Gualdim Pais

Dom Gualdim Pais (1118 – 13 October 1195), a Portuguese crusader, Knight Templar in the service of Afonso Henriques of Portugal. He was the founder of the city of Tomar.

Gualdim Pais
Tomar 036
Monument to Dom Gualdim Pais at Tomar, Portugal.
Died13 October 1195 (aged 77)
OccupationCrusader, knight Templar


Gualdim Pais was born in Amares (a town in the province of Minho, near Braga) in 1118, son of Paio Ramires and Gontrode Soares. He fought alongside Afonso Henriques against the Moors, and received a knighthood by him in 1139, after the Battle of Ourique.

He departed for Palestine shortly thereafter, and during the next five years fought as a Knight Templar. He had a prominent role in the siege of the city of Gaza. He also fought in the Siege of Ascalon; in sieges and battles around Sidon and Antioch, and other campaigns of the Zengid–Crusader and Fatimid-Cruzader wars, against the Sultans of Egypt and Syria.

He was ordained the fourth Grand Master in Portugal of the Order of Knights Templar in 1157, which then was ruled from Braga. He founded the Castle of Tomar in 1160, then near the frontier with the Muslim states, and transferred the seat of the order there. The famous Round Church of the Castle of Tomar, inspired by similar structures in Jerusalem, was built under his supervision. He issued a feudal charter (foral), to the town of Tomar in 1162. During his life, he supervised the building or restoration of several other frontier castles for the Templars: the Almourol, Idanha, Ceres, Monsanto and Pombal (founding the settlement of Pombal and issuing a foral in 1174).

Besieged in 1190 by vastly superior forces under the Almohad King of Morocco Yusuf I, he and his knights managed to defeat the monarch's forces, thus defending the north of the fledgling Kingdom.

He died in Tomar in the year 1195. His grave is located in the Church of Santa Maria do Olival in that city.


Year 1118 (MCXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1160 (MCLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


The 1160s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1160, and ended on December 31, 1169.


The 1170s was a decade of the Julian Calendar which began on January 1, 1170, and ended on December 31, 1179.

== Events ==

=== 1170 ===

September 21 – Following a siege, combined Anglo-Norman and Irish forces seize the city of Dublin, forcing Ascall mac Ragnaill, King of Dublin, into exile.

November (or December) – Henry II of England, when word reaches him in France of Thomas Becket's latest actions, utters words that are interpreted by his followers as a wish for the archbishop's death.

December 29 – Thomas Becket, Archbishop of Canterbury, is assassinated in Canterbury Cathedral.

==== Date unknown ====

The Danes attack Estonia.

The East Frisian island of Bant is broken up in a North Sea flood.

Palace guards massacre the civil officials at the Korean court, and place a new king on the throne. The coup leaders abolish the privileges that have kept the aristocrats in power, and appoint themselves to senior posts.

Earliest date for the making of Cheddar cheese.

According to folklore, the Welsh prince Madoc sails to North America, in his ship the Gwennan Gorn, and founds a colony.

Estimation: Fes in the Almohad Empire becomes the largest city of the world, taking the lead from Constantinople, capital of the Byzantine Empire.

=== 1171 ===

Saladin abolishes the Fatimid Caliphate, restoring Sunni rule in Egypt.

Manuel I Comnenus orders all the Venetians in the Byzantine Empire to be arrested, and their property confiscated.

Rhys ap Gruffydd agrees to negotiate with Henry II of England.

Construction of the Cathedral of San Sabino in Bari is completed.

Serbian ruler Stefan Nemanja begins his sole reign.

Alfonso II of Aragon conquers Caspe and Teruel.

Henry II of England invades Ireland with the aid of the ousted King of Leinster, Diarmait Mac Murchada (dies May 1). As is usual at this time, Henry commandeers merchant ships as part of his invasion. Henry claims the ports of Dublin, Waterford, and Wexford for himself, and promises the Irish chieftains protection if they will acknowledge him as their overlord. This begins eight centuries of conflict between Ireland and England. Ascall mac Ragnaill, last Norse–Gaelic King of Dublin, is captured while trying to retake Dublin from the Cambro-Norman Richard de Clare (Strongbow), perhaps in company with Sweyn Asleifsson, and beheaded; before the end of the year, de Clare relinquishes possession of the city to his own liege lord, Henry.

