The Group of Seven (G7) is a group consisting of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. These countries, with the seven largest IMF-described advanced economies in the world, represent 58% of the global net wealth ($317 trillion). The G7 countries also represent more than 46% of the global gross domestic product (GDP) based on nominal values, and more than 32% of the global GDP based on purchasing power parity. The European Union is also represented at the G7 summit.
|Group of Seven and the European Union|
France (2019 host)
The concept of a forum for the world's major industrialized countries emerged before the 1973 oil crisis. On Sunday, 25 March 1973, the U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, George Shultz, convened an informal gathering of finance ministers from West Germany Helmut Schmidt, France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, and the United Kingdom Anthony Barber before an upcoming meeting in Washington, D.C. When running the idea past President Nixon, he noted that he would be out of town and offered use of the White House. The meeting was subsequently held in the library on the ground floor. Taking their name from the setting, this original group of four became known as the "Library Group". In mid-1973, at the World Bank-IMF meetings, Shultz proposed the addition of Japan to the original four nations, who agreed. The informal gathering of senior financial officials from the United States, the United Kingdom, West Germany, Japan, and France became known as the "Group of Five".
Then, in 1974, President Pompidou of France died and his immediate successor refused to run in the special election, making three changes of heads of state in France in one year. Chancellor Brandt of West Germany was forced to resign in a scandal, and his successor lasted only nine days making three changes in West Germany as well. Plus Then President Nixon of the United States and Prime Minister Tanaka of Japan were forced to resign in disgrace. Queen Elizabeth II was forced to broker a deal to form a government after a hung election, which was so unstable that another election the same year had to take place, and finally, the traditionally unstable government of 1st Italian Republic changed Prime Ministers yet again. American President Gerald Ford, who had been a mere Congressman a year before, asked some other new heads of state/government to hold a retreat the following year to get to know one another.
So, in 1975, a summit hosted by France brought together representatives of six governments: France, West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Schmidt and Giscard d'Estaing were heads of government in their respective countries, and since they both spoke fluent English, it occurred to them that they, and British Prime Minister Harold Wilson and U.S. President Gerald Ford could get together in an informal retreat and discuss election results and the issues of the day. In late spring, d'Estaing of France invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States to a summit in Château de Rambouillet; the annual meeting of the six leaders was organized under a rotating presidency, forming the Group of Six (G6). In 1976, with Wilson out as prime minister of Britain, Schmidt and Gerald Ford felt an English speaker with more experience was needed, so Pierre Trudeau, the Prime Minister of Canada, the next largest advanced economy after the first six, was invited to join the group and the group became the Group of Seven (G7). Since first invited by the United Kingdom in 1977 the European Union has been represented by the president of the European Commission, and the leader of the country that holds the presidency of the Council of the European Union and the Council President now also regularly attends.
Until the 1985 Plaza Accord no one outside a tight official circle knew when the seven finance ministers met and what they agreed. The summit was announced the day before and a communiqué was issued afterwards.
Following 1994's G7 summit in Naples, Russian officials held separate meetings with leaders of the G7 after the group's summits. This informal arrangement was dubbed the Political 8 (P8) – or, colloquially, the G7+1. At the invitation of Prime Minister of the United Kingdom Tony Blair and President of the United States Bill Clinton, Russian President Boris Yeltsin was invited first as a guest observer, later as a full participant. After the 1997 meeting Russia was formally invited to the next meeting and formally joined the group in 1998, resulting in a new governmental political forum, the Group of Eight or G8. The Russian Federation, in fact, had and has limited net national wealth and financial weight compared to the other members of the G8. Russia also has never been a major advanced economy according to the IMF. However, the Russian Federation was ejected from the G8 political forum in March 2014 following the Russian annexation of Crimea.
The organization was founded to facilitate shared macroeconomic initiatives by its members in response to the collapse of the exchange rate 1971, during the time of the Nixon shock, the 1970s energy crisis and the ensuing recession.
Since 1975, the group meets annually on summit site to discuss economic policies; since 1987, the G7 Finance Ministers have met at least semi-annually, up to 4 times a year at stand-alone meetings.
In 1997, the G7 provided $300 million dollars to the effort to build the containment of the reactor meltdown at Chernobyl.
