Group of 77

The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of 134 developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.[1] There were 77 founding members of the organization, but by November 2013 the organization had since expanded to 134 member countries (including China).[2] Since China participates in the G77 but does not consider itself to be a member, all official statements are issued in the name of The Group of 77 and China.

Egypt holds the Chairmanship for 2018. Palestine, an observer state of the United Nations, is to chair the group from January 2019.[3]

The group was founded on 15 June 1964, by the "Joint Declaration of the Seventy-Seven Countries" issued at the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD).[4] The first major meeting was in Algiers in 1967, where the Charter of Algiers was adopted and the basis for permanent institutional structures was begun. There are Chapters of the Group of 77 in Geneva (UN), Rome (FAO), Vienna (UNIDO), Paris (UNESCO), Nairobi (UNEP) and the Group of 24 in Washington, D.C. (International Monetary Fund and World Bank).

Group of 77
Group of 77 Logo
AbbreviationG77
Named afterNumber of founding Member States
FormationJune 15, 1964
Founded atGeneva, Switzerland
TypeIntergovernmental voting bloc
PurposeTo provide a forum for developing nations to promote their economic interests
HeadquartersUnited Nations Headquarters
MethodsCollective bargaining, lobbying, reports and studies
FieldsInternational politics
Membership (2019)
134 Member States
Chair of the Group of 77
State of Palestine
AffiliationsUnited Nations
Websitewww.g77.org

Policies

The group was credited with a common stance against apartheid and for supporting global disarmament.[5] It has been supportive of the New International Economic Order.[5][6] It has been subject to criticism for its lackluster support, or outright opposition, to pro-environmental initiatives, which the group considers secondary to economic development and poverty-eradication initiatives.[5][7][8]

Members

G 77
Group of 77 countries as of 2013

As of July 2017, the group comprises all of the UN member states (along with the U.N. observer State of Palestine), excluding the following countries:

  1. Members of the Council of Europe, except for Bosnia.
  2. Members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, except for Chile.
  3. Members of the Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area, except for Tajikistan.
  4. Two Pacific microstates: Palau and Tuvalu.

Current founding members[9]

  1.  Afghanistan
  2.  Algeria
  3.  Argentina
  4.  Benin[a]
  5. Bolivia (Plurinational State of)
  6.  Brazil
  7.  Burkina Faso[b]
  8.  Burundi
  9.  Cambodia
  10.  Cameroon
  11.  Central African Republic
  12.  Chad
  13.  Chile
  14.  Colombia
  15.  Congo
  16.  Democratic Republic of the Congo
  17.  Costa Rica
  18.  Dominican Republic
  19.  Ecuador
  20.  Egypt[c]
  21.  El Salvador
  22.  Ethiopia
  23.  Gabon
  24.  Ghana
  25.  Guatemala
  26.  Guinea
  27.  Haiti
  28.  Honduras
  29.  India
  30.  Indonesia
  31. Iran (Islamic Republic of)
  32.  Iraq
  33.  Jamaica
  34.  Jordan
  35.  Kenya
  36.  Kuwait
  37. Lao People’s Democratic Republic
  38.  Lebanon
  39.  Liberia
  40.  Libya
  41.  Madagascar
  42.  Malaysia
  43.  Mali
  44.  Mauritania
  45.  Morocco
  46.  Myanmar[d]
  47.    Nepal
  48.  Nicaragua
  49.  Niger
  50.  Nigeria
  51.  Pakistan
  52.  Panama
  53.  Paraguay
  54.  Peru
  55.  Philippines
  56.  Rwanda
  57.  Saudi Arabia
  58.  Senegal
  59.  Sierra Leone
  60.  Somalia
  61.  Sri Lanka[e]
  62.  Sudan
  63. Syrian Arab Republic
  64. United Republic of Tanzania[f]
  65.  Thailand
  66.  Togo
  67.  Trinidad and Tobago
  68.  Tunisia
  69.  Uganda
  70.  Uruguay
  71. Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of
  72. Viet Nam
  73.  Yemen
  1. ^ Joined as Dahomey.
  2. ^ Joined as Upper Volta.
  3. ^ Joined as the United Arab Republic.
  4. ^ Joined as Burma.
  5. ^ Joined as Ceylon.
  6. ^ Joined as the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar.