Pisa and Florence form an alliance against Lucca and Genoa.

The successors of Robert Burdet leave Catalonia for Majorca, marking the end of the attempts to create a Norman principality in Iberia.

=== 1172 ===

April-May – Béla returns to Hungary, where he is acclaimed king.

Richard Lionheart becomes Duke of Aquitaine (later King Richard I of England).

Henry II of England and Humbert III, Count of Savoy agree to wed their respective heirs, John of England and Alicia. The alliance never occurs because Henry's elder heir, Henry the Young King, becomes jealous over the castles which the elder Henry promises to the couple, and stages a rebellion which will take the elder Henry two years to put down. By that time, Alicia has died.

Alberto di Morra is sent by Pope Alexander III to the Council of Avranches, where Henry II of England is absolved of the sin of murder, in the matter of the assassination of Thomas Becket.

The Synod of Cashel ends the Celtic Christian system, and brings them under the Pope.

A Muslim rebellion is quelled at Prades; this event marks the end of the pacification of the lands recently conquered by the Catalans.

According to the annals of the Worcester Priory, "nothing memorable" happens in this year.

=== 1173 ===

==== By area ====

====== Asia ======

The Qiandao era ends, and the Chunxi era begins, of the Chinese Emperor Xiaozong of Song.

Saladin seizes Aden in Arabia.

====== Europe ======

January 5 – On the death of Bolesław IV the Curly, High Duke of Poland, he is succeeded by Mieszko III the Old, and as Duke of Sandomierz in Lesser Poland by Casimir II the Just.

March – Henry the Young King of England withdraws to the French court, marking the beginning of the Revolt of 1173–74, in which Eleanor of Aquitaine and her sons rebel against her husband Henry II of England.

William de Braose, 3rd Lord of Bramber, becomes High Sheriff of Herefordshire in England.

Abergavenny Castle is seized by the Welsh.

Following the death of Kol, Canute I of Sweden (Knut Eriksson) extends his rule to also include Östergötland. He is now unopposed as king of Sweden.

The efforts of the Almohad caliph, Abu Yaqub Yusuf, to repopulate the western Andalusian city of Beja begin. They are rapidly abandoned, sign of the quick demographic weakening of the Muslims in the peninsula.

==== By topic ====

====== Arts and leisure ======

August 8 – The construction of a campanile, which will become the Leaning Tower of Pisa, begins.

Algebraic chess notation is first recorded.

====== Religion ======

February 21 – Canonisation of Thomas Becket: His tomb in Canterbury Cathedral becomes a shrine, and popular pilgrimage destination.

Peter Waldo is converted to Christianity, and founds the Waldensians.

Approximate traditional completion date of Great Mosque of al-Nuri (Mosul).

=== 1174 ===

==== By place ====

====== Africa ======

Siculo-Norman troops launch a failed attack against Ayyubid-held Alexandria.

====== Europe ======

April 7 – Richard of Dover is enthroned as Archbishop of Canterbury, in England.

July 13 – Battle of Alnwick: William I of Scotland is captured by Ranulf de Glanvill, after attacking England in support of the Revolt of 1173–1174 against King Henry II there, and Henry occupies part of Scotland.

September 30 – Treaty of Montlouis: The Revolt of 1173–1174 by his sons, against King Henry II of England, ends peacefully.

December 8 – The Treaty of Falaise is signed between Henry II of England and William I of Scotland; it permits William's release, in return for his homage.

Henry II of England acknowledges Rosamund Clifford as his mistress.

Fire destroys most of Padua.

The city of Pombal, Portugal is founded by Gualdim Pais.

Battle of Thurles in Ireland: Donal Mór Ó Brian defeats a Norman incursion into Thomond.

Horse racing at Newmarket in England is first recorded.

====== Asia ======

Vietnam is given the official name of Annam by China.

====== = Western Asia = ======

July 11 – Baldwin IV, 13, becomes King of Jerusalem, with Raymond III of Tripoli as regent, and William of Tyre as chancellor.

Saladin captures Damascus.

====== Central America ======

The last Toltec king commits suicide.

