Ground rules

In baseball, ground rules are special rules particular to each baseball park (grounds) in which the game is played. Unlike the well-defined playing field of most other sports, the playing area of a baseball field extends to an outfield fence in fair territory and the stadium seating in foul territory. The unique design of each ballpark, including fences, dugouts, bullpens, railings, stadium domes, photographer's wells and TV camera booths, requires that rules be defined to handle situations in which these objects may interact or interfere with the ball in play or with the players.

Major League Baseball has defined a set of "universal ground rules" that apply to all MLB ballparks;[1] individual ballparks have the latitude to set ground rules above and beyond the universal ground rules, as long as they do not directly contradict each other. Additionally, a set of universal ground rules exists for the six MLB stadiums with retractable roofs, with the individual ballparks able to set additional rules.

The term ground rule double is often applied to a batted ball that bounces fair, then over the outfield fence in fair or foul territory, although some commentators and writers shun the term because league-wide rules, not ground rules, apply in this case.[2]

Green Monster
Fenway Park has a ground rule for balls that hit the top of the ladder on the Green Monster and go out of play—the batter is awarded two bases.



  • Ball on the top step (lip) of the dugout is in play.
    • No equipment is permitted to be left on the top step (lip) of the dugout. If a ball hits equipment left on the top step it is dead.
  • A player is not permitted to step or go into a dugout to make a catch.
  • A player is permitted to reach into a dugout to make a catch. If a player makes a catch outside the dugout and the player's momentum carries him into the dugout, then the catch is allowed and the ball remains alive as long as the player does not fall while in the dugout.
  • A batted ball in flight can be caught between or under railings and around screens.
    • A catch may be made on the field tarp.
  • Batted or thrown ball lodging in the rotating signage behind home plate or along first base or third base stands is out of play.
    • Batted or thrown ball resting on the rotating signage behind home plate or along first base or third base stands is in play.
  • The facings of railings surrounding the dugout and photographers areas are in play.
    • Any cameras or microphones permanently attached on railings are treated as part of the railings and are in play.
    • Any recessed railings or poles that are in the dugout and photographers areas are out of play and should be marked with red to mark them out of play.
  • Robotic cameras attached to the facing of the backstop screen are considered part of the screen.
    • A batted ball striking the backstop camera is considered a dead ball.
    • A thrown ball striking the backstop camera is considered in play.
  • A ball striking the guide wires that support the backstop is a dead ball.
  • A ball lodging behind or under canvas on field tarp is out of play.
  • A ball striking the field tarp and rebounding onto the playing field is in play.
  • No chairs can be brought out of the dugout or bullpen and onto the playing field.
  • All yellow lines are in play.

Individual ballpark

Individual ballpark ground rules vary greatly from ballpark to ballpark. For the 2017 season, Citi Field, Kauffman Stadium, Target Field, Yankee Stadium, and Guaranteed Rate Field are the only MLB ballparks that do not have individual ground rules above the universal set.[1]

Examples of ground rules that have been or are still in major league ballparks include:

  • Fenway Park (Boston Red Sox) – A fly ball that strikes the top of the ladder on the Green Monster and then bounces out of play is two (2) bases.
  • Minute Maid Park (Houston Astros) – A batted ball striking the flagpole in center field and bouncing onto the field is in play; a ball striking the flagpole while in flight and leaving the playing field is a home run. The flagpole and the hill that it was on were removed following the 2016 season, and the rule has been removed from the specific ballpark rules list.
  • Tropicana Field (Tampa Bay Rays) – A batted ball that hits either of the two lower catwalks (C Ring and D Ring) between the yellow foul poles is ruled a home run. The two upper catwalks (the A Ring and B Ring) are considered in play; a ball that touches either can drop for a hit or be caught for an out.
  • Wrigley Field (Chicago Cubs) – A fair ball becoming lodged in the ivy on the outfield fence awards two bases to the batter and all runners; if the ball falls out of the ivy, it remains in-play.[3]
  • Citi Field (New York Mets) – Any fair ball in flight hitting the overhanging Pepsi-Cola sign is ruled an automatic home run. The sign has since been changed to "Coca-Cola" following new sponsorship in 2016, and no longer overhangs. The rule has since been removed from the specific ballpark rules.

