addition to Macau, which was then a Portuguese colony, Hong Kong was ceded to the British, and Kwang-Chou-Wan (modern day area of Zhanjiang) to the French.
Due to the large number of people that emigrated out of the Guangdong province, many overseas Chinese communities have their origins in Guangdong. In particular, the Cantonese and Teochew dialects have proportionately more speakers among overseas Chinese people than Mandarin-speaking Chinese. Additionally, many Cantonese-speaking Chinese emigrated to Western countries, with the results that many Western versions of Chinese words were derived from the Cantonese dialects rather than through the main stream Mandarin language, such as "dim sum". Some Mandarin Chinese words originally of foreign origin also came from the original foreign language by way of Cantonese. For example, the Mandarin word níngméng (simplified Chinese: 柠檬; traditional Chinese: 檸檬), meaning "Lemon", came from Cantonese, in which the characters are pronounced as lìng mung. In the United States, there is a large number of Chinese who are descendants of immigrants from the county-level city of Taishan (Toisan in Cantonese), who speak a distinctive dialect related to Cantonese called Taishanese (or Toishanese).
During the 1850s, the Taiping Rebellion, whose leader Hong Xiuquan was born in Guangdong and received a pamphlet from a Protestant Christian missionary in Guangdong, became a widespread civil war in southern China. Because of direct contact with the West, Guangdong was the center of anti-Manchu and anti-imperialist activity. The generally acknowledged founder of modern China, Sun Yat-sen, was also from Guangdong.
During the early 1920s of the Republic of China, Guangdong was the staging area for Kuomintang (KMT) to prepare for the Northern Expedition, an effort to bring the various warlords of China back under the central government. Whampoa Military Academy was built near Guangzhou to train military commanders.
In recent years, the province has seen extremely rapid economic growth, aided in part by its close trading links with Hong Kong, which borders it. It is now the province with the highest gross domestic product in China.
In 1952, a small section of Guangdong's coastline was given to Guangxi, giving it access to the sea. This was reversed in 1955, and then restored in 1965. Hainan Island was originally part of Guangdong, but it was separated as its own province in 1988.
Guangdong faces the South China Sea to the south and has a total of 4,300 km (2,700 mi) of coastline. The Leizhou Peninsula is on the southwestern end of the province. There are a few inactive volcanoes on Leizhou Peninsula. The Pearl River Delta is the convergent point of three upstream rivers: the East River, North River, and West River. The river delta is filled with hundreds of small islands. The province is geographically separated from the north by a few mountain ranges collectively called the Nan Mountains (Nan Ling). The highest peak in the province is Shikengkong with an elevation of 6,240 feet (1,902 meters) above sea level.
Guangdong borders Fujian to the northeast, Jiangxi and Hunan to the north, Guangxi autonomous region to the west, and Hong Kong and Macau Special Administrative Regions to the south. Hainan is offshore across from the Leizhou Peninsula. The Pratas Islands, which were traditionally governed as part of Guangdong, are now administered by the Republic of China on Taiwan.
Cities around the Pearl River Delta include Dongguan, Foshan, Guangzhou, Huizhou, Jiangmen, Shenzhen, Shunde, Taishan, Zhongshan and Zhuhai. Other cities in the province include Chaozhou, Chenghai, Nanhai, Shantou, Shaoguan, Zhanjiang, Zhaoqing, Yangjiang and Yunfu.
Guangdong has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cfa inland, Cwa along the coast), though nearing a tropical climate in the far south. Winters are short, mild, and relatively dry, while summers are long, hot, and very wet. Average daily highs in Guangzhou in January and July are 18 °C (64 °F) and 33 °C (91 °F), respectively, although the humidity makes it feel much hotter in summer. Frost is rare on the coast but may happen a few days each winter well inland.
The economy of Guangdong is large enough to be compared to that of many countries. In 2017, the gross domestic product (GDP) is about $1331.19 billion, Guangdong has been the largest province by GDP since 1989 in Mainland China. Guangdong is responsible for 10.87 percent of the China' $12.25 trillion GDP. In 2015, Guangdong's GDP was slightly larger than that of Mexico ranking 15th in terms of US dollar or Purchasing Power Parity. Comparable to that of country subdivisions in dollar terms, Guangdong's GDP is larger than that of all but 6 country subdivisions: England, California, Texas, New York and Tokyo. It is comparable to the GDP of the Los Angeles metropolitan area.
|Historical GDP of Guangdong Province for 1978 –present (SNA2008)|
(purchasing power parity of Chinese Yuan, as Int'l.dollar based on IMF WEO October 2017)
|year||GDP||GDP per capita (GDPpc)
based on mid-year population
|GDP in millions||real
1 foreign currency
|USD 1||Int'l$. 1|
After the communist revolution and until the start of the Deng Xiaoping reforms in 1978, Guangdong was an economic backwater, although a large underground, service-based economy has always existed. Economic development policies encouraged industrial development in the interior provinces which were weakly joined to Guangdong via transportation links. The government policy of economic autarky made Guangdong's access to the ocean irrelevant.
