The Group of 15 (G-15) is an informal forum set up to foster cooperation and provide input for other international groups, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the Group of Seven. It was established at the Ninth Non-Aligned Movement Summit Meeting in Belgrade, Yugoslavia, in September 1989, and is composed of countries from Latin America, Africa, and Asia with a common goal of enhanced growth and prosperity. The G-15 focuses on cooperation among developing countries in the areas of investment, trade, and technology. Membership has since expanded to 18 countries, but the name has remained unchanged. Chile, Iran and Kenya have since joined the Group of 15, whereas Yugoslavia is no longer part of the group; Peru, a founding member-state, decided to leave the G-15 in 2011.
|Group of 15|
Members of G-15 
|Purpose||Act as a catalyst for greater cooperation between leading developing countries.|
Some of the objectives of the G-15 are:
By design, the G-15 has avoided establishing an administrative structure like those for international organizations, such as the United Nations or the World Bank; but the G-15 does have a Technical Support Facility (TSF) located in Geneva. The TSF functions under the direction of the Chairman for the current year. The TSF provides necessary support for the activities of the G-15 and for its objectives. Other organs and functions of the G-15 include:
In addition, the Federation of Chambers of Commerce, Industry and Services (FCCIS) is a private sector forum of G-15 member countries. The purpose of the FCCIS is to coordinate and maximize efforts which promote business, economic development and joint investment in G-15 nations.
|Region||Member||Leader||Foreign minister||Population||GDP (PPP, billion USD)||GDP per capita (PPP, USD)|
|Africa||Algeria||President||Abdelaziz Bouteflika||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Mourad Medelci||35,954,000||263.7||7,333|
|Egypt||President||Abdel Fattah el-Sisi||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Nabil Fahmy||79,356,000||519.0||6,540|
|Kenya||President||Uhuru Kenyatta||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Amina Mohamed||40,910,000||71.4||1,746|
|Nigeria||President||Muhammadu Buhari||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Geoffrey Onyeama||174,507,539||1109||6,204|
|Senegal||President||Macky Sall||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Mankeur Ndiaye||13,443,000||25.2||1,871|
|Zimbabwe||President||Emmerson Mnangagwa||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Simbarashe Mumbengegwi||12,575,000||6.1||487|
|Asia||Indonesia||President||Joko Widodo||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Retno Marsudi||241,030,000||1124.6||10,585.4|
|Iran||President||Hassan Rouhani||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Mohammad Javad Zarif||75,859,000||990.2||13,053|
|Malaysia||Prime Minister||Mahathir Mohamad||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Saifuddin Abdullah||28,731,000||447.3||15,568|
|Sri Lanka||President||Maithripala Sirisena||Minister of External Affairs||Mangala Samaraweera||20,541,000||116.5||5,674|
|Latin America and the Caribbean||Argentina||President||Mauricio Macri||Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship||Jorge Faurie||43,417,000||816.4||17,516|
|Brazil||President||Jair Bolsonaro||Minister of External Relations||Ernesto Araújo||205,338,000||3294.2||11,769|
|Chile||President||Sebastián Piñera||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Roberto Ampuero||18,006,407||299.6||17,222|
|Jamaica||Prime Minister||Andrew Holness||Minister of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade||Kamina Johnson-Smith||2,741,000||24.8||9,029|
|Mexico||President||Andrés Manuel López Obrador||Secretary of Foreign Affairs||Marcelo Ebrard||119,530,753||2999.6||14,610|
|Venezuela||President||Nicolás Maduro||Minister of Foreign Affairs||Delcy Rodríguez||31,416,000||374.1||12,568|
|Date||Host country||Host city||Host|
|1st G-15 summit||1–3 June 1990||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Mahathir Mohamad|
|2nd G-15 summit||27–29 November 1991||Venezuela||Caracas||Carlos Andrés Pérez|
|3rd G-15 summit||21–23 November 1992||Senegal||Dakar||Abdou Diouf|
|5th G-15 summit||5–7 November 1995||Argentina||Buenos Aires||Carlos Menem|
|6th G-15 summit||3–5 November 1996||Zimbabwe||Harare||Robert Mugabe|
|7th G-15 summit||28 October – 5 November 1997||Malaysia||Kuala Lumpur||Mahathir Mohamad|
|8th G-15 summit||11–13 May 1998||Egypt||Cairo||Hosni Mubarak|
|9th G-15 summit||10–12 February 1999||Jamaica||Montego Bay||P. J. Patterson|
|10th G-15 summit||19–20 June 2000||Egypt||Cairo||Hosni Mubarak|
|11th G-15 summit||30–31 May 2001||Indonesia||Jakarta||Abdurrahman Wahid|
|12th G-15 summit||27–28 February 2004||Venezuela||Caracas||Hugo Chávez|
|13th G-15 summit||14 September 2006||Cuba||Havana||Raúl Castro|
|14th G-15 summit||17 May 2010||Iran||Tehran||Mahmoud Ahmadinejad|
|15th G-15 summit||2012||Sri Lanka||Colombo||Mahinda Rajapaksa|
Actinium is a chemical element with symbol Ac and atomic number 89. It was first isolated by French chemist André-Louis Debierne in 1899. Friedrich Oskar Giesel later independently isolated it in 1902 and, unaware that it was already known, gave it the name emanium. Actinium gave the name to the actinide series, a group of 15 similar elements between actinium and lawrencium in the periodic table. It is also sometimes considered the first of the 7th-period transition metals, although lawrencium is less commonly given that position. Together with polonium, radium, and radon, actinium was one of the first non-primordial radioactive elements to be isolated.