In 1999, the G7 decided to get more directly involved in "managing the international monetary system" through the Financial Stability Forum, formed earlier in 1999 and the G-20, established following the summit, to "promote dialogue between major industrial and emerging market countries". The G7 also announced their plan to cancel 90% of bilateral, and multilateral debt for the HIPC, totaling $100 billion. In 2005 the G7 announced debt reductions of "up to 100%" to be negotiated on a "case by case" basis.
In 2008 the G7 met twice in Washington, D.C. to discuss the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 and in February 2009 in Rome. The group of finance ministers pledged to take "all necessary steps" to stem the crisis.
On 2 March 2014, the G7 condemned the "Russian Federation's violation of the sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine." The G7 stated "that the International Monetary Fund (IMF) remains the institution best prepared to help Ukraine address its immediate economic challenges through policy advice and financing, conditioned on needed reforms", and that the G7 was "committed to mobilize rapid technical assistance to support Ukraine in addressing its macroeconomic, regulatory and anti-corruption challenges." On 24 March 2014, the G7 convened an emergency meeting in response to the Russian Federation's annexation of Crimea at the official residence of the Prime Minister of the Netherlands, the Catshuis in The Hague. This location was chosen because all G7 leaders were already present to attend the 2014 Nuclear Security Summit hosted by the Netherlands. This was the first G7 meeting neither taking place in a member nation nor having the host leader participating in the meeting. On 4 June 2014 leaders at the G7 summit in Brussels, condemned Moscow for its "continuing violation" of Ukraine's sovereignty, in their joint statement and stated they were prepared to impose further sanctions on Russia. This meeting was the first since Russia was expelled from the G8 following its annexation of Crimea in March.
The annual G7 leaders summit is attended by the heads of government. The member country holding the G7 presidency is responsible for organizing and hosting the year's summit. The serial annual summits can be parsed chronologically in arguably distinct ways, including as the sequence of host countries for the summits has recurred over time and series. Generally every country hosts the summit once every 7 years.
|Date||Host||Host figure||Location held||Website||Notes|
|1st||15–17 November 1975||France||Valéry Giscard d'Estaing||Château de Rambouillet, District of the Paris Region||G6 Summit|
|2nd||27–28 June 1976||United States||Gerald R. Ford||Dorado, Puerto Rico||Also called "Rambouillet II". Canada joined the group, forming the G7|
|3rd||7–8 May 1977||United Kingdom||James Callaghan||London, England||The President of the European Commission was invited to join the annual G7 summits|
|4th||16–17 July 1978||West Germany||Helmut Schmidt||Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia|
|5th||28–29 June 1979||Japan||Masayoshi Ōhira||Tokyo|
|6th||22–23 June 1980||Italy||Francesco Cossiga||Venice, Veneto||Prime Minister Ōhira died in office on 12 June; Foreign Minister Saburō Ōkita led the delegation that represented Japan.|
|7th||20–21 July 1981||Canada||Pierre E. Trudeau||Montebello, Quebec|
|8th||4–6 June 1982||France||François Mitterrand||Versailles, Île-de-France|
|9th||28–30 May 1983||United States||Ronald Reagan||Williamsburg, Virginia|
|10th||7–9 June 1984||United Kingdom||Margaret Thatcher||London, England|
|11th||2–4 May 1985||West Germany||Helmut Kohl||Bonn, North Rhine-Westphalia|
|12th||4–6 May 1986||Japan||Yasuhiro Nakasone||Tokyo|
|13th||8–10 June 1987||Italy||Amintore Fanfani||Venice, Veneto|
|14th||19–21 June 1988||Canada||Brian Mulroney||Toronto, Ontario|
|15th||14–16 July 1989||France||François Mitterrand||Paris, Île-de-France|
|16th||9–11 July 1990||United States||George H. W. Bush||Houston, Texas|
|17th||15–17 July 1991||United Kingdom||John Major||London, England|
|18th||6–8 July 1992||Germany||Helmut Kohl||Munich, Bavaria|
|19th||7–9 July 1993||Japan||Kiichi Miyazawa||Tokyo|
|20th||8–10 July 1994||Italy||Silvio Berlusconi||Naples, Campania|