Deng Xiaoping's open door policy radically changed the economy of the province as it was able to take advantage of its access to the ocean, proximity to Hong Kong, and historical links to overseas Chinese. In addition, until the 1990s when the Chinese taxation system was reformed, the province benefited from the relatively low rate of taxation placed on it by the central government due to its post-Liberation status of being economically backward.
Guangdong's economic boom began with the early 1990s and has since spread to neighboring provinces, and also pulled their populations inward. The economic growth of Guangdong province owes much to the low-value-added manufacturing which characterized (and in many ways still defines) the province's economy following Deng Xiaoping's reforms. Guangdong is not only China's largest exporter of goods, it is the country's largest importer as well.
The province is now one of the richest in the nation, with the most billionaires in mainland China, the highest GDP among all the provinces, although wage growth has only recently begun to rise due to a large influx of migrant workers from neighboring provinces. In 2011, Guangdong's aggregate nominal GDP reached 5.30 trillion RMB (US$838.60 billion) with a per capita GDP of 47,689 RMB. By 2015, the local government of Guangdong hopes that the service industry will account for more than 50 percent of the provinces GDP and high-tech manufacturing another 20 percent.
In 2009, Guangdong's primary, secondary, and tertiary industries were worth 201 billion yuan, 1.93 trillion yuan, and 1.78 trillion yuan, respectively. Its per capita GDP reached 40,748 yuan (about US$5,965). Guangdong contributes approximately 12% of the total national economic output. Now, it has three of the six Special Economic Zones: Shenzhen, Shantou and Zhuhai. The affluence of Guangdong, however, remains very concentrated near the Pearl River Delta.
In 2008 its foreign trade also grew 7.8% from the previous year and is also by far the largest of all of China. By numbers, Guangdong's foreign trade accounts for more than a quarter of China's US$2.56 trillion foreign trade or roughly US$683 billion.
|Hainan Province part of Guangdong Province until 1988.|
Guangzhou part of Guangdong Province until 1947; dissolved in 1954 and incorporated into Guangdong Province.
Guangdong officially became the most populous province in January 2005. Official statistics had traditionally placed Guangdong as the 4th-most populous province of China with about 80 million people (also, Sichuan, traditionally the most populous province, was divided into Sichuan and Chongqing in 1997) but recently released information suggests that there are an additional 30 million migrants who reside in Guangdong for at least six months every year, making it the most populous province with a population of more than 110 million. The massive influx of migrants from other provinces, dubbed the "floating population", is due to Guangdong's booming economy and high demand for labor. If Guangdong were an independent nation, it would rank among the twenty largest countries of the world by population, more populous than France, Germany, or the United Kingdom, and more populous than the largest three US states (California, Texas, and Florida) combined.
Guangdong is also the ancestral home of large numbers of overseas Chinese. Most of the railroad laborers in Canada, Western United States and Panama in the 19th century came from Guangdong. Many people from the region also travelled to the US / California during the gold rush of 1849, and also to Australia during its gold rush a decade or so later.
The majority of the province's population is Han Chinese. Within the Han Chinese, the largest subgroup in Guangdong are the Cantonese people. Two other major groups are the Teochew people in Chaoshan and the Hakka people in Huizhou, Meizhou, Heyuan, Shaoguan and Zhanjiang. There is a small Yao population in the north. Other smaller minority groups include She, Miao, Li, and Zhuang.
Guangdong has a highly unbalanced gender ratio that is among the highest of all provinces in China. According to a 2009 study published in the British Medical Journal, in the 1–4 age group, there are over 130 boys for every 100 girls.
According to a 2012 survey only around 7% of the population of Guangdong belongs to organised religions, the largest groups being Buddhists with 6.2%, followed by Protestants with 0.8% and Catholics with 0.2%. Around 93% of the population is either irreligious or may be involved in Chinese folk religions worshipping nature gods, ancestral deities, popular sects, Taoist traditions, Buddhist religious traditions & Confucian religious traditions.
According to a survey conducted in 2007, 43.71% of the population believes and is involved in ancestor veneration, the traditional Chinese religion of the lineages organised into lineage churches and ancestral shrines.
Guangdong is governed by a dual-party system like the rest of China. The Governor is in charge of provincial affairs; however, the Communist Party Secretary, often from outside of Guangdong, keeps the Governor in check.
Hong Kong and Macau, while historically parts of Guangdong before becoming colonies of the United Kingdom and Portugal, respectively, are special administrative regions (SARs). Furthermore, the Basic Laws of both SARs explicitly forbid provincial governments from intervening in local politics. As a result, many issues with Hong Kong and Macau, such as border policy and water rights, have been settled by negotiations between the SARs' governments and the Guangdong provincial government.
