The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations. There were 77 founding members of the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 134 member countries (including China). Since China participates in the G77 but does not consider itself to be a member, all official statements are issued in the name of The Group of 77 and China.
The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD). The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).
|Group of 77|
|Named after||Number of founding Member States|
|Formation||June 15, 1964|
|Founded at||Geneva, Switzerland|
|Type||Intergovernmental voting bloc|
|Purpose||To provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests|
|Headquarters||United Nations Headquarters|
|Methods||Collective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies|
|134 Member States|
Chair of the Group of 77
|State of Palestine|
The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament. It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order. It has been subject to criticism for its lackluster support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.
The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members. The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member. As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China.
The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:
|Antigua and Barbuda||2008|
The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77. Although membership in the G-24 is strictly limited to 24 countries, any other member of the G-77 can join discussions.
Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
Algeria–Indonesia relations refers to the bilateral relations of Algeria and Indonesia. The relationship between two nations is mostly founded on common religious and anti-colonialism solidarity, as Indonesia and Algeria are Muslim-majority countries that also once fell under colonialism. Algeria recognized Indonesia's role on supporting their country on gaining independence in 1962. Both countries agreed on expanding cooperations and strengthening relations. Algeria has an embassy in Jakarta that also accredited to Singapore and Brunei, while Indonesia has an embassy in Algiers. Both nations are members of the Non-Aligned Movement, Group of 77 and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).Algeria–Vietnam relations
Algeria–Vietnam relations refers to bilateral relations between Algeria and Vietnam. The two countries established relations in 1962, although the link between Algeria and Vietnam has been recorded much longer than modern history. Algeria has an embassy in Hanoi while Vietnam has an embassy in Algiers.
Both countries are members of the Group of 77.Angola–Uruguay relations
Angola–Uruguay relations are the relations between Angola and Uruguay. The Angolan embassy in Brasília, Brasil is accredited to Uruguay. Uruguay has an embassy in Luanda.In 2003 both countries undersigned a technical, scientific, cultural and economical bilateral agreement. During the last decade, trade between both countries has been small but improving, with Uruguay buying petroleum and selling fish, rice, beef and other commodities to Angola. There is a Uruguayan-African Chamber of Commerce, covering trade between Uruguay and different African countries.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.Bangladesh–Chile relations
Bangladesh–Chile relations refer to the diplomatic relations between People's Republic of Bangladesh and Republic of Chile. Both the countries are members of Group of 77 and Non-Aligned Movement.Bangladesh–Malawi relations
Bangladesh–Malawi relations are the bilateral relations between Bangladesh and Malawi. Neither country has a resident ambassador. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were officially established in 2012 primarily due to former Malawian President Bingu wa Mutharika's desire to build strong relations with Bangladesh. Both the countries are members of Group of 77 and Commonwealth of Nations.Bangladesh–Rwanda relations
Bangladesh–Rwanda relations refer to the bilateral relations between Bangladesh and Rwanda. Both the countries are members of Non-Aligned Movement, Group of 77 and Commonwealth of Nations. Neither country has a resident ambassador.Chile–Uruguay relations
Chile–Uruguay relations are foreign relations between Chile and Uruguay. Chile has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Santiago.
Historically, both countries were part of the Spanish Empire until the early 19th century. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77, of the Rio Group, of the Latin American Integration Association, of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, of the Organization of American States, of the Organization of Ibero-American States, of the Union of South American Nations, of the Cairns Group, and of the Group of 77.China–Uruguay relations
China–Uruguay relations are the relations between the People's Republic of China and Uruguay. China has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate in Hong Kong.