Movement of retractable roofs

These ground rules only apply at ballparks featuring retractable roofs. As of the 2012 season, these are: Rogers Centre, Chase Field, Safeco Field, Miller Park, Minute Maid Park, and Marlins Park. Rules governing batted balls striking the roof are defined in each individual ballpark's ground rules.


  • The decision as to whether a game begins with the roof open or closed rests solely with the home club.
  • If the game begins with the roof open:
    • It shall be closed only in the event of impending rain or other adverse weather conditions. The decision to close the roof shall be made by the home club, after consultation with the Umpire Crew Chief.
    • The Umpire Crew Chief shall notify the visiting club, which may challenge the closing of the roof if it feels that a competitive imbalance will arise. In such an event, the Umpire Crew Chief shall make a final decision based on the merits of the challenge.


All ballpark-specific retractable roof ground rules concern opening of the roof after a game has started.

If the game starts with the roof closed:

  • Chase Field, Miller Park, Minute Maid Park, & Safeco Field permit its opening during the game if weather conditions warrant, as long as the following procedure is followed:[1]
    • The roof may be opened only once during the game.
    • The Umpire Crew Chief will be notified at the beginning of the inning that the roof will be opened at the inning's end.
    • The Umpire Crew Chief shall notify the visiting club, which may challenge the opening of the roof. In such an event, the Umpire Crew Chief shall make a final decision based on the merits of the challenge.
    • The opening of the roof shall only begin between innings.
  • Chase Field requires that the roof is opened in two sets of 2-minute-and-15-second intervals, at the conclusion of one inning and the conclusion of the following inning.[1]

If the game starts with the roof open and it is closed during the game:


  1. ^ a b c d e "Umpires: Ground Rules". Major League Baseball. Retrieved 11 April 2017.
  2. ^ "Ground rule double". Baseball Reference. January 13, 2011. Retrieved January 13, 2011.
  3. ^ "Wrigley Field Information – Facts & Ground Rules". Retrieved 17 April 2015.

External links

Dead ball

Dead ball is a term in many ball sports in which the ball is deemed temporarily not playable, and no movement may be made with it or the players from their respective positions of significance. Depending on the sport, this event may be quite routine, and often occurs between individual plays of the game.

Dr Pepper Ballpark

Dr Pepper Ballpark (formerly Dr Pepper/Seven Up Ballpark) is the home ballpark of the Frisco RoughRiders Minor League Baseball club which plays in the Double-A Texas League. Located in Frisco, Texas, in the United States, the stadium has a capacity of 10,316. The ballpark is host to numerous functions in addition to Minor League Baseball games, including corporate and charity events, wedding receptions, city of Frisco events, and church services. Local soft drink manufacturer Dr Pepper Snapple Group holds naming rights and exclusive non-alcoholic beverage rights in the park.Since its opening in 2003, the Dr Pepper Ballpark has won awards and garnered praise for its unique design, feel, and numerous facilities. In his design, park architect David M. Schwarz desired the creation of a village-like "park within a (ball) park". Dr Pepper Ballpark received the 2003 Texas Construction award for Best Architectural Design and was named the best new ballpark in the country by

FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI

The FTSE Bursa Malaysia KLCI, also known as the FBM KLCI, is a capitalisation-weighted stock market index, composed of the 30 largest companies on the Bursa Malaysia by market capitalisation that meet the eligibility requirements of the FTSE Bursa Malaysia Index Ground Rules. The index is jointly operated by FTSE and Bursa Malaysia.

Failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis

Failure mode, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA) is an extension of failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA).

FMEA is a bottom-up, inductive analytical method which may be performed at either the functional or piece-part level. FMECA extends FMEA by including a criticality analysis, which is used to chart the probability of failure modes against the severity of their consequences. The result highlights failure modes with relatively high probability and severity of consequences, allowing remedial effort to be directed where it will produce the greatest value. FMECA tends to be preferred over FMEA in space and North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) military applications, while various forms of FMEA predominate in other industries.