Guangdong and the greater Guangzhou area are served by several Radio Guangdong stations, Guangdong Television, Southern Television Guangdong, Shenzhen Television, and Guangzhou Television. There is an English programme produced by Radio Guangdong which broadcasts information about this region to the entire world through the WRN Broadcast.
The central region, which is also the political and economic center, is populated predominantly by Yue Chinese speakers, though the influx in the last three decades of millions of Mandarin-speaking immigrants has slightly diminished Cantonese linguistic dominance. This region is associated with Cantonese cuisine. Cantonese opera is a form of Chinese opera popular in Cantonese speaking areas. Related Yue dialects are spoken in most of the western half of the province.
The area comprising the cities of Chaozhou, Shantou and Jieyang in coastal east Guangdong, known as Chaoshan, forms its own cultural sphere. The Teochew people here, along with Hailufeng people in Shanwei, speak Teochew, which is a Min dialect closely related to mainstream Southern Min (Hokkien) and their cuisine is Teochew cuisine. Teochew opera is also well-known and has a unique form.
The Hakka people live in large areas of Guangdong, including Huizhou, Meizhou, Shenzhen, Heyuan, Shaoguan and other areas. Much of the Eastern part of Guangdong is populated by the Hakka people except for the Chaozhou and Hailufeng area. Hakka culture include Hakka cuisine, Han opera (simplified Chinese: 汉剧; traditional Chinese: 漢劇), Hakka Hanyue and sixian (traditional instrumental music) and Hakka folk songs (客家山歌).
Mandarin is the language used in education and government and in areas where there are migrants from other provinces, above all in Shenzhen. Cantonese maintains a strong and dominant position in common usage and media, even in eastern areas of the province where the local languages and dialects are non-Yue ones.
List of current professional sports based in Guangdong:
|Football||Chinese Super League||1st||Guangzhou Evergrande Taobao F.C.||Guangzhou||Tianhe Stadium|
|Football||Chinese Super League||1st||Guangzhou R&F F.C.||Guangzhou||Yuexiushan Stadium|
|Football||Hong Kong Premier League||1st||R&F||Guangzhou||Yanzigang Stadium|
|Football||China League One||2nd||Shenzhen F.C.||Shenzhen||Shenzhen Stadium|
|Football||China League One||2nd||Meizhou Hakka F.C.||Wuhua||Wuhua County Stadium|
|Football||China League One||2nd||Meizhou Meixian Techand F.C.||Meizhou||Meixian Tsang Hin-chi Stadium|
|Football||China League Two||3rd||Shenzhen Ledman F.C.||Shenzhen||Bao'an Stadium|
|Football||China League Two||3rd||Shenzhen Pengcheng F.C.||Shenzhen||Xixiang Sports Center|
|Football||China Women's League One||2nd||Meizhou Hunjun||Wuhua||Wuhua County Stadium|
|Futsal||China Futsal Super League||1st||Shenzhen Nanling Tielang||Shenzhen||Qiushanshui Park Sports Centre|
|Futsal||China Futsal Super League||1st||Yingde Yanjiyou||Yingde||Yingde Gymnasium|
|Futsal||China Futsal Super League||1st||Zhuhai Mingshi||Zhuhai||Zhuhai Sports Centre|
|Basketball||Chinese Basketball Association||1st||Guangdong Southern Tigers||Dongguan||Nissan Sports Centre|
|Basketball||Chinese Basketball Association||1st||Shenzhen Leopards||Shenzhen||Shenzhen Universiade Sports Centre|
|Basketball||Chinese Basketball Association||1st||Guangzhou Long-Lions||Guangzhou||Tianhe Gymnasium|
|Basketball||ASEAN Basketball League||1st||Zhuhai Wolf Warriors||Zhuhai||Jinan University (Zhuhai Campus)|
|Basketball||Women's Basketball Association||1st||Guangdong Asia Aluminum||Zhaoqing||Zhaoqing Stadium|
|Volleyball||Men's Volleyball League Div A||1st||Guangdong GSports||Shenzhen||Shenzhen Gymnasium|
|Volleyball||Women's Volleyball League Div A||1st||Guangdong Evergrande||Shenzhen||Shenzhen Gymnasium|
|Volleyball||Women's Volleyball League Div B||2nd||Guangdong Jianlong||Taishan||Taishan Stadium|
|Baseball||China Baseball League||1st||Guangdong Leopards||Guangzhou||Huangcun Stadium|
|Table Tennis||China Table Tennis Super League||1st||Shenzhen Bao'an Mingjinhai||Shenzhen||Bao'an Stadium|
Notable attractions include Danxia Mountain in Shaoguan, Yuexiu Hill, Baiyun Mountain in Guangzhou, Star Lake and the Seven Star Crags, Dinghu Mountain in Zhaoqing, the Huangmanzhai waterfalls in Jieyang, and the Zhongshan Sun Wen Memorial Park for Sun Yat-sen in Zhongshan.