Other current members

  1.  Angola
  2.  Antigua and Barbuda
  3.  Bahamas
  4.  Bahrain
  5.  Bangladesh
  6.  Barbados
  7.  Belize
  8.  Bhutan
  9.  Bosnia and Herzegovina
  10.  Botswana
  11. Brunei Darussalam
  12.  China[a]
  13. Cabo Verde
  14.  Comoros
  15. Côte D'Ivoire
  16.  Cuba
  17.  Djibouti
  18.  Dominica
  19.  Equatorial Guinea
  20.  Eritrea
  21.  Eswatini[b]
  22.  Fiji
  23. Gambia (Republic of The)
  24.  Grenada
  25.  Guinea-Bissau
  26.  Guyana
  27.  Kiribati
  28.  Lesotho
  29.  Malawi
  30.  Maldives
  31.  Marshall Islands
  32.  Mauritius
  33. Federated States of Micronesia
  34.  Mongolia
  35.  Mozambique
  36.  Namibia
  37.  North Korea
  38.  Nauru
  39.  Oman
  40.  Palestine
  41.  Papua New Guinea
  42.  Qatar
  43.  Saint Kitts and Nevis
  44.  Saint Lucia
  45.  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
  46.  Samoa
  47.  São Tomé and Príncipe
  48.  Seychelles
  49.  Singapore
  50.  Solomon Islands
  51.  South Africa
  52.  South Sudan
  53.  Suriname
  54.  Tajikistan
  55.  Timor-Leste
  56.  Tonga
  57.  Turkmenistan
  58.  United Arab Emirates
  59.  Vanuatu
  60.  Zambia
  61.  Zimbabwe
  1. ^ Officially considered as a member by the organization, yet not by China itself
  2. ^ Joined as Swaziland.

The People's Republic of China

The Group of 77 lists China as one of its members.[2] The Chinese government provides consistent political support to the G77 and has made financial contributions to the Group since 1994, but it does not consider itself to be a member.[10] As a result, official statements of the G77 are delivered in the name of The Group of 77 and China.[11]

Former members

  1.  New Zealand signed the original "Joint Declaration of the Developing Countries" in October 1963, but pulled out of the group before the formation of the G77 in 1964 (it joined the OECD in 1973).
  2.  Mexico was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1994. It had presided over the group in 1973–1974, 1983–1984; however, it is still a member of G-24.
  3.  South Korea was a founding member, but left the Group after joining the OECD in 1996.
  4.  Yugoslavia was a founding member; by the late 1990s it was still listed on the membership list, but it was noted that it "cannot participate in the activities of G77." It was removed from the list in late 2003. It had presided over the group in 1985–1986. Bosnia and Herzegovina is the only part of former Yugoslavia that is currently in G77.
  5.  Cyprus was a founding member, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  6.  Malta was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2004.
  7.  Palau joined the Group in 2002, but withdrew in 2004, having decided that it could best pursue its environmental interests through the Alliance of Small Island States.
  8.  Romania was admitted to the Group in 1976, but was no longer listed on the official membership list after its accession to the EU in 2007.

Presiding countries

The following is the chain of succession of the chairmanship of the G77:[12]

G77presidingcountries
Presiding countries of the G77 since 1970. Colors show the number of times a country has held the position. Gray = never, Yellow = once, Orange = twice, Red = thrice
Presiding country Year
 India 1970–1971
 Peru 1971–1972
 Egypt 1972–1973
 Iran 1973–1974
 Mexico 1974–1975
 Madagascar 1975–1976
 Pakistan 1976–1977
 Jamaica 1977–1978
 Tunisia 1978–1979
 India 1979–1980
 Venezuela 1980–1981
 Algeria 1981–1982
 Bangladesh 1982–1983
 Mexico 1983–1984
 Egypt 1984–1985
 Yugoslavia 1985–1986
 Guatemala 1987
 Tunisia 1988
 Malaysia 1989
 Bolivia 1990
 Ghana 1991
 Pakistan 1992
 Colombia 1993
 Algeria 1994
 Philippines 1995
 Costa Rica 1996
 Tanzania 1997
 Indonesia 1998
 Guyana 1999
 Nigeria 2000
 Iran 2001
 Venezuela 2002
 Morocco 2003
 Qatar 2004
 Jamaica 2005
 South Africa 2006
 Pakistan 2007
 Antigua and Barbuda 2008
 Sudan 2009
 Yemen 2010
 Argentina 2011
 Algeria 2012
 Fiji 2013
 Bolivia 2014
 South Africa 2015
 Thailand 2016
 Ecuador 2017
 Egypt 2018
 Palestine 2019

