Group 8 element

Group 8 is a group (column) of chemical elements in the periodic table. It consists of iron (Fe), ruthenium (Ru), osmium (Os) and hassium (Hs).[1] They are all transition metals.

Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, resulting in trends in chemical behavior.

"Group 8" is the modern standard designation for this group, adopted by the IUPAC in 1990.[1]

In the older group naming systems, this group was combined with group 9 (cobalt, rhodium, iridium, and meitnerium) and group 10 (nickel, palladium, platinum, and darmstadtium) and called group "VIIIB" in the Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) "U.S. system", or "VIII" in the old IUPAC (pre-1990) "European system" (and in Mendeleev's original table).

Group 8 (current IUPAC) should not be confused with "group VIIIA" in the CAS system, which is group 18 (current IUPAC), the noble gases.

While groups (columns) of the periodic table are sometimes named after their lighter member (as in "the oxygen group" for group 16), the term iron group does not mean "group 8". Most often, it means a set of adjacent elements on period (row) 4 of the table that includes iron, such as chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, and nickel; or only the last three; or some other set — depending on the context.

Group 8 in the periodic table
Hydrogen Helium
Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon
Sodium Magnesium Aluminium Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon
Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton
Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon
Caesium Barium Lanthanum Cerium Praseodymium Neodymium Promethium Samarium Europium Gadolinium Terbium Dysprosium Holmium Erbium Thulium Ytterbium Lutetium Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon
Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Darmstadtium Roentgenium Copernicium Nihonium Flerovium Moscovium Livermorium Tennessine Oganesson
group 7  group 9
IUPAC group number 8
Name by element iron group
CAS group number
(US, pattern A-B-A)
part of VIIIB
old IUPAC number
(Europe, pattern A-B)
part of VIII

↓ Period
4
Iron, electrolytic made, 99,97%+
Iron (Fe)
26 Transition metal
5
Ruthenium bar, 99,99%
Ruthenium (Ru)
44 Transition metal
6
Osmium crystals, ≈99,99%
Osmium (Os)
76 Transition metal
7 Hassium (Hs)
108 Transition metal

Legend
primordial element
synthetic element
Atomic number color:
black=solid

Basic properties

Z Element No. of electrons
per shell
M.P. B.P. Year of
Discovery
Discoverer
26 iron 2, 8, 14, 2 1811 K
1538 °C
3134 K
2862 °C
<3000 BCE Unknown
44 ruthenium 2, 8, 18, 15, 1 2607 K
2334 °C
4423 K
4150 °C
1844 K. E. Claus
76 osmium 2, 8, 18, 32, 14, 2 3306 K
3033 °C
5285 K
5012 °C
1803 S. Tennant and
W. H. Wollaston
108 hassium 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 14, 2 1984 P. Armbruster and
G. Münzenberg

The first three elements are hard silvery-white metals. Hassium has not been isolated in macroscopic pure form, and its properties have not been conclusively observed.

References

  1. ^ a b Leigh, G. J. Nomenclature of Inorganic Chemistry: Recommendations 1990. Blackwell Science, 1990. ISBN 0-632-02494-1.
G8 (disambiguation)

G8 is the Group of Eight, an international forum for eight industrialized nations, also known as the G7+1.

G8, G08, G.VIII, G.8, G-8, or Group of Eight may also refer to:

Group of Eight (music), a Spanish group close to the Generation of '27

Group of Eight (Australian universities), an association of Australian universities

G-8 (character), a fictional aviator

Abitur after twelve years, often abbreviated "G8", a secondary education system in Germany

G-08 (Michigan county highway)

G8 star, a subclass of G-class stars

County Route G8 (California), a route from Santa Clara County to San Jose, California, USA

EMD G8, a diesel locomotive and derivatives thereof

Fiat G.8, a 1934 Italian military utility aircraft

Gabardini G.8, a 1923 Italian fighter and military trainer aircraft

Gotha G.VIII, a 1918 German bomber aircraft

Pontiac G8, a full-size automobile from the Pontiac lineup of GM

Gewehr-8 or G-8, the designation of the Heckler & Koch HK21 by the German Army, German Navy and the Federal Police

IATA airline designator for Air Service Gabon

IATA airline designator for Enkor

IATA airline designator for Go Air

IATA airline designator for Gujarat Airways (India)

NATO code for the Assistant Chief-of-Staff, Finance

G08, Intracranial and intraspinal phlebitis and thrombophlebitis ICD-10 code

The Contadora group and the Contadora support group, taken as a whole

Group 8

Group 8 may refer to:

Group 8 element, a series of elements in the Periodic Table

Group 8 Rugby League, a rugby league competition

Group 8 (Sweden), a feminist movement in Sweden

Group VIII, former nomenclature for the noble gases

Hassium

Hassium is a synthetic chemical element with symbol Hs and atomic number 108. It is named after the German state of Hesse. It is a synthetic element and radioactive; the most stable known isotope, 270Hs, has a half-life of approximately 10 seconds.

In the periodic table of the elements, it is a d-block transactinide element. Hassium is a member of the 7th period and belongs to the group 8 elements: it is thus the sixth member of the 6d series of transition metals. Chemistry experiments have confirmed that hassium behaves as the heavier homologue to osmium in group 8. The chemical properties of hassium are characterized only partly, but they compare well with the chemistry of the other group 8 elements. In bulk quantities, hassium is expected to be a silvery metal that reacts readily with oxygen in the air, forming a volatile tetroxide.

Index of chemistry articles

Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth") is the physical science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.Below is a list of chemistry-related articles. Chemical compounds are listed separately at list of organic compounds, list of inorganic compounds or list of biomolecules.

Periodic table forms
Sets of elements
Elements
History
See also
Group 8 elements

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