Group 10, numbered by current IUPAC style, is the group of chemical elements in the periodic table that consists of nickel (Ni), palladium (Pd), platinum (Pt), and perhaps also the chemically uncharacterized darmstadtium (Ds). All are d-block transition metals. All known isotopes of darmstadtium are radioactive with short half-lives, and are not known to occur in nature; only minute quantities have been synthesized in laboratories.
Like other groups, the members of this group show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, although for this group they are particularly weak, with palladium being an exceptional case. The relativistic stabilization of the 7s orbital is the explanation to the predicted electron configuration of darmstadtium, which, unusually for this group, conforms to that predicted by the Aufbau principle.
|Group 10 in the periodic table|
28 Transition metal
46 Transition metal
78 Transition metal
110 unknown chemical properties
|Z||Element||No. of electrons per shell|
|28||nickel||2, 8, 16, 2|
|46||palladium||2, 8, 18, 18|
|78||platinum||2, 8, 18, 32, 17, 1|
|110||darmstadtium||2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 16, 2 (predicted)|
Darmstadtium has not been isolated in pure form, and its properties have not been conclusively observed; only nickel, palladium, and platinum have had their properties experimentally confirmed. All three elements are typical silvery-white transition metals, hard, and refractory, with high melting and boiling points.
Group 10 metals are white to light grey in color, and possess a high luster, a resistance to tarnish (oxidation) at STP, are highly ductile, and enter into oxidation states of +2 and +4, with +1 being seen in special conditions. The existence of a +3 state is debated, as the state could be an illusory state created by +2 and +4 states. Theory suggests that group 10 metals may produce a +6 oxidation state under precise conditions, but this remains to be proven conclusively in the laboratory other than for platinum.
The group 10 metals share several uses. These include:
Nickel has an important role in the biochemistry of organisms, as part of the active center of enzymes. None of the other group 10 elements have a known biological role, but platinum compounds have widely been used as anticancer drugs. Darmstadtium is very toxic because of its radioactivity.
The Heck reaction (also called the Mizoroki-Heck reaction) is the chemical reaction of an unsaturated halide (or triflate) with an alkene in the presence of a base and a palladium catalyst (or palladium nanomaterial-based catalyst) to form a substituted alkene. It is named after Tsutomu Mizoroki and Richard F. Heck. Heck was awarded the 2010 Nobel Prize in Chemistry, which he shared with Ei-ichi Negishi and Akira Suzuki, for the discovery and development of this reaction. This reaction was the first example of a carbon-carbon bond-forming reaction that followed a Pd(0)/Pd(II) catalytic cycle, the same catalytic cycle that is seen in other Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. The Heck reaction as a way to substitute alkenes.Index of chemistry articles
Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem), meaning "earth") is the physical science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter, as well as the changes it undergoes during chemical reactions.Below is a list of chemistry-related articles. Chemical compounds are listed separately at list of organic compounds, list of inorganic compounds or list of biomolecules.
|Periodic table forms|
|Sets of elements|
Group 10 elements