|21st||15–17 June 1995||Canada||Jean Chrétien||Halifax, Nova Scotia|||
|22nd||27–29 June 1996||France||Jacques Chirac||Lyon, Rhône-Alpes||International organizations' debut to G7 Summits periodically. The invited ones here were: United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and the World Trade Organization.|
|23rd||20–22 June 1997||United States||Bill Clinton||Denver, Colorado||||Russia joins the group, forming G8|
|24th||15–17 May 1998||United Kingdom||Tony Blair||Birmingham, West Midlands|||
|25th||18–20 June 1999||Germany||Gerhard Schröder||Cologne, North Rhine-Westphalia||||First Summit of the G-20 major economies at Berlin|
|26th||21–23 July 2000||Japan||Yoshirō Mori||Nago, Okinawa||||Formation of the G8+5 starts, when South Africa was invited. Until the 38th G8 summit in 2012, it has been invited to the Summit annually without interruption. Also, with permission from a G8 leader, other nations were invited to the Summit on a periodical basis for the first time. Nigeria, Algeria and Senegal accepted their invitations here. The World Health Organization was also invited for the first time.|
|27th||21–22 July 2001||Italy||Silvio Berlusconi||Genoa, Liguria||||Leaders from Bangladesh, Mali and El Salvador accepted their invitations here. Demonstrator Carlo Giuliani is shot and killed by the Carabinieri during a violent demonstration. One of the largest and most violent anti-globalization movement protests occurred for the 27th G8 summit. Following those events and the September 11 attacks two months later in 2001, the G8 have met at more remote locations.|
|28th||26–27 June 2002||Canada||Jean Chrétien||Kananaskis, Alberta||||Russia gains permission to officially host a G8 Summit.|
|29th||1–3 June 2003||France||Jacques Chirac||Évian-les-Bains, Rhône-Alpes||The G8+5 was unofficially made, when China, India, Brazil, and Mexico were invited to this Summit for the first time. South Africa has joined the G8 Summit, since 2000, until the 2012 edition. Other first-time nations that were invited by the French president included: Egypt, Morocco, Saudi Arabia, Malaysia and Switzerland.|
|30th||8–10 June 2004||United States||George W. Bush||Sea Island, Georgia||||A record number of leaders from 12 different nations accepted their invitations here. Amongst a couple of veteran nations, the others were: Ghana, Afghanistan, Bahrain, Iraq, Jordan, Turkey, Yemen and Uganda. Also, the state funeral of former President Ronald Reagan took place in Washington during the summit.|
|31st||6–8 July 2005||United Kingdom||Tony Blair||Gleneagles, Scotland||||The G8+5 was officially formed. On the second day of the meeting, suicide bombers killed 52 people on the London Underground and a bus. Nations that were invited for the first time were Ethiopia and Tanzania. The African Union and the International Energy Agency made their debut here. During the 31st G8 summit in United Kingdom, 225,000 people took to the streets of Edinburgh as part of the Make Poverty History campaign calling for Trade Justice, Debt Relief and Better Aid. Numerous other demonstrations also took place challenging the legitimacy of the G8.|
|32nd||15–17 July 2006||Russia (only G8 member, not G7)||Vladimir Putin||Strelna, Saint Petersburg||First G8 Summit on Russian Federation soil. Also, the International Atomic Energy Agency and UNESCO made their debut here.|
|33rd||6–8 June 2007||Germany||Angela Merkel||Heiligendamm, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern||Seven different international organizations accepted their invitations to this Summit. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the Commonwealth of Independent States made their debut here.|
|34th||7–9 July 2008||Japan||Yasuo Fukuda||Tōyako, Hokkaidō||||Nations that accepted their G8 Summit invitations for the first time are: Australia, Indonesia and South Korea.|
|35th||8–10 July 2009||Italy||Silvio Berlusconi||La Maddalena, Sardinia (cancelled)
L'Aquila, Abruzzo (re-located)