Group of 24

G24 nations
G-24 countries.
  Member nations
  Observer nations

The Group of 24 (G-24) is a chapter of the G-77 that was established in 1971 to coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues and to ensure that their interests were adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Every member of the G-24, except for Mexico, is also a member of the G77. Although membership in the G-24 is strictly limited to 24 countries, any other member of the G-77 can join discussions.

See also

References

  1. ^ About the Group of 77:Aims
  2. ^ a b "The Member States of the Group of 77". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.
  3. ^ "Palestinians to Lead U.N.'s Biggest Bloc of Developing Countries". Retrieved 2018-07-27.
  4. ^ About the Group of 77:Establishment
  5. ^ a b c Satpathy (2005). Environment Management. Excel Books India. p. 30. ISBN 978-81-7446-458-3.
  6. ^ Malgosia Fitzmaurice; David M. Ong; Panos Merkouris (2010). Research Handbook on International Environmental Law. Edward Elgar Publishing. pp. 567–. ISBN 978-1-84980-726-5.
  7. ^ Jan Oosthoek; Barry K. Gills (31 October 2013). The Globalization of Environmental Crisis. Taylor & Francis. pp. 93–. ISBN 978-1-317-96895-5.
  8. ^ Howard S. Schiffman (3 May 2011). Green Issues and Debates: An A-to-Z Guide. SAGE Publications. pp. 9–. ISBN 978-1-4522-6626-8.
  9. ^ Signed the "JOINT DECLARATION OF THE SEVENTY-SEVEN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES".
  10. ^ "七十七国集团(Group of 77, G77)". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China. July 2016. 中国不是77国集团成员,但一贯支持其正义主张和合理要求,与其保持良好合作关系,在经社领域一般以“77国集团加中国”的模式表达共同立场。中国自1994年开始每年向其捐款,2014年起捐款每年5万美元。
  11. ^ "Statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China by H.E. Mr. Horacio Sevilla Borja, Permanent Representative of the Republic of Ecuador to the United Nations, at the opening session of the 4th Prepcom established by General Assembly resolution 69/292: Development of an international legally binding instrument under UNCLOS on the conservation and sustainable use of marine biological diversity of areas beyond national jurisdiction (New York, 10 July 2017)". www.g77.org. Mr. Chair, I have the honour to deliver this statement on behalf of the Group of 77 and China.
  12. ^ "Presiding Countries of the Group of 77 in New York". The Group of 77 at the United Nations.

External links

Algeria–Indonesia relations

Algeria–Indonesia relations refers to the bilateral relations of Algeria and Indonesia. The relationship between two nations is mostly founded on common religious and anti-colonialism solidarity, as Indonesia and Algeria are Muslim-majority countries that also once fell under colonialism. Algeria recognized Indonesia's role on supporting their country on gaining independence in 1962. Both countries agreed on expanding cooperations and strengthening relations. Algeria has an embassy in Jakarta that also accredited to Singapore and Brunei, while Indonesia has an embassy in Algiers. Both nations are members of the Non-Aligned Movement, Group of 77 and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

Algeria–Vietnam relations

Algeria–Vietnam relations refers to bilateral relations between Algeria and Vietnam. The two countries established relations in 1962, although the link between Algeria and Vietnam has been recorded much longer than modern history. Algeria has an embassy in Hanoi while Vietnam has an embassy in Algiers.

Both countries are members of the Group of 77.

Angola–Uruguay relations

Angola–Uruguay relations are the relations between Angola and Uruguay. The Angolan embassy in Brasília, Brasil is accredited to Uruguay. Uruguay has an embassy in Luanda.In 2003 both countries undersigned a technical, scientific, cultural and economical bilateral agreement. During the last decade, trade between both countries has been small but improving, with Uruguay buying petroleum and selling fish, rice, beef and other commodities to Angola. There is a Uruguayan-African Chamber of Commerce, covering trade between Uruguay and different African countries.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.