=== 1175 ===

==== By place ====

====== Asia ======

A Song Dynasty Chinese written record of this year, states that a paper-printed-money factory in the city of Hangzhou alone employs a daily work force of more than 1,000.

Ly Cao Ton becomes ruler of Vietnam.

The Kingdom of Namayan reaches its peak on Luzon.

====== Europe ======

====== =British isles= ======

Henry II of England begins living openly with his friend Rosamund Clifford, raising suspicions about their relationship and alienating Henry's wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine.

Treaty of Windsor: Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair (Rory O'Conner), the last High King of Ireland, submits to Henry II as vassal of Ireland.

The Massacre of Abergavenny ends with several Welsh noblemen dead, at the orders of William de Braose.

====== Denmark ======

Vordingborg Castle is completed.

====== =Byzantium= ======

Byzantine Emperor Manuel Comnenus restores the trading privileges of Venice.

====== =Iberia= ======

Under the admirals of the clan Banu Mardanish, an Almohad fleet suffers a large defeat at the hand of the Portuguese, as they are trying to reconquer Lisbon.

====== =Italy= ======

The University of Modena and Reggio Emilia was founded.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The high academy of Bosnian religious organization in Moštre, Visoko, is first mentioned in Vatican archives.

William of Tyre becomes archbishop of Tyre.

=== 1176 ===

==== January–December ====

January – The Assize of Northampton is enacted in England.

May 22 – The Hashshashin attempt to murder Saladin near Aleppo.

May 29 – Battle of Legnano: Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, is defeated by the Lombard League, leading to the pactum Anagninum (the Agreement of Anagni).

September 17 – Battle of Myriokephalon: The Seljuq Turks defeat the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Komnenos.

December – An international bardic festival at Cardigan Castle, Wales, the first recorded eisteddfod.

==== Date unknown ====

Al-Adil I, the Muslim ruler of Egypt, suppresses a revolt by the Christian Copts in the city of Qift, hanging nearly 3,000 of them on the trees around the city.

Raynald of Châtillon is ransomed from prison in Aleppo.

Construction begins on a stone-built London Bridge.

Unkei completes his Dainichi Nyorai (Enjō-ji) statue, now a National Treasure of Japan.

Sens Cathedral installs an horologe, presumed to be an early form of clock.

The Carthusians are approved as a religious order.

=== 1177 ===

==== January–December ====

January – Eystein Meyla, leader of the Birkebeiner in Norway, is killed. Sverre Sigurdson (Later, King Sverre I, of Norway) becomes the new leader.

January 13 – Leopold V becomes Duke of Austria.

March – Treaty of Venice: Frederick I Barbarossa acknowledges Alexander III as Pope.

August 1 – The Holy Roman Empire renounces any claims on the territory of Rome.

September 27 – Pope Alexander III sends a letter to Prester John, believing he is real.

November 25 – Battle of Montgisard: Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin.

==== Date unknown ====

During the third year of the Angen era in Japan, a fire devastates Kyoto.

During the winter, the Estonians attack Pskov.

Casimir II overthrows his brother Mieszko III the Old, to become High Duke of Poland.

The Cham sack the Khmer capital of Angkor Wat.

Moscow is burned down, and its inhabitants are killed.

A civil war breaks out in the Republic of Florence, between the Uberti Family and their consular opponent.

Puigcerdà is founded by Alfonso II of Aragon.

Byland Abbey is established on its final site in Yorkshire, England, by the Cistercians.

Abbas Benedictus becomes abbot of Peterborough in England.

Roger de Moulins becomes Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller.

possible date – Richard FitzNeal begins to write his treatise Dialogus de Scaccario ("Dialogue concerning the Exchequer") in England.

=== 1178 ===

==== By area ====

====== Europe ======

July 17 – Provence: Saracen pirates, from the Balearic Islands, raid the Benedictine monastery of Saint Honorat on the Lérins Islands, and the city of Toulon, killing an estimated 300 and taking captives. The surviving captives are freed from the Balearic Islands in 1185.

George III of Georgia defeats a nobles' revolt, and proclaims his daughter Tamar coregent.

The Portuguese troops conquer Beja from the Almohads.

====== Moon ======

June 18 – Five Canterbury monks see what is possibly the Giordano Bruno crater being formed.