|||This G8 Summit was originally planned to be in La Maddalena (Sardinia), but was moved to L'Aquila as a way of showing Prime Minister Berlusconi's desire to help the region after the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake. Nations that accepted their invitations for the first time were: Angola, Denmark, Netherlands and Spain. A record of ten international organizations were represented in this G8 Summit. For the first time, the Food and Agriculture Organization, the International Fund for Agricultural Development, the World Food Programme, and the International Labour Organization accepted their invitations.|
|36th||25–26 June 2010||Canada||Stephen Harper||Huntsville, Ontario||||Malawi, Colombia, Haiti, and Jamaica accepted their invitations for the first time.|
|37th||26–27 May 2011||France||Nicolas Sarkozy||Deauville, Lower Normandy||Guinea, Niger, Côte d'Ivoire and Tunisia accepted their invitations for the first time. Also, the League of Arab States made its debut to the meeting.|
|38th||18–19 May 2012||United States||Barack Obama||Chicago, Illinois (cancelled)
Camp David, Maryland (re-located)
|The summit was originally planned for Chicago, along with the NATO summit, but it was announced officially on 5 March 2012, that the G8 summit will be held at the more private location of Camp David and at one day earlier than previously scheduled. Also, this is the second G8 summit, in which one of the leaders, Vladimir Putin, declined to participate. This G8 summit concentrated on the core leaders only; no non-G8 leaders or international organizations were invited.|
|39th||17–18 June 2013||United Kingdom||David Cameron||Lough Erne, County Fermanagh||||As in 2012, only the core members of the G8 attended this meeting. The four main topics that were discussed here were trade, government transparency, tackling tax evasion, and the ongoing Syrian crisis.|
|40th||4–5 June 2014||European Union||Herman Van Rompuy
José Manuel Barroso
|Brussels, Belgium (re-located from Sochi, Russia)||G7 summit as an alternative meeting without Russia in 2014 due to association with Crimean crisis. The 2014 G8 summit in Sochi was cancelled and re-located to Brussels, Belgium without Russia. Emergency meeting in March 2014 in The Hague.|
|41st||7–8 June 2015||Germany||Angela Merkel||Schloss Elmau, Bavaria||||Summit dedicated to focus on the global economy as well as on key issues regarding foreign, security and development policy. The Global Apollo Programme was also on the agenda.|
|42nd||26–27 May 2016||Japan||Shinzō Abe||Shima, Mie Prefecture||||The G7 leaders aim to address challenges affecting the growth of the world economy, like slowdowns in emerging markets and drops in price of oil. The G7 also issued a warning on the United Kingdom that "a UK exit from the EU would reverse the trend towards greater global trade and investment, and the jobs they create and is a further serious risk to growth". Commitment to an EU–Japan Free Trade Agreement.|
|43rd||26–27 May 2017||Italy||Paolo Gentiloni||Taormina, Sicily||||G7 leaders emphasized common endeavours: to end the Syrian crisis, to fulfill the UN mission in Libya and reducing the presence of ISIS, ISIL and Da'esh in Syria and Iraq. North Korea was urged to comply with UN resolutions, Russian responsibility was stressed for Ukrainian conflict. Supporting economic activity and ensuring price stability was demanded while inequalities in trade and gender were called to be challenged. It was agreed to help countries in creating conditions that address the drivers of migration: ending hunger, increasing competitiveness and advancing global health security.|
|44th||8–9 June 2018||Canada||Justin Trudeau||La Malbaie, Quebec||||It took place at the Manoir Richelieu. Prime Minister Trudeau announced five themes for Canada's G7 presidency which began in January 2018. Climate, along with commerce trades, was one of the main themes. “Working together on climate change, oceans and clean energy”  The G7 members' final statement contains 28 points. US President Donald Trump didn't agree to the economic section of the final statement. The G7 members also announced to recall sanctions and to be ready to take further restrictive measures against Russian Federation for the failure of Minsk Agreement's complete implementation.|
|45th||25–27 August 2019||France||Emmanuel Macron||Biarritz, Nouvelle-Aquitaine|||
|46th||TBD, 2020||United States||Donald Trump||TBD|
|47th||TBD, 2021||United Kingdom||TBD||TBD|
