Groundwater remediation

Groundwater remediation is the process that is used to treat polluted groundwater by removing the pollutants or converting them into harmless products. Groundwater is water present below the ground surface that saturates the pore space in the subsurface. Globally, between 25 per cent and 40 per cent of the world's drinking water is drawn from boreholes and dug wells.[1] Groundwater is also used by farmers to irrigate crops and by industries to produce everyday goods. Most groundwater is clean, but groundwater can become polluted, or contaminated as a result of human activities or as a result of natural conditions.

The many and diverse activities of humans produce innumerable waste materials and by-products. Historically, the disposal of such waste have not been subject to many regulatory controls. Consequently, waste materials have often been disposed of or stored on land surfaces where they percolate into the underlying groundwater. As a result, the contaminated groundwater is unsuitable for use.

Current practices can still impact groundwater, such as the over application of fertilizer or pesticides, spills from industrial operations, infiltration from urban runoff, and leaking from landfills. Using contaminated groundwater causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease, and the practice of groundwater remediation has been developed to address these issues. Contaminants found in groundwater cover a broad range of physical, inorganic chemical, organic chemical, bacteriological, and radioactive parameters. Pollutants and contaminants can be removed from groundwater by applying various techniques, thereby bringing the water to a standard that is commensurate with various intended uses.


Ground water remediation techniques span biological, chemical, and physical treatment technologies. Most ground water treatment techniques utilize a combination of technologies. Some of the biological treatment techniques include bioaugmentation, bioventing, biosparging, bioslurping, and phytoremediation. Some chemical treatment techniques include ozone and oxygen gas injection, chemical precipitation, membrane separation, ion exchange, carbon absorption, aqueous chemical oxidation, and surfactant enhanced recovery. Some chemical techniques may be implemented using nanomaterials. Physical treatment techniques include, but are not limited to, pump and treat, air sparging, and dual phase extraction.

Biological treatment technologies


If a treatability study shows no degradation (or an extended lab period before significant degradation is achieved) in contamination contained in the groundwater, then inoculation with strains known to be capable of degrading the contaminants may be helpful. This process increases the reactive enzyme concentration within the bioremediation system and subsequently may increase contaminant degradation rates over the nonaugmented rates, at least initially after inoculation.[2]


Bioventing is an in situ remediation technology that uses microorganisms to biodegrade organic constituents in the groundwater system. Bioventing enhances the activity of indigenous bacteria and archaea and stimulates the natural in situ biodegradation of hydrocarbons by inducing air or oxygen flow into the unsaturated zone and, if necessary, by adding nutrients.[3] During bioventing, oxygen may be supplied through direct air injection into residual contamination in soil. Bioventing primarily assists in the degradation of adsorbed fuel residuals, but also assists in the degradation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as vapors move slowly through biologically active soil.[4]


Biosparging is an in situ remediation technology that uses indigenous microorganisms to biodegrade organic constituents in the saturated zone. In biosparging, air (or oxygen) and nutrients (if needed) are injected into the saturated zone to increase the biological activity of the indigenous microorganisms. Biosparging can be used to reduce concentrations of petroleum constituents that are dissolved in groundwater, adsorbed to soil below the water table, and within the capillary fringe.


Bioslurping combines elements of bioventing and vacuum-enhanced pumping of free-product that is lighter than water (light non-aqueous phase liquid or LNAPL) to recover free-product from the groundwater and soil, and to bioremediate soils. The bioslurper system uses a “slurp” tube that extends into the free-product layer. Much like a straw in a glass draws liquid, the pump draws liquid (including free-product) and soil gas up the tube in the same process stream. Pumping lifts LNAPLs, such as oil, off the top of the water table and from the capillary fringe (i.e., an area just above the saturated zone, where water is held in place by capillary forces). The LNAPL is brought to the surface, where it is separated from water and air. The biological processes in the term “bioslurping” refer to aerobic biological degradation of the hydrocarbons when air is introduced into the unsaturated zone contaminated soil.[5]


In the phytoremediation process certain plants and trees are planted, whose roots absorb contaminants from ground water over time. This process can be carried out in areas where the roots can tap the ground water. Few examples of plants that are used in this process are Chinese Ladder fern Pteris vittata, also known as the brake fern, is a highly efficient accumulator of arsenic. Genetically altered cottonwood trees are good absorbers of mercury and transgenic Indian mustard plants soak up selenium well.[6]

Permeable reactive barriers

Certain types of permeable reactive barriers utilize biological organisms in order to remediate groundwater.