|Administrative divisions of Guangdong|
|No.||Division code||Division||Area in km2||Population 2010||Seat||Divisions|
|Districts||Counties||Aut. counties||CL cities|
|440000||Guangdong Province||179800.00||104,303,132||Guangzhou city||65||34||3||20|
|9||440100||Guangzhou city||7434.40||12,701,948||Yuexiu District||11|
|2||440200||Shaoguan city||18412.53||2,826,246||Zhenjiang District||3||4||1||2|
|21||440300||Shenzhen city||1996.78||10,358,381||Futian District||9*|
|20||440400||Zhuhai city||1724.32||1,562,530||Xiangzhou District||3|
|14||440500||Shantou city||2248.39||5,389,328||Jinping District||6||1|
|8||440600||Foshan city||3848.49||7,197,394||Chancheng District||5|
|18||440700||Jiangmen city||9505.42||4,450,703||Pengjiang District||3||4|
|15||440800||Zhanjiang city||13,225.44||6,994,832||Chikan District||4||2||3|
|16||440900||Maoming city||11,424.8||5,817,494||Maonan District||2||3|
|6||441200||Zhaoqing city||14,891.23||3,916,467||Duanzhou District||3||4||1|
|11||441300||Huizhou city||11,342.98||4,598,402||Huicheng District||2||3|
|4||441400||Meizhou city||15,864.51||4,238,461||Meijiang District||2||5||1|
|12||441500||Shanwei city||4861.79||2,935,469||Cheng District||1||2||1|
|3||441600||Heyuan city||15,653.63||2,950,195||Yuancheng District||1||5|
|17||441700||Yangjiang city||7955.27||2,421,748||Jiangcheng District||2||1||1|
|1||441800||Qingyuan city||19,152.90||3,698,412||Qingcheng District||2||2||2||2|
|10||441900||Dongguan city**||2465.00||8,220,207||Nancheng Subdistrict|
|19||442000||Zhongshan city**||1783.67||3,121,275||Dongqu Subdistrict|
|5||445100||Chaozhou city||3145.89||2,669,466||Xiangqiao District||2||1|
|13||445200||Jieyang city||5265.38||5,884,347||Rongcheng District||2||2||1|
|7||445300||Yunfu city||7779.12||2,367,154||Yuncheng District||2||2||1|
* - not including the new districts which are not registered under the Ministry of Civil Affairs (not included in the total Districts' count)
The twenty-one Prefecture of Guangdong are subdivided into 119 county-level divisions (64 districts, 20 county-level cities, 34 counties, and 3 autonomous counties). For county-level divisions, see the list of administrative divisions of Guangdong.
Guangdong is twinned with:
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Cantonese cuisine or more accurately, Guangdong cuisine (Chinese: 廣東菜), also known as Yue cuisine (粵菜), refers to the cuisine of China's Guangdong Province, particularly the provincial capital, Guangzhou (Canton). "Cantonese" specifically refers to only Guangzhou or the language known as Cantonese associated with it, but people generally refer to "Cantonese cuisine" to all the cooking styles of the speakers of Yue Chinese languages from within Guangdong. The Teochew cuisine and Hakka cuisine of Guangdong are considered their own styles, as is neighboring Guangxi's cuisine despite also being considered culturally Cantonese. It is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine. Its prominence outside China is due to the large number of Cantonese emigrants. Chefs trained in Cantonese cuisine are highly sought after throughout China. Formerly, most Chinese restaurants in the West served largely Cantonese dishes.Chinese Basketball Association
The Chinese Basketball Association (simplified Chinese: 中国男子篮球职业联赛; traditional Chinese: 中國男子籃球職業聯賽; pinyin: Zhōngguó Nánzǐ Lánqiú Zhíyè Liánsài), often abbreviated as CBA, is the first-tier professional men's basketball league in China. It is widely regarded as the preeminent professional men's basketball league in Asia.
The league is commonly known by fans as the CBA, and this acronym is even used in Chinese on a regular basis. The CBA should not be confused with the National Basketball League (NBL), which is a professional minor league. There is also a Women's Chinese Basketball Association (WCBA).
A few Chinese players who competed in the CBA in the early stages of their careers — including Wang Zhizhi, Mengke Bateer, Yao Ming, Yi Jianlian, Sun Yue, and Zhou Qi — have also played in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Others such as Xue Yuyang and Wang Zhelin have been chosen in the draft, but did not (or have yet to) play in the NBA.