Failure mode and effects analysis

Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA)—also "failure modes", plural, in many publications, It involves reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify failures, and their causes and effects. For each component, the failure modes and their resulting effects on the rest of the system are recorded in a specific FMEA worksheet. There are numerous variations of such worksheets. A FMEA can be a qualitative analysis, but may be put on a quantitative basis when mathematical failure rate models are combined with a statistical failure mode ratio database. It was one of the first highly structured, systematic techniques for failure analysis. It was developed by reliability engineers in the late 1950s to study problems that might arise from malfunctions of military systems. An FMEA is often the first step of a system reliability study.

A few different types of FMEA analyses exist, such as:



ProcessSometimes FMEA is extended to FMECA (failure mode, effects, and criticality analysis) to indicate that criticality analysis is performed too.

FMEA is an inductive reasoning (forward logic) single point of failure analysis and is a core task in reliability engineering, safety engineering and quality engineering.

A successful FMEA activity helps identify potential failure modes based on experience with similar products and processes—or based on common physics of failure logic. It is widely used in development and manufacturing industries in various phases of the product life cycle. Effects analysis refers to studying the consequences of those failures on different system levels.

Functional analyses are needed as an input to determine correct failure modes, at all system levels, both for functional FMEA or Piece-Part (hardware) FMEA. An FMEA is used to structure Mitigation for Risk reduction based on either failure (mode) effect severity reduction or based on lowering the probability of failure or both. The FMEA is in principle a full inductive (forward logic) analysis, however the failure probability can only be estimated or reduced by understanding the failure mechanism. Hence, FMEA may include information on causes of failure (deductive analysis) to reduce the possibility of occurrence by eliminating identified (root) causes.

Fair ball

In baseball, a fair ball is a batted ball that entitles the batter to attempt to reach first base. By contrast, a foul ball is a batted ball that does not entitle the batter to attempt to reach first base. Whether a batted ball is fair or foul is determined by the location of the ball at the appropriate reference point, as follows:

if the ball leaves the playing field without touching anything, the point where the ball leaves the field;

else, if the ball first lands past first or third base without touching anything, the point where the ball lands;

else, if the ball rolls or bounces past first or third base without touching anything other than the ground, the point where the ball passes the base;

else, if the ball touches anything other than the ground (such as an umpire, a player, or any equipment left on the field) before any of the above happens, the point of such touching;

else (the ball comes to a rest before reaching first or third base), the point where the ball comes to a rest.If the ball is on or above fair territory at the appropriate reference point, it is fair; else it is foul. Fair territory or fair ground is defined as the area of the playing field between the two foul lines, and includes the foul lines themselves and the foul poles. However, certain exceptions exist:

A ball that touches first, second, or third base is always fair.

Under Rule 5.09(a)(7)-(8), if a batted ball touches the batter or his bat while the batter is in the batter's box and not intentionally interfering with the course of the ball, the ball is foul.

A ball that hits the foul pole in flight is fair.

Ground rules may provide whether a ball hitting specific objects (e.g. roof, overhead speaker) is fair or foul.On a fair ball, the batter attempts to reach first base or any subsequent base, runners attempt to advance and fielders try to record outs. A fair ball is considered a live ball until the ball becomes dead by leaving the field or any other method.

Fenway Park

Fenway Park is a baseball park located in Boston, Massachusetts near Kenmore Square. Since 1912, it has been the home for the Boston Red Sox, the city's American League baseball team, and since 1953, its only Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise. It is the oldest ballpark in MLB. Because of its age and constrained location in Boston's dense Fenway–Kenmore neighborhood, the park has been renovated or expanded many times, resulting in quirky heterogeneous features including "The Triangle" (below), Pesky's Pole, and the Green Monster in left field. It is the fourth-smallest among MLB ballparks by seating capacity, second-smallest by total capacity, and one of eight that cannot accommodate at least 40,000 spectators.

Fenway has hosted the World Series 11 times, with the Red Sox winning six of them and the Boston Braves winning one. Besides baseball games it has been the site of many other sporting and cultural events including professional football games for the Boston Redskins, Boston Yanks, and the New England Patriots; concerts; soccer and hockey games (such as the 2010 NHL Winter Classic); and political and religious campaigns.