Chemical treatment technologies

Chemical precipitation

Chemical precipitation is commonly used in wastewater treatment to remove hardness and heavy metals. In general, the process involves addition of agent to an aqueous waste stream in a stirred reaction vessel, either batchwise or with steady flow. Most metals can be converted to insoluble compounds by chemical reactions between the agent and the dissolved metal ions. The insoluble compounds (precipitates) are removed by settling and/or filtering.

Ion exchange

Ion exchange for ground water remediation is virtually always carried out by passing the water downward under pressure through a fixed bed of granular medium (either cation exchange media and anion exchange media) or spherical beads. Cations are displaced by certain cations from the solutions and ions are displaced by certain anions from the solution. Ion exchange media most often used for remediation are zeolites (both natural and synthetic) and synthetic resins.[2]

Carbon absorption

The most common activated carbon used for remediation is derived from bituminous coal. Activated carbon absorbs volatile organic compounds from ground water by chemically binding them to the carbon atoms.

Chemical oxidation

In this process, called In Situ Chemical Oxidation or ISCO, chemical oxidants are delivered in the subsurface to destroy (converted to water and carbon dioxide or to nontoxic substances) the organics molecules. The oxidants are introduced as either liquids or gasses. Oxidants include air or oxygen, ozone, and certain liquid chemicals such as hydrogen peroxide, permanganate and persulfate. Ozone and oxygen gas can be generated on site from air and electricity and directly injected into soil and groundwater contamination. The process has the potential to oxidize and/or enhance naturally occurring aerobic degradation. Chemical oxidation has proven to be an effective technique for dense non-aqueous phase liquid or DNAPL when it is present.

Surfactant enhanced recovery

Surfactant enhanced recovery increases the mobility and solubility of the contaminants absorbed to the saturated soil matrix or present as dense non-aqueous phase liquid. Surfactant-enhanced recovery injects surfactants (surface-active agents that are primary ingredient in soap and detergent) into contaminated groundwater. A typical system uses an extraction pump to remove groundwater downstream from the injection point. The extracted groundwater is treated aboveground to separate the injected surfactants from the contaminants and groundwater. Once the surfactants have separated from the groundwater they are re-used. The surfactants used are non-toxic, food-grade, and biodegradable. Surfactant enhanced recovery is used most often when the groundwater is contaminated by dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). These dense compounds, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), sink in groundwater because they have a higher density than water. They then act as a continuous source for contaminant plumes that can stretch for miles within an aquifer. These compounds may biodegrade very slowly. They are commonly found in the vicinity of the original spill or leak where capillary forces have trapped them.[7]

Permeable reactive barriers

Some permeable reactive barriers utilize chemical processes to achieve groundwater remediation.

Physical treatment technologies

Pump and treat

Pump and treat is one of the most widely used ground water remediation technologies. In this process ground water is pumped to the surface and is coupled with either biological or chemical treatments to remove the impurities.

Air sparging

Air sparging is the process of blowing air directly into the ground water. As the bubbles rise, the contaminants are removed from the groundwater by physical contact with the air (i.e., stripping) and are carried up into the unsaturated zone (i.e., soil). As the contaminants move into the soil, a soil vapor extraction system is usually used to remove vapors.[8]

Dual phase vacuum extraction

Dual-phase vacuum extraction (DPVE), also known as multi-phase extraction, is a technology that uses a high-vacuum system to remove both contaminated groundwater and soil vapor. In DPVE systems, a high-vacuum extraction well is installed with its screened section in the zone of contaminated soils and groundwater. Fluid/vapor extraction systems depress the water table and water flows faster to the extraction well. DPVE removes contaminants from above and below the water table. As the water table around the well is lowered from pumping, unsaturated soil is exposed. This area, called the capillary fringe, is often highly contaminated, as it holds undissolved chemicals, chemicals that are lighter than water, and vapors that have escaped from the dissolved groundwater below. Contaminants in the newly exposed zone can be removed by vapor extraction. Once above ground, the extracted vapors and liquid-phase organics and groundwater are separated and treated. Use of dual-phase vacuum extraction with these technologies can shorten the cleanup time at a site, because the capillary fringe is often the most contaminated area.[9]

Monitoring-Well Oil Skimming

Monitoring-wells are often drilled for the purpose of collecting ground water samples for analysis. These wells, which are usually six inches or less in diameter, can also be used to remove hydrocarbons from the contaminant plume within a groundwater aquifer by using a belt-style oil skimmer. Belt oil skimmers, which are simple in design, are commonly used to remove oil and other floating hydrocarbon contaminants from industrial water systems.