Only a limited number of foreign players are allowed on each CBA team. Notable imports include former NBA All-Stars Stephon Marbury, Tracy McGrady, Gilbert Arenas, Steve Francis, and Metta World Peace — as well as several NBA veterans who would become CBA All-Stars — Michael Beasley, Aaron Brooks, Jimmer Fredette, Al Harrington, Lester Hudson, Kenyon Martin, Randolph Morris, Shavlik Randolph, and J.R. Smith.Dongguan
Dongguan is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province. An important industrial city in the Pearl River Delta, Dongguan borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the north, Huizhou to the northeast, Shenzhen to the south, and the Pearl River to the west. It is part of the Pearl River Delta megacity with more than 44.78 million inhabitants at the 2010 census spread over nine municipalities (including Macao) across an area of 17,573 square kilometres (6,785 sq mi). Dongguan's city administration is considered especially progressive in seeking foreign direct investment. Dongguan ranks behind only Shenzhen, Shanghai and Suzhou in exports among Chinese cities, with $65.54 billion in shipments. It is also home to one of the world's largest, though largely empty, shopping malls, the New South China Mall. Although the city is geographically and thus culturally Cantonese in the Weitou form and as well as culturally Hakka in the prefectures of Fenggang and Qingxi, the majority of the modern-day population speaks Mandarin due to the large influx of economic migrants from other parts of China.Foshan
Foshan, formerly romanized as Fatshan, is a prefecture-level city in central Guangdong Province, China. The entire prefecture covers 3,848.49 km2 (1,485.91 sq mi) and has an urban population around 7.2 million in 2012. It forms part of the western side of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone, which includes Guangzhou to the east and northeast and Zhongshan to the southeast.
Foshan is regarded as the home of the Cantonese versions of Chinese opera, kung fu and lion dance.G4 Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway
The Beijing–Hong Kong–Macau Expressway (Chinese: 北京－香港－澳门高速公路), commonly referred to as the Jinggang'ao Expressway (Chinese: 京港澳高速公路) is a 2,272.65-kilometre-long expressway (1,412.16 mi) that connects the Chinese cities of Beijing and Shenzhen, in Guangdong province, at the border with Hong Kong. The expressway terminates at the Huanggang Port Control Point in Shenzhen, opposite the Lok Ma Chau border control point in Hong Kong. The connection to Zhuhai at the Macau border is made using the spur line G4W Guangzhou–Macau Expressway, which branches off from the main line in Guangzhou. When the expressway was completed in October 2004, it was China's first completed north-south expressway route.Guangdong Romanization
Guangdong Romanization refers to the four romanization schemes published by the Guangdong Provincial Education Department in 1960 for transliterating Cantonese, Teochew, Hakka, and Hainanese. The schemes utilized similar elements with some differences in order to adapt to their respective spoken varieties.
In certain respects, Guangdong romanization resembles pinyin in its distinction of the alveolar initials z, c, s from the alveolo-palatal initials j, q, x, and in its use of b, d, g to represent the unaspirated stop consonants /p t k/. In addition, it makes use of the medial u before the rime rather than representing it as w in the initial when it follows g or k.
Guangdong romanization makes use of diacritics to represent certain vowels. This includes the use of the circumflex, acute accent, and diaeresis in the letters ê, é, and ü, respectively. In addition, it uses -b, -d, -g to represent the coda consonants /p t k/ rather than -p, -t, -k like other romanization schemes in order to be consistent with their use as unaspirated plosives in the initial. Tones are marked by superscript numbers rather than by diacritics.Guangdong Southern Tigers
Guangdong Hongyuan Southern Tigers (Chinese: 广东宏远华南虎) or Guangdong Southern Tigers, also known as Guangdong Dongguan Bank (Chinese: 广东东莞银行) due to sponsorship reasons, are a Chinese professional basketball team owned by the Guangdong Winnerway (Hongyuan) Group. The team is one of the best-performing teams in the Chinese Basketball Association, or CBA. The Tigers have won eight CBA titles, tying only the Bayi Rockets' eight titles. The Tigers are the only team to have qualified for the CBA playoffs in all the seasons since the league launched in 1995. The team plays its home games in Dongguan, Guangdong. Occasionally, for marketing purpose, the team diversifies some of its home games to Zhongshan, Zhuhai, and other cities in the Pearl River Delta.Guangzhou