A soft, silvery-white radioactive metal, actinium reacts rapidly with oxygen and moisture in air forming a white coating of actinium oxide that prevents further oxidation. As with most lanthanides and many actinides, actinium assumes oxidation state +3 in nearly all its chemical compounds. Actinium is found only in traces in uranium and thorium ores as the isotope 227Ac, which decays with a half-life of 21.772 years, predominantly emitting beta and sometimes alpha particles, and 228Ac, which is beta active with a half-life of 6.15 hours. One tonne of natural uranium in ore contains about 0.2 milligrams of actinium-227, and one tonne of thorium contains about 5 nanograms of actinium-228. The close similarity of physical and chemical properties of actinium and lanthanum makes separation of actinium from the ore impractical. Instead, the element is prepared, in milligram amounts, by the neutron irradiation of 226Ra in a nuclear reactor. Owing to its scarcity, high price and radioactivity, actinium has no significant industrial use. Its current applications include a neutron source and an agent for radiation therapy targeting cancer cells in the body and killing them.Bohemianism
Bohemianism is the practice of an unconventional lifestyle, often in the company of like-minded people and with few permanent ties. It involves musical, artistic, literary or spiritual pursuits. In this context, Bohemians may or may not be wanderers, adventurers, or vagabonds.
This use of the word bohemian first appeared in the English language in the 19th century to describe the non-traditional lifestyles of marginalized and impoverished artists, writers, journalists, musicians, and actors in major European cities.Bohemians were associated with unorthodox or anti-establishment political or social viewpoints, which often were expressed through free love, frugality, and—in some cases—voluntary poverty. A more economically privileged, wealthy, or even aristocratic bohemian circle is sometimes referred to as haute bohème (literally "high Bohemia").The term bohemianism emerged in France in the early 19th century when artists and creators began to concentrate in the lower-rent, lower class, Romani neighborhoods. Bohémien was a common term for the Romani people of France, who were mistakenly thought to have reached France in the 15th century via Bohemia (the western part of modern Czech Republic).Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Grameen Kaushalya Yojana
Grameen Kaushalya Yojana or DDU-GKY is a Government of India youth employment scheme.It was launched on 25 September 2014 by Union Ministers Nitin Gadkari and Venkaiah Naidu on the occasion of 98th birth anniversary of Pandit Deendayal Upadhyaya. The Vision of DDU-GKY is to "Transform rural poor youth into an economically independent and globally relevant workforce". It aims to target youth, in the age group of 15–35 years. DDU-GKY is a part of the National Rural Livelihood Mission (NRLM), tasked with the dual objectives of adding diversity to the incomes of rural poor families and cater to the career aspirations of rural youth. A corpus of Rs 1,500 crore is aimed at enhancing the employability of rural youth. Under this programme, disbursements would be made through a digital voucher directly into the student’s bank account as part of the government's skill development initiative.Dodecanese
The Dodecanese (UK: , US: ; Greek: Δωδεκάνησα, Dodekánisa [ðoðeˈkanisa], literally "twelve islands") are a group of 15 larger plus 150 smaller Greek islands in the southeastern Aegean Sea, off the coast of Asia Minor (Turkey), of which 26 are inhabited. Τhis island group generally defines the eastern limit of the Sea of Crete. They belong to the wider Southern Sporades island group.