A monitoring-well oil skimmer remediates various oils, ranging from light fuel oils such as petrol, light diesel or kerosene to heavy products such as No. 6 oil, creosote and coal tar. It consists of a continuously moving belt that runs on a pulley system driven by an electric motor. The belt material has a strong affinity for hydrocarbon liquids and for shedding water. The belt, which can have a vertical drop of 100+ feet, is lowered into the monitoring well past the LNAPL/water interface. As the belt moves through this interface, it picks up liquid hydrocarbon contaminant which is removed and collected at ground level as the belt passes through a wiper mechanism. To the extent that DNAPL hydrocarbons settle at the bottom of a monitoring well, and the lower pulley of the belt skimmer reaches them, these contaminants can also be removed by a monitoring-well oil skimmer.

Typically, belt skimmers remove very little water with the contaminant, so simple weir-type separators can be used to collect any remaining hydrocarbon liquid, which often makes the water suitable for its return to the aquifer. Because the small electric motor uses little electricity, it can be powered from solar panels or a wind turbine, making the system self-sufficient and eliminating the cost of running electricity to a remote location.[10]

See also


  1. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-28. Retrieved 2014-08-09.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  2. ^ a b Hayman, M, & Dupont, R. R. (2001). Groundwater and Soil Remediation: Process Design and Cost Estimating of Proven Technologies. Reston, Virginia: ASCE Press.
  3. ^ "Akaya FAQs". Akaya. Retrieved 2015-09-14.
  4. ^ "Bioventing", The Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO). Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  5. ^ "Bioslurping", The Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO). Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  6. ^ Stewart, Robert. "Groundwater Remediation", 2008-12-23. Retrieved on 2009-11-29.
  7. ^ "Surfactant Enhanced Recovery", The Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO). Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  8. ^ "Air Sparging", The Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO). Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  9. ^ "Dual Phase Extraction", The Center for Public Environmental Oversight (CPEO). Retrieved 2009-11-29.
  10. ^ "The Alternative To Pump And Treat" Bob Thibodeau, Water Online Magazine, December 27, 2006.

External links

Anaerolinea thermophila

Anaerolinea thermophila is a species of filamentous thermophilic bacteria, the type and only species of its genus. It is Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, with type strain UNI-1T (=JCM 11387T =DSM 14523T).

Barbara Sherwood Lollar

Barbara Sherwood Lollar, (born February 19, 1963) is a Canadian geologist and academic known for her research into billion-year-old water.Born in the United States, the daughter of John and Joan Sherwood, she joined the University of Toronto in 1992 after receiving a Bachelor of Arts degree in Geological Sciences from Harvard University, a Ph.D. in Earth Sciences from University of Waterloo, and a postdoctoral fellow at University of Cambridge. She is currently a Professor in the Department of Earth Sciences at the University of Toronto. In 2007, she was made a Canada Research Chair in Isotope Geochemistry of the Earth and the Environment. It was renewed in 2014.


Biological augmentation is the addition of archaea or bacterial cultures required to speed up the rate of degradation of a contaminant. Organisms that originate from contaminated areas may already be able to break down waste, but perhaps inefficiently and slowly.

Bioaugmentation usually requires studying the indigenous varieties present in the location to determine if biostimulation is possible. If the indigenous variety do not have the metabolic capability to perform the remediation process, exogenous varieties with such sophisticated pathways are introduced.

Bioaugmentation is commonly used in municipal wastewater treatment to restart activated sludge bioreactors. Most cultures available contain microbial cultures, already containing all necessary microorganisms (B. licheniformis, B. thuringiensis, P. polymyxa, B. stearothermophilus, Penicillium sp., Aspergillus sp., Flavobacterium, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Saccharomyces, Triphoderma, etc.). Activated sludge systems are generally based on microorganisms like bacteria, protozoa, nematodes, rotifers, and fungi, which are capable of degrading biodegradable organic matter. There are many positive outcomes from the use of bioaugmentation, such as the improvement in efficiency and speed of the process of breaking down substances and the reduction of toxic particles in an area.

Caldilinea aerophila

Caldilinea aerophila is a species of filamentous thermophilic bacteria, and the type species of its genus. It is Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, with type strain STL-6-O1T (=JCM 11388T =DSM 14525T).