Guangzhou (simplified Chinese: 广州; traditional Chinese: 廣州; Cantonese pronunciation: [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ̂u] or [kʷɔ̌ːŋ.tsɐ́u] (listen); Mandarin pronunciation: [kwàŋ.ʈʂóu] (listen)), also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong in southern China. On the Pearl River about 120 km (75 mi) north-northwest of Hong Kong and 145 km (90 mi) north of Macau, Guangzhou has a history of over 2,200 years and was a major terminus of the maritime Silk Road, and continues to serve as a major port and transportation hub, as well as one of China's three largest cities.Guangzhou is at the heart of the most-populous built-up metropolitan area in mainland China that extends into the neighboring cities of Foshan, Dongguan, Zhongshan and Shenzhen, forming one of the largest urban agglomerations on the planet. Administratively, the city holds sub-provincial status and is one of China's nine National Central Cities. In 2018 year end, the city's expansive administrative area is estimated at 14,904,400 by city authorities, up 3.8% year on year. Guangzhou is ranked as an Alpha global city. There is a rapidly increasing number of foreign temporary residents and immigrants from Southeast Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and Africa. This has led to it being dubbed the "Capital of the Third World".The domestic migrant population from other provinces of China in Guangzhou was 40% of the city's total population in 2008. Together with Shanghai, Beijing and Shenzhen, Guangzhou has one of the most expensive real estate markets in China. In the late 1990s and early 2000s, nationals of sub-Saharan Africa who had initially settled in the Middle East and other parts of Southeast Asia moved in unprecedented numbers to Guangzhou, China in response to the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis.Long the only Chinese port accessible to most foreign traders, Guangzhou fell to the British during the First Opium War. No longer enjoying a monopoly after the war, it lost trade to other ports such as Hong Kong and Shanghai, but continued to serve as a major entrepôt. In modern commerce, Guangzhou is best known for its annual Canton Fair, the oldest and largest trade fair in China. For three consecutive years (2013–2015), Forbes ranked Guangzhou as the best commercial city in mainland China.Huizhou
Huìzhōu (Chinese: 惠州) is a city in southeast Guangdong Province, China. It forms part of the Pearl River Delta megalopolis. Huizhou borders the provincial capital of Guangzhou to the west, Shenzhen and Dongguan to the southwest, Shaoguan to the north, Heyuan to the northeast, Shanwei to the east, and Daya Bay of the South China Sea to the south. The city has about 4.6 million inhabitants and is administered as a prefecture-level city.
In April 2018, the China Daily announced that the world's first automatic rail road was currently under construction between Dongguan and Huizhou. As a pilot project, it would contain ten railway stations, driverless trains and robotic assistance for passengers with luggage and tickets.List of cities in China
According to the administrative divisions of the People's Republic of China including Hong Kong and Macau, there are three levels of cities, namely provincial-level (consists of municipalities and SARs), prefecture-level cities, and county-level cities. As of January 2019 the PRC has a total of 674 cities: 4 municipalities, 2 SARs, 293 prefectural-level cities (including the 15 sub-provincial cities) and 375 county-level cities (including the 38 sub-prefectural cities and 9 XXPC cities) not including any cities in the claimed province of Taiwan.
Based on 2010 census data, the largest cities are the four centrally administered municipalities, which include dense urban areas, suburbs, and large rural areas: Chongqing (28.84 million), Shanghai (23.01 million), Beijing (19.61 million), and Tianjin (12.93 million).
According to 2017 research from the Demographia research group, there are 102 cities controlled by People's Republic of China with an "urban area" population of over 1 million.Meizhou
Meizhou is a prefecture-level city in eastern Guangdong province, China. It has an area of 15,864.51 km2 (6,125.32 sq mi), and a population of 4.33 million at the 2010 census. It comprises Meijiang District, Meixian District, Xingning City and five counties. Its built-up or metro area made up of two districts was home to 935,516 inhabitants at the 2010 census.Pearl River (China)
The Pearl River, also known by its Chinese name Zhujiang and formerly often known as the Canton River, is an extensive river system in southern China. The name "Pearl River" is also often used as a catch-all for the watersheds of the Xi ("West"), Bei ("North"), and Dong ("East") rivers of Guangdong. These rivers are all considered tributaries of the Pearl River because they share a common delta, the Pearl River Delta. Measured from the farthest reaches of the Xi River, the Pearl River system is China's third-longest river, 2,400 kilometres (1,500 mi), after the Yangtze River and the Yellow River, and second largest by volume, after the Yangtze. The 409,480-square-kilometre (158,100 sq mi) Pearl River Basin (珠江流域) drains the majority of Liangguang (Guangdong and Guangxi provinces), as well as parts of Yunnan, Guizhou, Hunan and Jiangxi in China; it also drains northern parts of Vietnam's Northeast Cao Bằng and Lạng Sơn provinces.
As well as referring to the system as a whole, the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang) name is also applied to a specific branch within the system. This Pearl River is the widest distributary within the delta, although notably short. The waters that converge east of the Bei Jiang are first referred to as the Pearl River just north of Guangzhou. The Pearl River is famed as the river that flows through Guangzhou. The Pearl River's estuary, Bocca Tigris, is regularly dredged so as to keep it open for ocean vessels. The mouth of the Pearl River forms a large bay in the southeast of the delta, the Pearl River Estuary, the Bocca Tigris separates Shiziyang in the north, Lingdingyang in the south, and Jiuzhouyang at the southern tip of the estuary surrounded by the Wanshan Archipelago. This bay separates Macau and Zhuhai from Hong Kong and Shenzhen.