Bangladesh–Chile relations

Bangladesh–Chile relations refer to the diplomatic relations between People's Republic of Bangladesh and Republic of Chile. Both the countries are members of Group of 77 and Non-Aligned Movement.

Bangladesh–Malawi relations

Bangladesh–Malawi relations are the bilateral relations between Bangladesh and Malawi. Neither country has a resident ambassador. Diplomatic relations between the two countries were officially established in 2012 primarily due to former Malawian President Bingu wa Mutharika's desire to build strong relations with Bangladesh. Both the countries are members of Group of 77 and Commonwealth of Nations.

Bangladesh–Rwanda relations

Bangladesh–Rwanda relations refer to the bilateral relations between Bangladesh and Rwanda. Both the countries are members of Non-Aligned Movement, Group of 77 and Commonwealth of Nations. Neither country has a resident ambassador.

Chile–Uruguay relations

Chile–Uruguay relations are foreign relations between Chile and Uruguay. Chile has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Santiago.

Historically, both countries were part of the Spanish Empire until the early 19th century. Both countries are full members of the Group of 77, of the Rio Group, of the Latin American Integration Association, of the Association of Spanish Language Academies, of the Organization of American States, of the Organization of Ibero-American States, of the Union of South American Nations, of the Cairns Group, and of the Group of 77.

China–Uruguay relations

China–Uruguay relations are the relations between the People's Republic of China and Uruguay. China has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate in Hong Kong.

Both countries are members of the Group of 77.

Cuba–Indonesia relations

Cuba–Indonesia relations refers to the bilateral relations of Cuba and the Republic of Indonesia. During the administration of Indonesia's first president Sukarno in the 1960s, Indonesia and Cuba enjoyed an exceptionally close relationship. The relations between the two nations mostly focused on sports and health. Cuba has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Havana that is also accredited to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and Jamaica. Both nations are full members of the Non-Aligned Movement and partners in the Group of 77 and the Forum of East Asia-Latin America Cooperation.

Cuba–Malaysia relations

Cuba–Malaysia relations (Spanish: Relaciones Cuba-Malasia; Malay: Hubungan Cuba–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن كوب–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Cuba and Malaysia. Diplomatic relations were established on 6 February 1975, Cuba opened its embassy in Kuala Lumpur on 1997, while Malaysia opened its representation in Havana on February 2001. Both are the members of Group of 77, Non-Aligned Movement and United Nations.

Egypt–South Africa relations

Egyptian-South African relations is the relationship between the governments of the Arab Republic of Egypt and Republic of South Africa. The first South African mission in Egypt was established in 1942 as a Consulate-General. Egypt maintained diplomatic relations with South Africa until 1961.Egypt enforced all the international sanctions on the South African Government. After 1979, unofficial relations and military tensions were eased. Ambassadors were exchanged only in 1990. Egypt has an embassy in Pretoria and South Africa has an embassy in Cairo. Both countries are full members of the African Union, G-24, Group of 77 and Non-Aligned Movement.

Egypt–Uruguay relations

Egypt–Uruguay relations are the relations between Egypt and Uruguay. Egypt has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Cairo and a consulate in Alexandria.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.

Group of 24

The Intergovernmental Group of Twenty-Four on International Monetary Affairs and Development, or The Group of 24 (G-24) was established in 1971 as a chapter of the Group of 77 in order to help coordinate the positions of developing countries on international monetary and development finance issues, as well as and to ensure that their interests are adequately represented in negotiations on international monetary matters. Though originally named after the number of founding Member States, it now has 28 Members (plus China, which acts as a Special Invitee). Although the G-24 officially has 28 member countries, any member of the G-77 can join discussions.

Although the group is not an organ of the International Monetary Fund, but the IMF provides secretariat services for the Group. Its meets biannually, first prior to the International Monetary and Financial Committee, and secondly prior to the Joint Ministerial Committee of the Boards of Governors of the Bank and the Fund. These meetings allow developing country members to discuss agenda items prior to these important meeetings of the IMF/World Bank.