Dense non-aqueous phase liquid

A dense non-aqueous phase liquid or DNAPL is a denser-than-water NAPL, i.e. a liquid that is both denser than water and is immiscible in or does not dissolve in water.The term DNAPL is used primarily by environmental engineers and hydrogeologists to describe contaminants in groundwater, surface water and sediments. DNAPLs tends to sink below the water table when spilled in significant quantities and only stop when they reach impermeable bedrock. Their penetration into an aquifer makes them difficult to locate and remediate.

Examples of materials that are DNAPLs when spilled include:

chlorinated solvents, such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane and carbon tetrachloride

coal tar


polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs)


extra heavy crude oil, with an API gravity of less than 10When spilled into the environment, chlorinated solvents are frequently present as DNAPL and the DNAPL can provide a long term secondary source of the chlorinated solvent to dissolved groundwater plumes. Chlorinated solvents are typically immiscible in water, having low solubility in water by definition, yet still have a solubility above the concentrations allowed by drinking water protections. Therefore, DNAPL which is a chlorinated solvent can act as an ongoing pathway for constituents to dissolve into groundwater. Common use of chlorinated solvents in manufacturing operations began during World War II, with the rate of usage for most solvents increasing into the 1970s. By the early 1980s, chemical analyses becoming available that documented widespread contamination of groundwater with chlorinated solvents. Since that time, a considerable effort has been extended to improve our ability to locate and remediate DNAPL present as chlorinated solvents.

DNAPLs that are not viscous, such as chlorinated solvents, tend to sink into aquifer materials below the water table and become much more difficult to locate and remediate than non aqueous phase liquids that are lighter than water (LNAPLs) which tend to float at the water table when spilled into natural soils. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has focused considerable attention on the remediation of DNAPL which can be costly. Removal or in situ destruction of DNAPLs eliminates the potential exposure to the compounds in the environment and can be an effective method for remediation; however, at some DNAPL sites remediation of DNAPL may not be practicable, and containment may be the only viable remedial action. The USEPA has a program to address sites where DNAPL removal is not practicable for remediation projects under CERCLA under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

Dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs), have low solubility and are with viscosity markedly lower and density higher than water-asphalt, heavy oils, lubricants and also chlorinated solvents-penetrate the full depth of the aquifer and accumulate on its bottom.(2003 & Llamas 118)(2008, Vrba & 23) "DNAPL movement follows the slope of the impermeable strata underlying the aquifer and can move in the opposite direction to the groundwater gradient."(2008, Vrba & 23)Groundwater remediation technologies have been developed that can address DNAPL in some settings. Excavation is not always practicable due to the depths of the DNAPL, the dispersed nature of the residual DNAPL, mobility caused during excavation, and complexities with near-by structures. Technologies that are emerging for treatment include the following

in situ chemical oxidation (ISCO)potassium permanganate

hydrogen peroxide (with or without an iron catalyst)

ozone sparging


in situ enhanced reductive dechlorination

in situ surfactant flushing

air sparging

heatingMost DNAPLs remain denser than water after they are released into the environment (e.g. spilled trichloroethene does not become lighter than water, it will remain denser than water). However, when the DNAPL is a more complex mixture, the density of the mixture can change over time as the mixture interacts with the natural environment. As an example, a mixture of trichloroethene and cutting oil may be released and originally be denser than water—a DNAPL. As the mixture of trichloroethene and oil is leached by groundwater, the trichloroethene may preferentially leach out of the oil and the mixture may become less dense than water and become buoyant (e.g. the liquid may become an LNAPL). Similarly changes can be seen at some coal gasification plants or manufactured gas plants where the tar mixtures can be denser than water, be neutrally buoyant or be less dense then water and the densities can change with time.

Desulfuromonas michiganensis

Desulfuromonas michiganensis is a species of tetrachloroethene-reducing, acetate-oxidizing anaerobic bacteria.

Groundwater pollution

Groundwater pollution (also called groundwater contamination) occurs when pollutants are released to the ground and make their way down into groundwater. This type of water pollution can also occur naturally due to the presence of a minor and unwanted constituent, contaminant or impurity in the groundwater, in which case it is more likely referred to as contamination rather than pollution.

The pollutant often creates a contaminant plume within an aquifer. Movement of water and dispersion within the aquifer spreads the pollutant over a wider area. Its advancing boundary, often called a plume edge, can intersect with groundwater wells or daylight into surface water such as seeps and springs, making the water supplies unsafe for humans and wildlife. The movement of the plume, called a plume front, may be analyzed through a hydrological transport model or groundwater model. Analysis of groundwater pollution may focus on soil characteristics and site geology, hydrogeology, hydrology, and the nature of the contaminants.