==== By topic ====

====== Art and science ======

The Sung Document is written, detailing the discovery of "Mu-Lan-Pi" (suggested by some to be California) by Muslim sailors.

The Chronicle of Gervase of Canterbury is written.

The Leaning Tower of Pisa begins to lean, as the third level is completed.

=== 1179 ===

==== By area ====

====== Middle East ======

23–30 August – Battle of Jacob's Ford, Syria: Saladin destroys the still-in-construction Castle of Chastellet at Jacob's Ford, killing 700 knights and taking 800 civilians captive.

====== America ======

The Maya city of Chichen Itza is sacked and burned by Hunac Ceel, the Mayapan king.

====== Europe ======

June 19 – Battle of Kalvskinnet (outside Nidaros, Norway): Earl Erling Skakke is killed, and the battle changes the tide of the civil wars.

Afonso I is recognized as King of Portugal by Pope Alexander III, bringing Portugal the protection of the Catholic Church against the Leonese monarchy.

November 1 – Philip II is crowned King of France. He assumes his office, however, in the next year, following the death of his father Louis VII.

The city of Aberdeen is chartered by William the Lion.

A large offensive, by the Almohad army in southern Portugal, aims at the reconquest of the Alentejo. Further north, a fleet led by Abd Allah b. Ishaq b. Jami is sails to attack Lisbon, but is repelled by the Portuguese admiral D. Fuas Roupinho, near the Cape Espichel. The Portuguese admiral later manages to enter in the harbor of Ceuta, and destroy a number of Muslim ships. It is the beginning of a four-year naval conflict between the Almohads and Portuguese.

==== By topic ====

====== Religion ======

The Third Council of the Lateran condemns Waldensians and Cathars as heretics, institutes a reformation of clerical life, and creates the first "ghettos" for Jews. It also rules that the Pope must receive ⅔ of the cardinals' votes to be elected.

Westminster School is founded by the monks of Westminster Abbey (by papal command) in England.

The Drigung Kagyu school of Kagyu Buddhism is founded.


Year 1174 (MCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.


Year 1195 (MCXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Castle of Almourol

The Castle of Almourol is a medieval castle atop the islet of Almourol in the middle of the Tagus River, located in the civil parish of Praia do Ribatejo, 4 kilometres (2.5 mi) from the municipal seat of Vila Nova da Barquinha, in Portugal's Center Region. The castle was part of the defensive line controlled by the Knights Templar, and a stronghold used during the Portuguese Reconquista.

Castle of Idanha-a-Nova

The Castle Idanha-a-Nova (Portuguese:Castelo de Indanha-a-Nova) is a medieval castle located in the District of Castelo Branco in Portugal.

Church of Santa Maria do Olival

The Church of Santa Maria do Olival is a Roman Catholic church in the city of Tomar, in Portugal. The Church has been characterized as National Monument since 1910.

Convent of Christ (Tomar)

The Convent of Christ (Portuguese: Convento de Cristo/Mosteiro de Cristo) is a former Roman Catholic convent in Tomar, Portugal. Originally a 12th-century Templar stronghold, when the order was dissolved in the 14th century the Portuguese branch was turned into the Knights of the Order of Christ, that later supported Portugal's maritime discoveries of the 15th century. The convent and castle complex is a historic and cultural monument and was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage site in 1983.

Igreja de São João Baptista (Tomar)

The Church of Saint John the Baptist (Portuguese: Igreja de São João Baptista) is a 15th-century Catholic church in Tomar, Portugal that was built by King Manuel I and is of Manueline architecture. As its name implies, the church is dedicated to Saint John the Baptist. It has been classified as a National Monument since 1910.

List of Knights Templar

This is a list of some members of the Knights Templar, a powerful Christian military order during the time of the Crusades. At peak, the Order had approximately 20,000 members.

The Knights Templar were led by the Grand Master, originally based in Jerusalem, whose deputy was the Seneschal. Next in importance was the Marshal, who was responsible for individual commanders, horses, arms and equipment. He usually carried the standard or nominated a standard-bearer. The Commander of the Kingdom of Jerusalem was the treasurer and shared some authority with the Grand Master, balancing his power. Other cities also had Commanders with specific regional responsibilities.