April 20, 2012 marked Fenway Park's centennial. On March 7 of that year, the park was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Former pitcher Bill Lee has called Fenway Park "a shrine". It is a pending Boston Landmark which will regulate any further changes to the park. Today, the park is considered to be one of the most well-known sports venues in the world.

Forever Lost (album)

Forever Lost is the second studio album by Norwegian recording artist A-Lee, released on October 5, 2012 in Norway, on EE Records and Columbia/Sony Music Norway. A-Lee worked with producers Ground Rules, Martin K, Bernt Rune Stray, BPM, Thomas Eriksen, Slipmats and The Products. The original album track list features Aleksander With, Elisabeth Carew and Marcus Only.

The album contains the chart hits, "The One" and "World So Cold", which reached No. 7 and No. 12 on Norwegian Official Charts VG-Lista, respectively.

Foul ball

In baseball, a foul ball is a batted ball that:

Settles on foul territory between home and first base or between home and third base, or

Bounds past first or third base on or over foul territory, or

First falls on foul territory beyond first or third base, or

While on or over foul territory, touches the person of an umpire or player, or any object foreign to the natural ground. By interpretation, a batted ball that touches a batter while in his batter's box is foul regardless of whether it is over foul territory.A foul fly shall be judged according to the relative position of the ball and the foul line, including the foul pole, and not as to whether the fielder is on foul or fair territory at the time he touches the ball. If the foul ball gets caught, then it would be judged as an out.

Additionally, ballpark ground rules may specify that batted balls striking certain fixed objects such as railings, nets, or a roof if present are foul balls.

Foul territory or foul ground is defined as that part of the playing field outside the first and third base lines extended to the fence and perpendicularly upwards. Note: the foul lines and foul poles are not part of foul territory.

In general, when a batted ball is ruled a foul ball, the ball is dead, all runners must return to their time-of-pitch base without liability to be put out, and the batter returns to home plate to continue his turn at bat. A strike is issued for the batter if he had fewer than two strikes. If the batter already has two strikes against him when he hits a foul ball, a strike is not issued unless the ball was bunted to become a foul ball, in which case a third strike is issued and a strikeout recorded for the batter and pitcher. A strike is, however, recorded for the pitcher for every foul ball the batter hits, regardless of the count. If any member of the fielding team catches a foul ball before it touches the ground or lands outside the field perimeter, the batter is out. However, the caught ball is in play and base runners may attempt to advance.

A foul ball is different from a foul tip, in which the ball makes contact with the bat, travels directly to the catcher's hands, and is caught. In this case, the ball remains live and a strike is added to the batter's count. If a foul tip is strike three, the batter is out.

Gram panchayat

A gram panchayat (transl. 'village council') or village panchayat is the only grassroots-level of panchayati raj formalised local self-governance system in India at the village or small-town level, and has a sarpanch as its elected head.The failed attempts to deal with local matters at the national level caused, in 1992, the reintroduction of panchayats for their previously used purpose as an organisation for local self-governance. There are about 250,000 gram panchayats in India.

Ground rule double

A ground rule double is a baseball rule that awards two bases from the time of pitch to all baserunners including the batter-runner, as a result of the ball leaving play after being hit fairly and leaving the field under a condition of the ground rules in effect at the field where the game is being played. An automatic double is the term used to refer to a fairly hit ball leaving the field in circumstances that do not merit a home run, as described in Major League Baseball (MLB) rules 5.05(a)(6) through 5.05(a)(9). The automatic double (or rule-book double) is quite often mistakenly called a ground rule double.

Minute Maid Park

Minute Maid Park, previously known as The Ballpark at Union Station, Enron Field, and Astros Field, is a ballpark in Downtown Houston, Texas, United States, that opened in 2000 to house the Houston Astros of Major League Baseball (MLB). The ballpark is Houston's first retractable-roofed stadium, and features a natural grass playing field. The ballpark was built as a replacement of the Astrodome, the first domed sports stadium ever built, which opened in 1965. It is named for beverage brand Minute Maid, a subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company, which acquired naming rights in 2002 for $100 million over 30 years. As of 2016, Minute Maid Park has a seating capacity of 41,168, which includes 5,197 club seats and 63 luxury suites.