|Member||Representative(s)||Minister of Finance||Central Bank Governor|
|Canada||Prime Minister||Justin Trudeau||Minister of Finance||Bill Morneau||Stephen Poloz|
|France||President||Emmanuel Macron||Minister of the Economy||Bruno Le Maire||François Villeroy de Galhau|
|Germany||Chancellor||Angela Merkel||Minister of Finance||Olaf Scholz||Jens Weidmann|
|Italy||Prime Minister||Giuseppe Conte||Minister of Economy
|Giovanni Tria||Ignazio Visco|
|Japan||Prime Minister||Shinzō Abe||Minister of Finance||Tarō Asō||Haruhiko Kuroda|
|United Kingdom||Prime Minister||Theresa May||Chancellor of the Exchequer||Philip Hammond||Mark Carney|
|United States||President||Donald Trump||Secretary of the Treasury||Steven Mnuchin||Jerome Powell|
|European Union||Council President||Donald Tusk||Commissioner for Economic
and Monetary Affairs
and the Euro
|Valdis Dombrovskis||Mario Draghi|
|Commission President||Jean-Claude Juncker|
|Member||Trade mil. USD (2014)||Nom. GDP mil. USD (2014)||PPP GDP mil. USD (2014)||Nom. GDP per capita USD (2014)||PPP GDP per capita USD (2014)||HDI (2017)||Population (2014)||Permanent members of UN Security Council||DAC||OECD||Economic classification (IMF)|
The G7 is composed of the seven wealthiest advanced countries. The People's Republic of China, according to its data, would be the second-largest with the 16.4% of the world net wealth, but is excluded because the IMF and other main global institutions do not consider China an advanced country and because of its relatively low net wealth per adult and HDI. As of 2017 Crédit Suisse reports the G7 (without the European Union) represents above 62% of the global net wealth. Including the EU the G7 represents over 70% of the global net wealth.
In March 2014 Russian Federation was suspended by G7 members from the political forum G8 following the annexation of Crimea. After the suspension, on January 2017 Russian Federation decided permanently to leave the G8. It was confirmed in June 2018.
In 2015, despite Germany's immense efforts to prevent it and despite the remote location of the summit, the luxury hotel Schloss Elmau at the foot of the Wetterstein mountains at an altitude of 1,008 m (3,307 ft) above sea level, about 300 of the 7500 protesters led by the group 'Stop-G7' managed to reach the 3 m high and 7 km long security fence surrounding the summit location. The protesters questioned the legitimacy of the G7 to make decisions that could affect the whole world. Authorities had banned demonstrations in the closer area of the summit location and 20,000 policemen were on duty in Southern Bavaria to keep activists and protesters from interfering with the summit.
The 2018 meeting in Charlevoix, Canada, was marred by fractious negotiations concerning tariffs and Donald Trump's unorthodox position that Russia should be reinstated to the political forum G8, despite its limited national wealth and its lack of an advanced economy according to the IMF. The Trump administration had just imposed steel and aluminum tariffs on many countries, including European countries that are fellow members of the G7, and Canada, the host country for the 2018 meeting. Trump arrived late, left the meeting early, expressed dismay at Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau for holding a press conference in which Canada restated its position on tariffs (a public criticism of Trump's economic policy), and directed his representatives at the meeting to not sign the economic section of the joint communique that is typically issued at the conclusion of the meeting. An opinion writer at the Washington Post, Max Boot, opined that Trump had turned the meeting into a confrontation between the "G-6 versus the G-1." and economist Paul Krugman suggested that it probably had more to do with whatever hold Putin has over Trump personally.
German Chancellor Angela Merkel described Trump's behavior as a "depressing withdrawal," while French President Emmanuel Macron invited him "to be serious." In the final statement signed by all members except the US, G7 announced its intention to recall sanctions and to be ready to take further restrictive measures within the next months against the Russian Federation for its failure to completely implement the Minsk Agreement.