Pollution can occur from on-site sanitation systems, landfills, effluent from wastewater treatment plants, leaking sewers, petrol filling stations or from over application of fertilizers in agriculture. Pollution (or contamination) can also occur from naturally occurring contaminants, such as arsenic or fluoride. Using polluted groundwater causes hazards to public health through poisoning or the spread of disease.

Different mechanisms have influence on the transport of pollutants, e.g. diffusion, adsorption, precipitation, decay, in the groundwater. The interaction of groundwater contamination with surface waters is analyzed by use of hydrology transport models.

Hinkley, California

Hinkley is an unincorporated community in the Mojave Desert, in San Bernardino County, California, U.S., 14 miles (23 km) northwest of Barstow, 59 miles (95 km) east of Mojave, 47 miles (76 km) north of Victorville and about 121 miles (195 km) driving distance north-northeast of Los Angeles. Just north of California State Highway 58, the residents have faced concerns over chromium-6 in their well water from the world’s largest plume of this cancer-causing chemical.

In situ chemical oxidation

In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), a form of advanced oxidation processes and advanced oxidation technology, is an environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. ISCO is accomplished by injecting or otherwise introducing strong chemical oxidizers directly into the contaminated medium (soil or groundwater) to destroy chemical contaminants in place. It can be used to remediate a variety of organic compounds, including some that are resistant to natural degradation.

Chemical oxidation is one half of a redox reaction, which results in the loss of electrons. One of the reactants in the reaction becomes oxidized, or loses electrons, while the other reactant becomes reduced, or gains electrons. In ISCO, oxidizing compounds, compounds that give electrons away to other compounds in a reaction, are used to change the contaminants into harmless compounds. The in situ in ISCO is just Latin for "in place", signifying that ISCO is a chemical oxidation reaction that occurs at the site of the contamination.

The remediation of certain organic substances such as chlorinated solvents (trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene), and gasoline-related compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, MTBE, and xylenes) by ISCO is possible. Some other contaminants can be made less toxic through chemical oxidation.A wide range of ground water contaminants react either moderately or highly with the ISCO method, and ISCO can also be used in a variety of different situations (e.g. unsaturated vs saturated ground, above ground or underground, etc.), so it is a popular method to use.

In situ chemical reduction

In situ chemical reduction (ISCR) is a new type of environmental remediation technique used for soil and/or groundwater remediation to reduce the concentrations of targeted environmental contaminants to acceptable levels. It is the mirror process of In Situ Chemical Oxidation (ISCO). ISCR is usually applied in the environment by injecting chemically reductive additives in liquid form into the contaminated area or placing a solid medium of chemical reductants in the path of a contaminant plume. It can be used to remediate a variety of organic compounds, including some that are resistant to natural degradation.

The in situ in ISCR is just Latin for "in place", signifying that ISCR is a chemical reduction reaction that occurs at the site of the contamination. Like ISCO, it is able to decontaminate many compounds, and, in theory, ISCR could be more effective in ground water remediation than ISCO.

Chemical reduction is one half of a redox reaction, which results in the gain of electrons. One of the reactants in the reaction becomes oxidized, or loses electrons, while the other reactant becomes reduced, or gains electrons. In ISCR, reducing compounds, compounds that accept electrons given by other compounds in a reaction, are used to change the contaminants into harmless compounds.

Kurita Water Industries

Kurita Water Industries Ltd. (栗田工業株式会社, Kurita Kōgyō Kabushiki-gaisha) is a Japanese manufacturer, providing water treatment chemicals and facilities as well as process treatment chemicals. During the 50´s Kurita Water Industries expanded the portfolio and started with the water treatment facilities business, chemical cleaning business (Kurita Engineering Co., Ltd.) and maintenance services. In her second decade, the 60´s, Kurita Water Industries entered the process treatment market, especially in the pulp and paper, petrochemical and steel industries. Since the mid of the 70´s up to now, Kurita Water Industries established 14 overseas subsidiaries and affiliates. Since 2003 Kurita Water Industries is listed in the Nature Stock Index (NAI = Natur-Aktien-Index).

NC State University (Lot 86, Farm Unit 1)

NC State University (Lot 86, Farm Unit 1) is a Superfund site in Raleigh, North Carolina located to the north of Carter–Finley Stadium. It is a 1.5-acre (6,100 m2) site that was used from 1969 until 1980 to dispose of hazardous waste from laboratories and research facilities. The North Carolina State University Department of Marine, Earth, and Atmospheric Sciences began monitoring the site in 1981, drilling wells and sampling the groundwater. Groundwater remediation is currently being conducted at the site via pump and treat methods to remove chemicals of concern, including chloroform, bromoform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, and methylene chloride.