Both countries are members of the Group of 77.Cuba–Indonesia relations
Cuba–Indonesia relations refers to the bilateral relations of Cuba and the Republic of Indonesia. During the administration of Indonesia's first president Sukarno in the 1960s, Indonesia and Cuba enjoyed an exceptionally close relationship. The relations between the two nations mostly focused on sports and health. Cuba has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Havana that is also accredited to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and Jamaica. Both nations are full members of the Non-Aligned Movement and partners in the Group of 77 and the Forum of East Asia-Latin America Cooperation.Cuba–Malaysia relations
Cuba–Malaysia relations (Spanish: Relaciones Cuba-Malasia; Malay: Hubungan Cuba–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن كوب–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Cuba and Malaysia. Diplomatic relations were established on 6 February 1975, Cuba opened its embassy in Kuala Lumpur on 1997, while Malaysia opened its representation in Havana on February 2001. Both are the members of Group of 77, Non-Aligned Movement and United Nations.Egypt–South Africa relations
Egyptian-South African relations is the relationship between the governments of the Arab Republic of Egypt and Republic of South Africa. The first South African mission in Egypt was established in 1942 as a Consulate-General. Egypt maintained diplomatic relations with South Africa until 1961.Egypt enforced all the international sanctions on the South African Government. After 1979, unofficial relations and military tensions were eased. Ambassadors were exchanged only in 1990. Egypt has an embassy in Pretoria and South Africa has an embassy in Cairo. Both countries are full members of the African Union, G-24, Group of 77 and Non-Aligned Movement.Egypt–Uruguay relations
Egypt–Uruguay relations are the relations between Egypt and Uruguay. Egypt has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Cairo and a consulate in Alexandria.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.Group of 24
The Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development, or The Group of 24 (G-24) was established in 1971 as a chapter of the Group of 77 in order to help coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues, as well as and to ensure that their interests are adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Though originally named after the number of founding Member States, it now has 28 Members (plus China, which acts as a Special Invitee). Although the G-24 officially has 28 member countries, any member of the G-77 can join discussions.
Although the group is not an organ of the International Monetary Fund, but the IMF provides secretariat services for the Group. Its meets biannually, first prior to the International Monetary and Financial Committee, and secondly prior to the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the Bank and the Fund. These meetings allow developing country members to discuss agenda items prior to these important meeetings of the IMF/World Bank.Indonesia–Tanzania relations
Indonesia–Tanzania relations refers to the bilateral relations of Indonesia and Tanzania. The relations between both nations are mostly in agriculture sector, where Indonesia provides training for Tanzanian farmers. In 2011 both countries established Indonesia-Tanzania Joint Agriculture Cooperation Committee (JACC), as a vehicle to improve agricultural sector co-operations, such as capacity building through training, joint research, and the expansion of market access to agricultural products.
Indonesia has an embassy in Dar es Salaam. Tanzania has a non-resident ambassador in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Both countries are members of multilateral organisations such as World Trade Organization (WTO), the Group of 77 and Non-Aligned Movement.Malaysia–Uruguay relations
Malaysia–Uruguay relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Uruguay; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–أوروغواي; Spanish: Relaciones entre Malasia y Uruguay) are foreign relations between Malaysia and Uruguay. Malaysia has an embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina (with the ambassador being concurrent to Uruguay), while Uruguay has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Both countries are full members of the Cairns Group and of the Group of 77.South Africa–Uruguay relations
South Africa–Uruguay relations are the relations between Republic of South Africa and Uruguay. South Africa has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate in Durban.Trade between both countries is very important, with Uruguay selling commodities and agroindustrial products. There is a Uruguayan-African Chamber of Commerce, covering trade between Uruguay and different African countries.Both countries are full members of the Cairns Group and of the Group of 77.South Korea–Uruguay relations
Foreign relations between the Republic of Korea and Uruguay were established in 1964. South Korea has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Seoul.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.South Korea is also an important trading partner for Uruguay.United Nations
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.
On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, and signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operation.
The UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. The organization's membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since then, 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work.
The organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes.
Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt.Uruguay–Vietnam relations
Uruguay–Vietnam relations are the relations between Vietnam and Uruguay. Vietnam has an embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the ambassador being concurrent to Uruguay. Uruguay has an embassy in Hanoi.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.