Alfred Joseph Casson, (May 17, 1898 – February 20, 1992) was a member of the Canadian group of artists known as the Group of Seven. He joined the group in 1926 at the invitation of Franklin Carmichael. Casson is best known for his depictions of landscapes, forests and farms of southern Ontario, and for being the youngest member of the Group of Seven.A. Y. Jackson
Alexander Young Jackson (October 3, 1882 – April 5, 1974) was a Canadian painter and a founding member of the Group of Seven. Jackson made a significant contribution to the development of art in Canada, and was successful in bringing together the artists of Montreal and Toronto. He exhibited with the Group of Seven from 1920. In addition to his work with the Group of Seven, his long career included serving as a war artist during World War I (1917–19) and teaching at the Banff School of Fine Arts, from 1943 to 1949. In his later years he was artist-in-residence at the McMichael Gallery in Kleinberg, Ontario.Arthur Lismer
Arthur Lismer, CC (27 June 1885 – 23 March 1969) was an English-Canadian painter and member of the Group of Seven. He is known for his paintings of ships in dazzle camouflage.Canadian art
Canadian art refers to the visual (including painting, photography, and printmaking) as well as plastic arts (such as sculpture) originating from the geographical area of contemporary Canada. Art in Canada is marked by thousands of years of habitation by First Nations Peoples followed by waves of immigration which included artists of European origins and subsequently by artists with heritage from countries all around the world. The nature of Canadian art reflects these diverse origins, as artists have taken their traditions and adapted these influences to reflect the reality of their lives in Canada.
The Government of Canada has, at times, played a central role in the development of Canadian culture, enabling visual exposure through publications and periodicals, as well as establishing and funding numerous art schools and colleges across the country. The Group of Seven is often considered the first uniquely Canadian artistic group and style of painting; however, this claim is challenged by some scholars and artists. Historically the Catholic Church was the primary patron of art in early Canada, especially Quebec, and in later times artists have combined British, French and American artistic traditions, at times embracing European styles and at other times working to promote nationalism by developing distinctly Canadian styles. Canadian art remains the combination of these various influences.Cape York rock-wallaby
The Cape York rock-wallaby (Petrogale coenensis) is a species of rock-wallaby restricted to Cape York Peninsula in northeastern Queensland, Australia. It is a member of a group of seven very closely related rock-wallabies, all found in northeastern Queensland, also including the Mount Claro rock-wallaby (P. sharmani), the Mareeba rock-wallaby (P. mareeba) and Godman's rock-wallaby (P. godmani).
The Cape York rock-wallaby is found only in central Cape York, from the Musgrave to the Pascoe River. It is also the only member of the group of seven species to be completely separated geographically from its relatives; it is separated from Godman's rock-wallaby by the Hann River Catchment (around 70 km).Family Circle
Family Circle is an American home magazine published 12 times a year by Meredith Corporation. It began publication in 1932 as a magazine distributed at supermarkets such as Piggly Wiggly and Safeway. Cowles Magazines and Broadcasting bought the magazine in 1962. The New York Times Company bought the magazine for its woman's magazine division in 1971. The division was sold to Gruner + Jahr in 1994. When Gruner + Jahr decided to exit the US magazine market in 2005, the magazine was sold to the Meredith Corporation.
The magazine is considered one of the "Seven Sisters", a group of seven home-oriented magazines, with the others being Ladies' Home Journal, McCall's, Good Housekeeping, Better Homes and Gardens, Woman's Day, and Redbook.Family Circle used to sponsor the Charleston Open at the Family Circle Tennis Center in Charleston, South Carolina, a WTA clay court tennis tournament.
In November 2009, Family Circle launched their social network Momster.com for moms of tweens and teens.Franklin Carmichael
Franklin Carmichael (May 4, 1890 – October 24, 1945) was a Canadian artist and member of the Group of Seven. Though he was primarily famous for his use of watercolours, he also used oil paints, charcoal and other mediums to capture the Ontario landscapes of which he was fond. Besides his work as a painter, he worked as a designer and illustrator, creating promotional brochures, advertisements in newspapers and magazines, and stylizing books. Near the end of his life, Carmichael taught in the Graphic Design and Commercial Art Department at the Ontario College of Art (today the Ontario College of Art and Design).
