Guadeloupe big brown bat

The Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis) is a species of vesper bat. It is found only on the island of Guadeloupe. It is one of the 11 species of bat found on Guadeloupe, and one of the 3 that are endemic.[2]

Guadeloupe big brown bat
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Chiroptera
Family: Vespertilionidae
Genus: Eptesicus
Species:
E. guadeloupensis
Binomial name
Eptesicus guadeloupensis
Genoways & Baker, 1975

Taxonomy and etymology

It was described by Genoways and Baker in 1975. The holotype used for the species description was collected in July 1974 by the authors in eastern Baie-Mahault of Guadeloupe. They believed that it was most closely related to the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus. They placed it in the fuscus group of the genus Eptesicus, as defined by Davis in 1966.[3] Before the description of the Guadeloupe big brown bat, the only other member of the fuscus group was its identifier, Eptesicus fuscus: the big brown bat.[4] Its species name guadeloupensis is a Latinized version of Guadeloupe, where the bat is found.

Description

It is the largest member of its genus that occurs in the New World. Its wing membranes are black in color. Its fur is bicolored, with individual hairs black at the base and lighter at the tip. The hairs are chocolate brown at the tip on its back, and buffy at the tip on its belly. From snout to tail, it is 129–133 mm (5.1–5.2 in) long. Its forearm is 49.6–51.5 mm (1.95–2.03 in) long. Ears are 22.5–24 mm (0.89–0.94 in) long, tail is 54–60 mm (2.1–2.4 in) long, and hind foot is 11–14 mm (0.43–0.55 in) long.[3]

Biology

Like all other members of its genus, it is diploid with 50 chromosomes and a fundamental number of 48.[3] It is insectivorous. During the day, it is thought to roost in trees within gallery forests.[1] It is infrequently encountered, therefore little is known about its reproduction. A post-lactating female and a juvenile female were once encountered in late July, suggesting that females could give birth in May or June.[2]

Range and habitat

It is endemic to the Basse-Terre Island of Guadeloupe, which is in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean. It is encountered in tropical rainforests and gallery forests. It is most often found at low elevations, from 0–300 m (0–984 ft) above sea level.[1]

Conservation

It is currently listed as endangered by the IUCN. It meets the criteria for this designation because its population has likely declined by 30% from 1994-2015, it is known from fewer than five locations, its extent of occurrence is 2,500 km2 (970 sq mi), and its habitat is declining in extent and quality due to human activities and extreme weather. Major threats to this species include habitat loss, hurricanes, and the spread of exotic, invasive species such as rats, mice, and mongooses. It may also be threatened by competition with the native velvety free-tailed bat, which is abundant.[1]

References

  1. ^ a b c d Barataud, M. (2016). "Eptesicus guadeloupensis". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2016: e.T7929A22117922. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-1.RLTS.T7929A22117922.en.
  2. ^ a b Baker, R. J.; Genoways, H. H.; Patton, J. C. (1978). "Bats of Guadeloupe". Occasional Papers, Museum of Texas Tech University. 50.
  3. ^ a b c Genoways, H. H.; Baker, R. J. (1975). "A new species of Eptesicus from Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae)". Occasional Papers of the Museum of Texas Tech University. 34.
  4. ^ Davis, W. B. (1966). "Review of South American bats of the genus Eptesicus". The Southwestern Naturalist. 11 (2): 245–274. doi:10.2307/3669648. JSTOR 3669648.
African yellow bat

The African yellow bat (Scotophilus dinganii) is a species of bat in the family Vespertilionidae, the vesper bats. Other common names include African yellow house bat, yellow-bellied house bat, and Dingan's Bat. It is one of fifteen species in the genus Scotophilus.

Arielulus

Arielulus is a genus of vesper bats with the following species, sometimes in Pipistrellus:

Genus Arielulus

Collared pipistrelle (A. aureocollaris)

Black-gilded pipistrelle (A. circumdatus)

Coppery pipistrelle (A. cuprosus)

Social pipistrelle (A. societatis)

Necklace pipistrelle (A. torquatus)

Barbastella

Barbastella is a small genus of vespertilionid bats. There are five described species in this genus.

Eptesicus

Eptesicus is a genus of bats, commonly called house bats or serotine bats, in the family Vespertilionidae.The 25 species within this genus are:

Little black serotine (Eptesicus andinus)

Bobrinski's serotine (Eptesicus bobrinskoi)

Botta's serotine (Eptesicus bottae)

Brazilian brown bat (Eptesicus brasiliensis)

Chiriquinan serotine (Eptesicus chiriquinus)

Diminutive serotine (Eptesicus diminutus)

Surat serotine (Eptesicus dimissus)

Horn-skinned bat (Eptesicus floweri)

Argentine brown bat (Eptesicus furinalis)

Big brown bat (Eptesicus fuscus)

Gobi big brown bat (Eptesicus gobiensis)

Guadeloupe big brown bat (Eptesicus guadeloupensis)

Long-tailed house bat (Eptesicus hottentotus)

Harmless serotine (Eptesicus innoxius)

Meridional serotine (Eptesicus isabellinus)

Japanese short-tailed bat (Eptesicus japonensis)

Kobayashi's bat (Eptesicus kobayashii)

Eptesicus lobatus

Jamaican serotine (Eptesicus lynni)

Sind bat (Eptesicus nasutus)

Northern bat (Eptesicus nilssonii)

Thick-eared bat (Eptesicus pachyotis)

Lagos serotine (Eptesicus platyops)

Serotine bat (Eptesicus serotinus)

Eptesicus taddeii

Sombre bat (Eptesicus tatei)

Glauconycteris

Glauconycteris is a genus of vespertilionid bats in Africa.