Indonesia–Tanzania relations

Indonesia–Tanzania relations refers to the bilateral relations of Indonesia and Tanzania. The relations between both nations are mostly in agriculture sector, where Indonesia provides training for Tanzanian farmers. In 2011 both countries established Indonesia-Tanzania Joint Agriculture Cooperation Committee (JACC), as a vehicle to improve agricultural sector co-operations, such as capacity building through training, joint research, and the expansion of market access to agricultural products.

Indonesia has an embassy in Dar es Salaam. Tanzania has a non-resident ambassador in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Both countries are members of multilateral organisations such as World Trade Organization (WTO), the Group of 77 and Non-Aligned Movement.

Malaysia–Uruguay relations

Malaysia–Uruguay relations (Malay: Hubungan Malaysia–Uruguay; Jawi: هوبوڠن مليسيا–أوروغواي; Spanish: Relaciones entre Malasia y Uruguay) are foreign relations between Malaysia and Uruguay. Malaysia has an embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina (with the ambassador being concurrent to Uruguay), while Uruguay has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur. Both countries are full members of the Cairns Group and of the Group of 77.

South Africa–Uruguay relations

South Africa–Uruguay relations are the relations between Republic of South Africa and Uruguay. South Africa has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Pretoria and a consulate in Durban.Trade between both countries is very important, with Uruguay selling commodities and agroindustrial products. There is a Uruguayan-African Chamber of Commerce, covering trade between Uruguay and different African countries.Both countries are full members of the Cairns Group and of the Group of 77.

South Korea–Uruguay relations

Foreign relations between the Republic of Korea and Uruguay were established in 1964. South Korea has an embassy in Montevideo. Uruguay has an embassy in Seoul.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.South Korea is also an important trading partner for Uruguay.

United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was tasked to maintain international peace and security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international co-operation and be a centre for harmonizing the actions of nations. The headquarters of the UN is in Manhattan, New York City, and is subject to extraterritoriality. Further main offices are situated in Geneva, Nairobi, and Vienna. The organization is financed by assessed and voluntary contributions from its member states. Its objectives include maintaining international peace and security, protecting human rights, delivering humanitarian aid, promoting sustainable development and upholding international law. The UN is the largest, most familiar, most internationally represented and most powerful intergovernmental organization in the world. In 24 October 1945, at the end of World War II, the organization was established with the aim of preventing future wars. At its founding, the UN had 51 member states; there are now 193. The UN is the successor of the ineffective League of Nations.

On 25 April 1945, 50 governments met in San Francisco for a conference and started drafting the UN Charter, which was adopted on 25 June 1945 in the San Francisco Opera House, and signed on 26 June 1945 in the Herbst Theatre auditorium in the Veterans War Memorial Building. This charter took effect on 24 October 1945, when the UN began operation.

The UN's mission to preserve world peace was complicated in its early decades during the Cold War between the United States and Soviet Union and their respective allies. Its missions have consisted primarily of unarmed military observers and lightly armed troops with primarily monitoring, reporting and confidence-building roles. The organization's membership grew significantly following widespread decolonization which started in the 1960s. Since then, 80 former colonies had gained independence, including 11 trust territories, which were monitored by the Trusteeship Council. By the 1970s its budget for economic and social development programmes far outstripped its spending on peacekeeping. After the end of the Cold War, the UN shifted and expanded its field operations, undertaking a wide variety of complex tasks.The UN has six principal organs: the General Assembly; the Security Council; the Economic and Social Council; the Trusteeship Council; the International Court of Justice; and the UN Secretariat. The UN System agencies include the World Bank Group, the World Health Organization, the World Food Programme, UNESCO, and UNICEF. The UN's most prominent officer is the Secretary-General, an office held by Portuguese politician and diplomat António Guterres since 1 January 2017. Non-governmental organizations may be granted consultative status with ECOSOC and other agencies to participate in the UN's work.

The organization, its officers and its agencies have won many Nobel Peace Prizes.

Other evaluations of the UN's effectiveness have been mixed. Some commentators believe the organization to be an important force for peace and human development, while others have called the organization ineffective, biased, or corrupt.

Uruguay–Vietnam relations

Uruguay–Vietnam relations are the relations between Vietnam and Uruguay. Vietnam has an embassy in Buenos Aires, Argentina, the ambassador being concurrent to Uruguay. Uruguay has an embassy in Hanoi.Both countries are members of the Group of 77.

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