The Grand Master and his Seneschal ruled over eight Templar provincial Masters in Europe, who were responsible for Apulia, Aragon (Spain), England, France, Hungary, Poitiers, Portugal and Scotland.

The bulk of the fighting force was made up of knights and sergeants. Knights, who usually came from the nobility, were the most prestigious and wore the white mantle and red cross over their armour, carried knightly weapons, rode horses and had the services of a squire. Sergeants filled other roles such as blacksmith or mason as well as fighting in battle. There were also squires who performed the task of caring for the horses.

For a separate list of Grand Masters, see Grand Masters of the Knights Templar.


Mogadouro (Portuguese: [muɣɐˈðowɾu], Mirandese: [muɣɐˈðawɾu]) is a municipality in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 9,542, in an area of 760.65 km².

Monsanto (Idanha-a-Nova)

Monsanto is a village and a former civil parish in the municipality of Idanha-a-Nova, Portugal. In 2013, the parish merged into the new parish Monsanto e Idanha-a-Velha. It covered an area of 131.76 km² and had 828 inhabitants (June 30, 2011). It was the principal town of the concelho between 1174 and the beginning of the 19th century, and the county seat in the period of 1758-1853.

In recent decades, Monsanto has become popularly known as "the most Portuguese village of Portugal" in a class of twelve classified historic villages in Portugal. The emblem of Portugal, the Silver Rooster (Galo de Prata), designed by Abel Pereira da Silva, can be seen atop the Clock Tower or Lucano.

The mountain Monsanto (Latin: Mons Sanctus) rises abruptly to the East of the Idanha-a-Nova up to 758 meters above sea level.

The earliest traces of man is from Early Stone Age at the time of the ice-ages. Later, Romans settled at the base of the mountain. Also traces from Visigoth in the early Middle Ages and even earlier Arab presence has been found in the area.

In the 12th century, King Afonso I of Portugal conquered Monsanto from the Moors as part of the Christian Reconquista. In 1165, he granted the custody of the city to a knights' order of the church, first to the Order of Knights Templar, and later to the Order of Santiago. The city was given to the military orders to maintain the reconquered city with Christian hands, and Grand Master the Order of Knights Templar, Gualdim Pais, was manager of the building of the fortress. Later, King Sancho I of Portugal reconstructed and repopulated it after the wars with the Leonese. Unfortunately, the medieval castle was destroyed in the nineteenth century because of an explosion in the ammunition depot of the castle.

The mountain rock is granite, which also the historic and present village is built upon in a fusion of nature and its landforms. This fusion can be seen in the uses of caves and rocks being converted into construction parts.

October 13

October 13 is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 79 days remaining until the end of the year.


Pais or PAIS may refer to:

Pais, a Chilean red wine grape

Pais (moth), a genus of moth

PAIS International, an academic journal database

Pais Project, a global Christian organization

Partial androgen insensitivity syndrome, an intersex condition

Payız, an Azerbaijan village

Payot, a hairstyle worn by some Orthodox Jewish males

Timeline of Portuguese history (First Dynasty)

This is a historical timeline of Portugal.


Tomar (Portuguese pronunciation: [tuˈmaɾ]), also known in English as Thomar, is a city and a municipality in Santarém District in Portugal. The town proper has a population of about 20,000. The municipality population in 2011 was 40,677, in an area of 351.20 km².The town of Tomar was born inside the walls of the Convento de Cristo, constructed under the orders of Gualdim de Pais, the fourth grand master of the Knights Templar in the late 12th century.

Tomar is one of Portugal's historical jewels and more significantly was the last Templar town to be commissioned for construction. Tomar was especially important in the 15th century when it was a centre of Portuguese overseas expansion under Henry the Navigator, the Grand Master of the Order of Christ, successor organization to the Templars in Portugal.

Vila Nova da Barquinha

Vila Nova da Barquinha (Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈvilɐ ˈnɔvɐ ðɐ βɐɾˈkiɲɐ]) is a municipality in the district of Santarém in Portugal. The population in 2011 was 7,322, in an area of 49.53 km². The village of Vila Nova da Barquinha, which is the seat of the municipality, has about 3500 inhabitants.

The present Mayor is Vítor Miguel Pombeiro, elected by the Socialist Party. The municipal holiday is June 13.

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