Grey long-eared bat

The grey long-eared bat (Plecotus austriacus) is a fairly large European bat. It has distinctive ears, long and with a distinctive fold. It hunts above woodland, often by day, and mostly for moths. It is extremely similar to the more common brown long-eared bat, and was only distinguished in the 1960s, but has a paler belly.

Hypsugo

The genus Hypsugo contains many bats referred to as pipistrelles or pipistrelle bats. They belong to the family Vespertilionidae or vesper bats within the order Chiroptera.

Laephotis

Laephotis is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae. Species within this genus are:

Angolan long-eared bat (Laephotis angolensis)

Botswanan long-eared bat (Laephotis botswanae)

Namib long-eared bat (Laephotis namibensis)

De Winton's long-eared bat (Laephotis wintoni)

Moloney's mimic bat

Moloney's mimic bat (Mimetillus moloneyi) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Kenya, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in subtropical or tropical dry or moist forests, subtropical or tropical mangrove forests, subtropical or tropical moist montane forests, dry and moist savanna.

Neoromicia

Neoromicia is a genus of vesper bat in the family Vespertilionidae.

It contains the following species:

Dark-brown serotine (Neoromicia brunneus)

Cape serotine (Neoromicia capensis)

Yellow serotine (Neoromicia flavescens)

Neoromicia grandidieri

Tiny serotine (Neoromicia guineensis)

Heller's pipistrelle (Neoromicia helios)

Isabelline white-winged serotine (Neoromicia isabella)

Isalo serotine (Neoromicia malagasyensis)

Malagasy serotine (Neoromicia matroka)

Melck's house bat (Neoromicia melckorum)

Banana pipistrelle (Neoromicia nana)

Rendall's serotine (Neoromicia rendalli)

Rosevear's serotine (Neoromicia roseveari)

Neoromicia robertsi

Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalicus)

Neoromicia stanleyi

White-winged serotine (Neoromicia tenuipinnis)

Aloe serotine (Neoromicia zuluensis)

Nyctalus

Nyctalus is a genus of vespertilionid bats commonly known as the noctule bats. They are distributed in the temperate and subtropical areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa.

There are eight species within this genus:

Birdlike noctule, Nyctalus aviator

Azores noctule, Nyctalus azoreum

Japanese noctule, Nyctalus furvus

Greater noctule bat, Nyctalus lasiopterus

Lesser noctule, Nyctalus leisleri

Mountain noctule, Nyctalus montanus

Common noctule, Nyctalus noctula

Chinese noctule, Nyctalus plancyi

Plecotus

The genus Plecotus consists of the long-eared bats. Many species in the genus have only been described and recognized in recent years.

Rüppell's pipistrelle

Rüppell's pipistrelle (Pipistrellus rueppellii) is a species of vesper bat found in Africa and Asian republics such as Iraq and Israel. It is found in dry and moist savanna, subtropical or tropical dry shrubland, and hot deserts.

Scotoecus

Scotoecus is a genus of bats in the family Vespertilionidae.

Scotophilus tandrefana

The western yellow bat (Scotophilus tandrefana) is a species of vesper bat endemic to Madagascar.

Somali serotine

The Somali serotine (Neoromicia somalica) is a species of vesper bat.

It is found in Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Ivory Coast, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, and Zimbabwe.

Its natural habitats are dry savanna and moist savanna.

Vespertilioninae

The Vespertilioninae are a subfamily of vesper bats from the family Vespertilionidae.

White-bellied yellow bat

The white-bellied yellow bat (Scotophilus leucogaster) is a species of vesper bat. It can be found in Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Ivory Coast, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Uganda, and Zambia. It is found in dry and moist savanna.

Species of subfamily Vespertilioninae
Aeorestes
Antrozous
Arielulus
Barbastella
Bauerus
Chalinolobus
Corynorhinus
Dasypterus
Eptesicus
Euderma
Eudiscopus
Falsistrellus
Glauconycteris
Glischropus
Hesperoptenus
Histiotus
Hypsugo
Ia
Idionycteris
Laephotis
Lasionycteris
Lasiurus
Mimetillus
Neoromicia
Niumbaha
Nyctalus
Nycticeinops
Nycticeius
Nyctophilus
Otonycteris
Parastrellus
Perimyotis
Pharotis
Philetor
Pipistrellus
Plecotus
Rhogeessa
Scoteanax
Scotoecus
Scotomanes
Scotophilus
Scotorepens
Scotozous
Tylonycteris
Vespadelus
Vespertilio

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