Mitchell Principles

The Mitchell Principles were six ground rules agreed by the Irish and British governments and the political parties in Northern Ireland regarding participation in talks on the future of the region. They were named for United States Senator George Mitchell, who was heavily involved in the Northern Ireland peace process. All involved in negotiations had to affirm their commitment:

To democratic and exclusively peaceful means of resolving political issues;

To the total disarmament of all paramilitary organisations;

To agree that such disarmament must be verifiable to the satisfaction of an independent commission;

To renounce for themselves, and to oppose any effort by others, to use force, or threaten to use force, to influence the course or the outcome of all-party negotiations;

To agree to abide by the terms of any agreement reached in all-party negotiations and to resort to democratic and exclusively peaceful methods in trying to alter any aspect of that outcome with which they may disagree; and,

To urge that "punishment" killings and beatings stop and to take effective steps to prevent such actions.Sinn Féin's acceptance of the principles was strongly criticised by more hardline republicans and led to resignations within the party.

Organizational dissent

Organizational dissent is the "expression of disagreement or contradictory opinions about organizational practices and policies". Since dissent involves disagreement it can lead to conflict, which if not resolved, can lead to violence and struggle. As a result, many organizations send the message – verbally or nonverbally – that dissent is discouraged. However, recent studies have shown that dissent serves as an important monitoring force within organizations. Dissent can be a warning sign for employee dissatisfaction or organizational decline. Redding (1985) found that receptiveness to dissent allows for corrective feedback to monitor unethical and immoral behavior, impractical and ineffectual organizational practices and policies, poor and unfavorable decision making, and insensitivity to employees' workplace needs and desires. Furthermore, Eilerman argues that the hidden costs of silencing dissent include: wasted and lost time, reduced decision quality, emotional and relationship costs, and decreased job motivation. Perlow (2003) found that employee resentment can lead to a decrease in productivity and creativity which can result in the organization losing money, time, and resources.

Regime change

Regime change is the replacement of one government regime with another. Use of the term dates to at least 1925. Regime change may replace all or part of the state's most critical leadership system, administrative apparatus, or bureaucracy.

It can be the deliberate product of outside force, as in warfare. Rollback is the military strategy to impose a regime change by defeating an enemy and removing its regime by force. Regime change can occur through inside change caused by revolution, coup d'état or reconstruction following the failure of a state.

The Deal (Seinfeld)

"The Deal" is the ninth episode of the second season of NBC's Seinfeld, and the show's 14th episode overall. The episode centers on protagonists Jerry (Jerry Seinfeld) and Elaine Benes (Julia Louis-Dreyfus) who decide to have a sexual relationship, with a set of ground rules. However, as their "relationship" progresses, they experience difficulties maintaining their original friendship.

Series co-creator Larry David wrote the episode in a response to NBC's continued efforts to get the two characters back together. The main inspiration behind the episode was a similar agreement David once made with a woman. The episode, which introduced the character of Tina, Elaine's roommate, first aired on May 2, 1991 and was watched by approximately 22.6 million viewers. Critics reacted positively to the episode, and David received a Primetime Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Writing for a Comedy Series.

The Moonstone

The Moonstone (1868) by Wilkie Collins is a 19th-century British epistolary novel. It is generally considered to be the first detective novel, and it established many of the ground rules of the modern detective novel. The story was originally serialised in Charles Dickens's magazine All the Year Round. The Moonstone and The Woman in White are widely considered to be Collins's best novels, and Collins adapted The Moonstone for the stage in 1877, although the play was performed for only two months.

Xinzhuang Baseball Stadium

The Xinzhuang Baseball Stadium (Chinese: 新莊棒球場; pinyin: Xīnzhuāng Bàngqiúchǎng) is a baseball stadium in Xinzhuang District, New Taipei City, Taiwan. It is currently mostly used for CPBL baseball games. The stadium can hold 12,500 people and was opened in 1997.

Baseball concepts
Game process
Base running


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