"The groundwater remediation system consists of approximately 18 pumping wells that penetrate the contamination. Special chemical resistant pumps pump the contaminated groundwater to a treatment building above ground. Air Stripping is the primary form of treatment of the contaminated groundwater. Once treated, water is pumped to the sewer system for disposal."

A solar farm is currently located on a portion of the site.


Nanoremediation is the use of nanoparticles for environmental remediation. It is being explored to treat ground water, wastewater, soil, sediment, or other contaminated environmental materials.

Nanoremediation is an emerging industry; by 2009, nanoremediation technologies had been documented in at least 44 cleanup sites around the world, predominantly in the United States. In Europe, nanoremediation is being investigated by the EC funded NanoRem Project. A report produced by the NanoRem consortium has identified around 70 nanoremediation projects worldwide at pilot or full scale. During nanoremediation, a nanoparticle agent must be brought into contact with the target contaminant under conditions that allow a detoxifying or immobilizing reaction. This process typically involves a pump-and-treat process or in situ application.

Some nanoremediation methods, particularly the use of nano zero-valent iron for groundwater cleanup, have been deployed at full-scale cleanup sites. Other methods remain in research phases.

Permeable reactive barrier

A permeable reactive barrier (PRB), also referred to as a permeable reactive treatment zone (PRTZ), is a developing technology that has been recognized as being a cost-effective technology for in situ (at the site) groundwater remediation. PRBs are barriers which allow some—but not all—materials to pass through. One definition for PRBs is an in situ treatment zone that passively captures a plume of contaminants and removes or breaks down the contaminants, releasing uncontaminated water. The primary removal methods include: (1) sorption and precipitation, (2) chemical reaction, and (3) reactions involving biological mechanisms.


The peroxydisulfate ion, S2O2−8, is a oxyanion. It is commonly referred to as the persulfate ion or peroxodisulfate anions, but this term also refers to the peroxomonosulfate ion, SO2−5. Approximately 500,000 tons of salts containing this anion are produced annually. Important salts include sodium persulfate (Na2S2O8), potassium persulfate (K2S2O8), and ammonium persulfate ((NH4)2S2O8). These salts are colourless, water-soluble solids that are strong oxidants.

Sodium persulfate

Sodium persulfate is the inorganic compound with the formula Na2S2O8. It is the sodium salt of peroxydisulfuric acid, H2S2O8, an oxidizing agent. It is a white solid that dissolves in water. It is almost non-hygroscopic and has good shelf-life.

Soil vapor extraction

Soil vapor extraction (SVE) is a physical treatment process for in situ remediation of volatile contaminants in vadose zone (unsaturated) soils (EPA, 2012). SVE (also referred to as in situ soil venting or vacuum extraction) is based on mass transfer of contaminant from the solid (sorbed) and liquid (aqueous or non-aqueous) phases into the gas phase, with subsequent collection of the gas phase contamination at extraction wells. Extracted contaminant mass in the gas phase (and any condensed liquid phase) is treated in aboveground systems. In essence, SVE is the vadose zone equivalent of the pump-and-treat technology for groundwater remediation. SVE is particularly amenable to contaminants with higher Henry’s Law constants, including various chlorinated solvents and hydrocarbons. SVE is a well-demonstrated, mature remediation technology and has been identified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as presumptive remedy.

Water in Arkansas

Water in Arkansas is an important issue encompassing the conservation, protection, management, distribution and use of the water resource in the state. Arkansas contains a mixture of groundwater and surface water, with a variety of state and federal agencies responsible for the regulation of the water resource. In accordance with agency rules, state, and federal law, the state's water treatment facilities utilize engineering, chemistry, science and technology to treat raw water from the environment to potable water standards and distribute it through water mains to homes, farms, business and industrial customers. Following use, wastewater is collected in collection and conveyance systems (sanitary sewers and combined sewers), decentralized sewer systems or septic tanks and treated in accordance with regulations at publicly owned treatment works (POTWs) before being discharged to the environment.

Although Arkansas is not classified as an arid state, certain regions of the state have experienced supply depletion, especially in areas of heavy reliance upon aquifers for agricultural water. Currently, the state does not have direct or indirect potable reuse (DPR, IPR), or even water reuse regulations, although one instance of non potable reuse is currently permitted in Rogers.

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