The Pearl River is so named because of the pearl-colored shells that lie at the bottom of the river in the section that flows through the city of Guangzhou.
A 500 kV-power line, suspended from three of the tallest pylons in the world, the Pylons of Pearl River Crossing, crosses the river near its mouth.
Zhujiang Brewery, one of the three largest domestic breweries in China, is located on the Pearl River Delta within the city of Guangzhou.Qingyuan
Qingyuan, formerly romanized as Tsingyun, is a prefecture-level city in northern Guangdong province, China, on the banks of the Bei or North River. During the 2010 census, its total population was 3,698,412, out of whom 1,510,044 lived in the urbanized Qingcheng and Qingxin districts. The primary spoken language is Cantonese. Covering 19,015 km2 (7,342 sq mi), Qingyuan is Guangdong's largest prefecture-level division by land area, and it borders Guangzhou and Foshan to the south, Shaoguan to the east and northeast, Zhaoqing to the south and southwest, and Hunan province and Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region to the north. The urban core is surrounded by mountainous areas but is directly connected with Guangzhou and the Pearl River Delta by Highway 107.Shantou
Shantou, formerly romanized as Swatow and sometimes known as Santow, is a prefecture-level city on the eastern coast of Guangdong, China, with a total population of 5,391,028 as of 2010 and an administrative area of 2,064 square kilometres (797 sq mi).
Shantou, a city significant in 19th-century Chinese history as one of the treaty ports established for Western trade and contact, was one of the original special economic zones of China established in the 1980s, but did not blossom in the manner that cities such as Shenzhen, Xiamen and Zhuhai did. However, it remains eastern Guangdong's economic centre, and is home to Shantou University, which is under the provincial Project 211 program in Guangdong.Shenzhen
Shenzhen ([ʂə́n.ʈʂə̂n] (listen)) is a major city in Guangdong Province, China; it forms part of the Pearl River Delta megalopolis, bordering Hong Kong to the south, Huizhou to the northeast, and Dongguan to the northwest. It holds sub-provincial administrative status, with powers slightly less than those of a province.
Shenzhen, which roughly follows the administrative boundaries of Bao'an County, officially became a city in 1979, taking its name from the former county town, whose train station was the last stop on the Mainland Chinese section of the railway between Canton and Kowloon. In 1980, Shenzhen was established as China's first special economic zone. Shenzhen's registered population as of 2017 was estimated at 12,905,000. However, the Shenzhen Municipal Party Committee estimates that the population of Shenzhen is about 20 million, due to the large unregistered floating migrant population living in the city. Shenzhen was one of the fastest-growing cities in the world in the 1990s and the 2000s and has been ranked second on the list of ‘top 10 cities to visit in 2019 by Lonely Planet.Shenzhen's cityscape results from its vibrant economy - made possible by rapid foreign investment following the institution of the policy of "reform and opening-up" in 1979. The city is a leading global technology hub, dubbed by media as the next Silicon Valley.Shenzhen hosts the Shenzhen Stock Exchange as well as the headquarters of numerous multinational companies such as JXD, Vanke, Hytera, CIMC, SF Express, Shenzhen Airlines, Nepstar, Hasee, Ping An Bank, Ping An Insurance, China Merchants Bank, Tencent, ZTE, Huawei and BYD. Shenzhen ranks 12th in the 2018 Global Financial Centres Index. It has one of the busiest container ports in the world.Taishan, Guangdong
Taishan or Taishan County, formerly romanized in Cantonese as Toishan, in local dialect as Hoisan or Toisan, and formerly known as Xinning or Sunning, is a county-level city in the southwest of Guangdong province, China. It is administered as part of the prefecture-level city of Jiangmen. During the 2010 census, there were 941,095 inhabitants, of which 394,855 were classified as urban. Taishan calls itself the "First Home of the Overseas Chinese". An estimated half a million Chinese Americans are of Taishanese descent.Yue Chinese
Yue or Yueh (English: or ; Cantonese pronunciation: [jyːt̚˧˥]) is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
The name Cantonese is often used for the whole branch, but linguists prefer to reserve that name for the variety of Guangzhou (Canton), Hong Kong and Macau, which is the prestige dialect. Taishanese, from the coastal area of Jiangmen located southwest of Guangzhou, was the language of most of the 19th-century emigrants from Guangdong to Southeast Asia and North America. Most later migrants have been speakers of Cantonese.