The most historically important and well-known island, Rhodes, has been the area's dominant island since antiquity. Of the others, Kos and Patmos are historically the more important; the remaining twelve are Agathonisi, Astypalaia, Chalki, Kalymnos, Karpathos, Kasos, Leipsoi, Leros, Nisyros, Symi, Tilos, and Kastellorizo. Other islands in the chain include Alimia, Arkoi, Chalki, Farmakonisi, Gyali, Kinaros, Levitha, Marathos, Nimos, Pserimos, Saria, Strongyli, Syrna and Telendos.Indian School, Muscat
Indian School Muscat (abbreviated: ISM) is an Indian school in the Darsait area of Muscat, Oman.
The school is a non commercial organization established and funded by the local Indian community and parents. It is managed by a group of 15-21 honorary members (known as SMC) appointed by the board of directors (known as apex body) formed according to the bye-laws of Indian schools in Oman approved by the government of Oman. The school is affiliated with the Central Board of Secondary Education, New Delhi, India.Indonesia–Mexico relations
Indonesia–Mexico relations refers to the bilateral relations of Indonesia and Mexico. Both nations view their counterpart as strategic partners in each other's regions; Indonesia in Southeast Asia and Mexico in Latin America. Mexico has renewed its interest in Asia and sees Indonesia's strategic role within ASEAN and is willing to create an economic partnership agreement with Indonesia. Both nations are mutual members of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, Forum of East Asia-Latin America Cooperation, Group of 15, G-20 major economies, United Nations and the World Trade Organization.Jamaica–Malaysia relations
Jamaica–Malaysia relations (Malay: Hubungan Jamaica–Malaysia; Jawi: هوبوڠن جامايكا–مليسيا) refers to bilateral foreign relations between Jamaica and Malaysia. Neither country has a resident ambassador.
Both Prime Minister of Jamaica Portia Simpson Miller and Prime Minister of Malaysia Abdullah Ahmad Badawi, have expressed satisfaction with the progress of bilateral relations between the two countries and have reaffirmed their commitment to strengthening these relations through the exchange of visits and co-operation in the economic, technological, shipping, health and educational sectors, among other areas. Both countries are also the members of Commonwealth of Nations, Group of 77, Group of 15 and Non-Aligned Movement.Lanthanum
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57. It is a soft, ductile, silvery-white metal that tarnishes rapidly when exposed to air and is soft enough to be cut with a knife. It is the eponym of the lanthanide series, a group of 15 similar elements between lanthanum and lutetium in the periodic table, of which lanthanum is the first and the prototype. It is also sometimes considered the first element of the 6th-period transition metals, which would put it in group 3, although lutetium is sometimes placed in this position instead. Lanthanum is traditionally counted among the rare earth elements. The usual oxidation state is +3. Lanthanum has no biological role in humans but is essential to some bacteria. It is not particularly toxic to humans but does show some antimicrobial activity.
Lanthanum usually occurs together with cerium and the other rare earth elements. Lanthanum was first found by the Swedish chemist Carl Gustav Mosander in 1839 as an impurity in cerium nitrate – hence the name lanthanum, from the Ancient Greek λανθάνειν (lanthanein), meaning "to lie hidden". Although it is classified as a rare earth element, lanthanum is the 28th most abundant element in the Earth's crust, almost three times as abundant as lead. In minerals such as monazite and bastnäsite, lanthanum composes about a quarter of the lanthanide content. It is extracted from those minerals by a process of such complexity that pure lanthanum metal was not isolated until 1923.