The youngest original member of the Group of Seven, Carmichael often found himself socially on the outside of the group. Despite this, the art he produced was of equal measure in terms of style and approach to the other member's contributions, vividly expressing his spiritual views through his art.Frederick Varley
Frederick Horsman Varley (January 2, 1881 – September 8, 1969) was a member of the Canadian Group of Seven artists.Group of Eight
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014.The forum originated with a 1975 summit hosted by France that brought together representatives of six governments: France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, thus leading to the name Group of Six or G6. The summit came to be known as the Group of Seven, or G7, in 1976 with the addition of Canada. Russia was added to the political forum from 1997, which the following year became known as the G8. In March 2014 Russia was suspended indefinitely following the annexation of Crimea, whereupon the political forum name reverted to G7. In 2017 Russia announced its permanent withdrawal from the G8. However, several representatives of G7 countries stated that they would be interested in Russia's return to the group. The European Union was represented at the G8 since the 1980s as a "nonenumerated" participant, but originally could not host or chair summits. The 40th summit was the first time the European Union was able to host and chair a summit. Collectively, in 2012 the G8 nations comprised 50.1 percent of 2012 global nominal GDP and 40.9 percent of global GDP (PPP).
"G7" can refer to the member states in aggregate or to the annual summit meeting of the G7 heads of government. G7 ministers also meet throughout the year, such as the G7 finance ministers (who meet four times a year), G7 foreign ministers, or G7 environment ministers.
Each calendar year, the responsibility of hosting the G8 was rotated through the member states in the following order: France, United States, United Kingdom, Russia (suspended), Germany, Japan, Italy, and Canada. The holder of the presidency sets the agenda, hosts the summit for that year, and determines which ministerial meetings will take place.
In 2005, the UK government initiated the practice of inviting five leading emerging markets — Brazil, China, India, Mexico, and South Africa — to participate in the G8 meetings that came to be known as G8+5, but this practice was short-lived. With the G20 major economies growing in stature since the 2008 Washington summit, world leaders from the group announced at their Pittsburgh summit in September 2009 that the group would replace the G8 as the main economic council of wealthy nations. Nevertheless, the G7 retains its relevance as a "steering group for the West", with special significance appointed to Japan.Group of Seven (artists)
The Group of Seven, also sometimes known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933, originally consisting of Franklin Carmichael (1890–1945), Lawren Harris (1885–1970), A. Y. Jackson (1882–1974), Frank Johnston (1888–1949), Arthur Lismer (1885–1969), J. E. H. MacDonald (1873–1932), and Frederick Varley (1881–1969). Later, A. J. Casson (1898–1992) was invited to join in 1926, Edwin Holgate (1892–1977) became a member in 1930, and LeMoine FitzGerald (1890–1956) joined in 1932.
Two artists commonly associated with the group are Tom Thomson (1877–1917) and Emily Carr (1871–1945). Although he died before its official formation, Thomson had a significant influence on the group. In his essay "The Story of the Group of Seven", Harris wrote that Thomson was "a part of the movement before we pinned a label on it"; Thomson's paintings The West Wind and The Jack Pine are two of the group's most iconic pieces. Emily Carr was also closely associated with the Group of Seven, though never an official member.
Believing that a distinct Canadian art could be developed through direct contact with nature, the Group of Seven is best known for its paintings inspired by the Canadian landscape, and initiated the first major Canadian national art movement. The Group was succeeded by the Canadian Group of Painters in 1933, which included members from the Beaver Hall Group who had a history of showing with the Group of Seven internationally.HX postcode area
The HX postcode area, also known as the Halifax postcode area, is a group of seven postcode districts in England, which are subdivisions of four post towns. These postcode districts cover much of western West Yorkshire, including Halifax, Elland, Hebden Bridge and Sowerby Bridge.J. E. H. MacDonald
James Edward Hervey MacDonald (May 12, 1873 – November 26, 1932) was a Canadian artist and one of the founders of the Group of Seven who initiated the first major Canadian national art movement. He was the father of illustrator Thoreau MacDonald.LU postcode area
The LU postcode area, also known as the Luton postcode area, is a group of seven postcode districts in England, which are subdivisions of three post towns. These postcode districts cover south Bedfordshire, as well as small parts of Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire.Lawren Harris