Yue varieties are not mutually intelligible with other varieties of Chinese. They are among the most conservative varieties with regard to the final consonants and tonal categories of Middle Chinese, but have lost several distinctions in the initial and medial consonants that other Chinese varieties have retained.Zhaoqing
Zhaoqing, formerly romanized as Shiuhing, is a prefecture-level city in Guangdong Province, China. During the 2010 census, its population was 3,918,467, with 1,232,462 living in the urbanized areas of Duanzhou and Gaoyao. The prefectural seat—except the Seven Star Crags—is fairly flat, but thickly forested mountains lie just outside its limits. Numerous rice paddies and aquaculture ponds are found on the outskirts of the city. Sihui and the southern districts of the prefecture are considered part of the Pearl River Delta.
Formerly one of the most important cities in southern China, Zhaoqing lost importance during the Qing and is now primarily known for tourism and as a provincial "college town". Residents from Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and the other cities of the Pearl River Delta visit it for weekend excursions. It is also a growing manufacturing center.Zhongshan
Zhongshan ([ʈʂʊ́ŋ ʂán]; Chinese: 中山) is a prefecture-level city in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Guangdong province, China, with a population of over 3 million (2012). The city-core subdistricts used to be called Shiqi or Shekki (Chinese: 石岐; pinyin: Shí qí).
Zhongshan is one of a very few cities in China named after a person. It is named after Dr. Sun Yat-sen (1866–1925), who is known in Mandarin as Sun Zhongshan. Sun, the founding father of the Republic of China who is also regarded positively by the People's Republic, was born in Cuiheng village in Nanlang Township of what was then Xiangshan County. In 1925, the year after his death, Xiangshan was renamed Zhongshan in his honor.
|Romanization||Gong3dung1 or |
|Yale Romanization||Gwóngdùng or|
|Middle Chinese||kwangX tung|
|Romanization||Yet6 or Ye̍t|
|Administrative divisions in Chinese and varieties of romanizations|
|Guangdong Province||广东省||Guǎngdōng Shěng||guong2 dung1 sang2|
|Guangzhou city||广州市||Guǎngzhōu Shì||guong2 zeo1 xi5|
|Shaoguan city||韶关市||Sháoguān Shì||xiu4 guan1 xi5|
|Shenzhen city||深圳市||Shēnzhèn Shì||sem1 zen3 xi5|
|Zhuhai city||珠海市||Zhūhǎi Shì||ju1 hoi2 xi5|
|Shantou city||汕头市||Shàntóu Shì||san3 teo4 xi5|
|Foshan city||佛山市||Fóshān Shì||fed6 san1 xi5|
|Jiangmen city||江门市||Jiāngmén Shì||gong1 mun4 xi5|
|Zhanjiang city||湛江市||Zhànjiāng Shì||zam3 gong1 xi5|
|Maoming city||茂名市||Màomíng Shì||meo6 ming4 xi5|
|Zhaoqing city||肇庆市||Zhàoqìng Shì||xiu6 hing3 xi5|
|Huizhou city||惠州市||Huìzhōu Shì||wei6 zeo1 xi5|
|Meizhou city||梅州市||Méizhōu Shì||mui4 zeo1 xi5|
|Shanwei city||汕尾市||Shànwěi Shì||san3 méi5 xi5|
|Heyuan city||河源市||Héyuán Shì||ho4 yun4 xi5|
|Yangjiang city||阳江市||Yángjiāng Shì||yêng4 gong1 xi5|
|Qingyuan city||清远市||Qīngyuǎn Shì||qing1 yun5 xi5|
|Dongguan city||东莞市||Dōngguǎn Shì||dung1 gun2 xi5|
|Zhongshan city||中山市||Zhōngshān Shì||zung1 san1 xi5|
|Chaozhou city||潮州市||Cháozhōu Shì||qiu4 zeo1 xi5|
|Jieyang city||揭阳市||Jiēyáng Shì||kid3 yêng4 xi5|
|Yunfu city||云浮市||Yúnfú Shì||wen4 feo4 xi5|
|Population by urban areas of prefecture & county cities|
|#||City||Urban area||District area||City proper||Census date|
|(2)||Guangzhou (new districts)[a]||939,264||1,630,524||see Guangzhou||2010-11-01|
|(12)||Jieyang (new district)[b]||492,178||1,159,118||see Jieyang||2010-11-01|
|(14)||Qingyuan (new district)[c]||276,794||698,811||see Qingyuan||2010-11-01|
|(15)||Maoming (new district)[d]||395,317||1,218,716||see Maoming||2010-11-01|
|(17)||Zhaoqing (new district)[e]||224,755||753,120||see Zhaoqing||2010-11-01|
|(18)||Yangjiang (new district)[f]||193,487||442,762||see Yangjiang||2010-11-01|
|(20)||Chaozhou (new district)[g]||808,042||1,334,796||see Chaozhou||2010-11-01|
|(27)||Meizhou (new district)[h]||258,782||554,745||see Meizhou||2010-11-01|
|(37)||Yunfu (new district)[i]||56,874||269,636||see Yunfu||2010-11-01|
Places adjacent to Guangdong
|Special administrative regions|