Lanthanum compounds have numerous applications as catalysts, additives in glass, carbon arc lamps for studio lights and projectors, ignition elements in lighters and torches, electron cathodes, scintillators, GTAW electrodes, and other things. Lanthanum carbonate is used as a phosphate binder in cases of renal failure.NASA Astronaut Group 12
NASA Astronaut Group 12 (the GAFFers) was a group of 15 astronauts announced by NASA on June 5, 1987.National Council of Young Israel
The National Council of Young Israel (NCYI) or Young Israel (in Hebrew: Yisrael Hatza'ir, ישראל הצעיר), is a synagogue-based Orthodox Judaism organization in the United States with a network of affiliated "Young Israel" synagogues. Young Israel was founded in 1912, in its earliest form, by a group of 15 young Jews on the Lower East Side of Manhattan. Their goal was to make Orthodox Judaism more relevant to young Americanized Jews, at a time when a significant Jewish education was rare, and most Orthodox institutions were Yiddish-speaking, and oriented to an older, European Jewish demographic.Today, Young Israel continues to promote Orthodox involvement of modern American Jews, while also advocating for the issues most relevant to its members, including support for Israel and Religious Zionism, and Jewish prisoner support.National Folk Dance Ensemble of Croatia LADO
National Folk Dance Ensemble of Croatia LADO was founded in 1949 in Zagreb, SR Croatia, SFRY as a professional national ensemble. LADO represents the rich and diverse regional musical and choreographic traditions of Croatia. It has been called Croatia's most successful "cultural export product".The ensemble consists of 37 dancers who also sing while they perform, and a group of 15 musicians who play traditional and classical instruments. Lado has had numerous famous Croatian ethnographers and choreographers, music arrangers, and folklorists work with them.Nepal
Nepal ( (listen); Nepali: नेपाल Nepāl [neˈpal]), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (Nepali: सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल Saṅghīya Lokatāntrik Gaṇatantra Nepāl), is a landlocked country in South Asia. It is located mainly in the Himalayas, but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain. With an estimated population of 26.4 million, it is 48th largest country by population and 93rd largest country by area. It borders China in the north and India in the south, east, and west while Bangladesh is located within only 27 km (17 mi) of its southeastern tip and Bhutan is separated from it by the Indian state of Sikkim. Nepal has a diverse geography, including fertile plains, subalpine forested hills, and eight of the world's ten tallest mountains, including Mount Everest, the highest point on Earth. Kathmandu is the nation's capital and largest city. Nepal is a multiethnic nation with Nepali as the official language.
The name "Nepal" is first recorded in texts from the Vedic period of the Indian subcontinent, the era in ancient India when Hinduism was founded, the predominant religion of the country. In the middle of the first millennium BCE, Gautama Buddha, the founder of Buddhism, was born in Lumbini in southern Nepal. Parts of northern Nepal were intertwined with the culture of Tibet. The centrally located Kathmandu Valley is intertwined with the culture of Indo-Aryans, and was the seat of the prosperous Newar confederacy known as Nepal Mandala. The Himalayan branch of the ancient Silk Road was dominated by the valley's traders. The cosmopolitan region developed distinct traditional art and architecture. By the 18th century, the Gorkha Kingdom achieved the unification of Nepal. The Shah dynasty established the Kingdom of Nepal and later formed an alliance with the British Empire, under its Rajput Rana dynasty of premiers. The country was never colonized but served as a buffer state between Imperial China and British India. Parliamentary democracy was introduced in 1951, but was twice suspended by Nepalese monarchs, in 1960 and 2005. The Nepalese Civil War in the 1990s and early 2000s resulted in the proclamation of a secular republic in 2008, ending the world's last Hindu monarchy.The Constitution of Nepal, adopted in 2015, establishes Nepal as a federal secular parliamentary republic divided into seven provinces. Nepal was admitted to the United Nations in 1955, and friendship treaties were signed with India in 1950 and the People's Republic of China in 1960. Nepal hosts the permanent secretariat of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), of which it is a founding member. Nepal is also a member of the Non Aligned Movement and the Bay of Bengal Initiative. The military of Nepal is the fifth largest in South Asia; it is notable for its Gurkha history, particularly during the world wars, and has been a significant contributor to United Nations peacekeeping operations.Oxford University Press
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the vice-chancellor known as the delegates of the press. They are headed by the secretary to the delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee OUP since the 17th century. The Press is located on Walton Street, opposite Somerville College, in the suburb Jericho.Palomar 2
Palomar 2 is a globular cluster located in the constellation of Auriga. Palomar 2 is part of a group of 15 globulars known as the Palomar clusters, discovered in survey plates from the first National Geographic Society – Palomar Observatory Sky Survey in the 1950s.Shirwal Caves
Shirwal Caves are a group of 15 Buddhist caves located in a small village called Shriwal, 48 km south of Pune, India. One is Chaitya and 14 Caves represent Vihara. All caves are plain belonging to the early phase of Buddhism.Suriname
Suriname (, US also , also sometimes spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Dutch: Republiek Suriname [reːpyˌblik syːriˈnaːmə]), is a country on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean to the north, French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west and Brazil to the south. At just under 165,000 square kilometers (64,000 square miles), it is the smallest sovereign state in South America. Suriname has a population of approximately 558,368, most of whom live on the country's north coast, in and around the capital and largest city, Paramaribo.