Lawren Stewart Harris (October 23, 1885 – January 29, 1970) was a Canadian painter. He was born in Brantford, Ontario, and is best known as a member of the Group of Seven who pioneered a distinctly Canadian painting style in the early twentieth century. A. Y. Jackson has been quoted as saying that Harris provided the stimulus for the Group of Seven. During the 1920s, Harris' works became more abstract and simplified, especially his stark landscapes of the Canadian north and Arctic. He also stopped signing and dating his works so that people would judge his works on their own merit and not by the artist or when they were painted. In 1969, he was made a Companion of the Order of Canada.List of Canadian painters
The following is an alphabetical list of professional Canadian painters, primarily working in fine art painting and drawing. See other articles for information on Canadian art or a List of Canadian artists for other information.McMichael Canadian Art Collection
The McMichael Canadian Art Collection is an art gallery in Kleinburg, Ontario, Canada, northwest of Toronto. It houses an extensive collection of paintings by Tom Thomson, the Group of Seven and their contemporaries, and First Nations and Inuit artists.The core of this art collection and the very gallery itself are the result of the dreams and vision of two people. Signe and Robert McMichael were, on first sight, completely captivated by the paintings of the Group of Seven which seemed to embody the same love and respect they had for the Canadian landscape.NASA Astronaut Group 7
Astronaut Group 7, referred to in some documents as the USAF MOL Transfer, was a group of seven astronauts announced by NASA on August 14, 1969, and was the last group to be selected during the Apollo era. After the USAF Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL) project was cancelled, NASA hired seven of the astronauts selected for that program to form this "Group 7", roughly the younger half of the MOL astronauts. By the time they joined NASA, all Apollo flight assignments had been lined up, but four were given non-flying support assignments for Apollo. Others were also given support assignments for Skylab and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project, with Bobko and Crippen participating in the Skylab Medical Experiment Altitude Test. Group 7 went on to form the core of early Space Shuttle pilots, upgrading to commander after their first flight, flying 17 STS missions between them, plus the Approach and Landing Tests of Enterprise (OV-101).Tom Thomson
Thomas John Thomson (August 5, 1877 – July 8, 1917) was a Canadian artist active in the early 20th century. During his short career he produced roughly 400 oil sketches on small wood panels along with around 50 larger works on canvas. His works consist almost entirely of landscapes depicting trees, skies, lakes, and rivers. His paintings use broad brush strokes and a liberal application of paint to capture the beauty and colour of the Ontario landscape. Thomson's accidental death at 39 by drowning came shortly before the founding of the Group of Seven and is seen as a tragedy for Canadian art.
Raised in rural Ontario, Thomson was born into a large family of farmers and displayed no immediate artistic talent. He worked several jobs before attending a business college, eventually developing skills in penmanship and copperplate writing. At the turn of the 20th century, he was employed in Seattle and Toronto as a pen artist at several different photoengraving firms, including Grip Ltd. There he met those who eventually formed the Group of Seven, including J. E. H. MacDonald, Lawren Harris, Frederick Varley, Franklin Carmichael and Arthur Lismer. In May 1912, he visited Algonquin Park—a major public park and forest reservation in Central Ontario—for the first time. It was there that he acquired his first sketching equipment and, following MacDonald's advice, began to capture nature scenes. He became enraptured with the area and repeatedly returned, typically spending his winters in Toronto and the rest of the year in the Park. His earliest paintings were not outstanding technically, but showed a good grasp of composition and colour handling. His later paintings vary in composition and contain vivid colours and thickly applied paint. His later work has had a great influence on Canadian art—paintings such as The Jack Pine and The West Wind have taken a prominent place in the culture of Canada and are some of the country's most iconic works.
Thomson developed a reputation during his lifetime as a veritable outdoorsman, talented in both fishing and canoeing, although his skills in the latter have been contested. The circumstances of his drowning on Canoe Lake in Algonquin Park, linked with his image as a master canoeist, led to unsubstantiated but persistent rumours that he had been murdered or committed suicide.
Although he died before the formal establishment of the Group of Seven, Thomson is often considered an unofficial member. His art is typically exhibited with the rest of the Group's, nearly all of which remains in Canada—mainly at the Art Gallery of Ontario in Toronto, the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa, the McMichael Canadian Art Collection in Kleinburg and the Tom Thomson Art Gallery in Owen Sound.Woodcock
The woodcocks are a group of seven or eight very similar living species of wading birds in the genus Scolopax. The genus name is Latin for a snipe or woodcock, and until around 1800 was used to refer to a variety of waders. The English name was first recorded in about 1050.
Group of Seven (G7)