Suriname was long inhabited by various indigenous people before being invaded and contested by European powers from the 16th century, eventually coming under Dutch rule in the late 17th century. As the chief sugar colony during the Dutch colonial period, it was primarily a plantation economy dependent on African slaves and, following the abolition of slavery in 1863, indentured servants from Asia. Suriname was ruled by the Dutch-chartered company Society of Suriname between 1683 and 1795.
In 1954, Suriname became one of the constituent countries of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. On 25 November 1975, the country of Suriname left the Kingdom of the Netherlands to become an independent state, nonetheless maintaining close economic, diplomatic, and cultural ties to its former colonizer. Suriname is considered to be a culturally Caribbean country, and is a member of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM). While Dutch is the official language of government, business, media, and education, Sranan Tongo, an English-based creole language, is a widely used lingua franca. Suriname is the only sovereign nation outside Europe where Dutch is spoken by a majority of the population. As a legacy of colonization, the people of Suriname are among the most diverse in the world, spanning a multitude of ethnic, religious, and linguistic groups.Suriname National Army
After the creation of the Statute of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Royal Netherlands Army was entrusted with the defence of Suriname, while the defence of the Netherlands Antilles was the responsibility of the Royal Netherlands Navy. The army set up a separate Troepenmacht in Suriname (Forces in Suriname, TRIS). Upon independence in 1975, this force was turned into the Surinaamse Krijgsmacht (SKM):, Surinamese Armed Forces. On February 25, 1980, a group of 15 non-commissioned officers and one junior SKM officer, under the leadership of sergeant major Dési Bouterse, staged a coup d'état and overthrew the Government. Subsequently, the SKM was rebranded as Nationaal Leger (NL), National Army.
The Netherlands has provided limited military assistance to the Surinamese armed forces since the election of a democratic government in 1991. In recent years, the United States has provided training to military officers and policymakers to promote a better understanding of the role of the military in a civilian government. Also, since the mid-1990s, the People's Republic of China has been donating military equipment and logistical material to the Surinamese Armed Forces, as has Brazil.United Opposition
The United Opposition (sometimes also called the Joint Opposition) was a group formed in the All-Union Communist Party (Bolsheviks) in early 1926, when the Left Opposition led by Leon Trotsky, merged with the New Opposition led by Grigory Zinoviev and his close ally Lev Kamenev, in order to strengthen opposition against the Joseph Stalin led Centre. The United Opposition demanded, among other things, greater freedom of expression within the Communist Party and less bureaucracy.
The grouping was proposed by the Group of 15, a small faction around Vladimir Smirnov which claimed that the Soviet Union was no longer a workers' state. They brought together Trotsky's Left Opposition and Zinoviev's New Opposition (also known as the Opposition of 1925), despite them both having many differences with the Group of 15, particularly over the question of whether the Soviet Union was still a workers' state. Many former supporters of the Workers Opposition also joined the United Opposition.
Smirnov's Group of 15 left the United Opposition soon after, over increasing differences between themselves and Kamenev and Zinoviev's supporters. In October 1926, Stalin's supporters voted Trotsky out of the Politburo. Many supporters of Kamenev and Zinoviev's group, as well as most from the Workers Opposition grouping, had left the United Opposition by mid-1927, changing sides under the growing political pressure and espousing their support for Stalin.
In November 1927, the United Opposition held a demonstration in Red Square, Moscow, along with Vladimir Lenin's widow, Nadezhda Krupskaya. However, the United Opposition were unable to gain the support of more than a small minority of the Communist Party, and were expelled in December 1927 after the Congress declared United Opposition views to be incompatible with Communist Party membership. Trotsky formed the International Left Opposition with his remaining supporters, and the Group of 15 also continued its opposition to Stalin. Supporters of these groups were soon exiled or imprisoned, and by the end of 1941, nearly all former supporters of the United Opposition, whether or not they had repudiated it, had been executed or assassinated on Stalin's orders.
Despite various attempts at a rapprochement, the International Left Opposition and the Group of 15 were unable to agree on a further platform after 1927.World Pantheist Movement
The World Pantheist Movement (WPM) is the world's largest organization of people associated with pantheism, a philosophy which asserts that spirituality should be centered on nature. The WPM promotes naturalistic pantheismThe WPM grew out of a mailing list started by Paul Harrison in 1997, arising around his Scientific Pantheism website. An initial group of 15 volunteers worked on a joint statement of agreed beliefs (the Pantheist Credo). The WPM officially opened for membership in December 1999.
Nations in the Group of 15 (G-15)