Ground beetle

Ground beetles are a large, cosmopolitan family of beetles,[2] Carabidae, with more than 40,000 species worldwide, around 2,000 of which are found in North America and 2,700 in Europe.[3] It is one of the ten most speciose animal families, as of 2015.

Ground beetles
Temporal range: Hettangian–Recent
Carabus auratus with prey
Golden ground beetle eating an earthworm in Northern Germany
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Suborder: Adephaga
(unranked): Geadephaga
Superfamily: Caraboidea
Family: Carabidae
Latreille, 1802
Subfamilies[1]

Anthiinae
Apotominae
Brachininae
Broscinae
Carabinae
Cicindelinae
Ctenodactylinae
Dryptinae
Elaphrinae
Gineminae
Harpalinae
Hiletinae
Lebiinae
Licininae
Loricerinae
Melaeninae
Migadopinae
Nebriinae
Nototylinae
Omophroninae
Orthogoniinae
Panagaeinae
Paussinae
Platyninae
Promecognathinae
Protorabinae
Pseudomorphinae
Psydrinae
Pterostichinae
Rhysodinae
Scaritinae
Siagoninae
Trechinae
Xenaroswellianinae
(See text)

Description and ecology

Although their body shapes and coloring vary somewhat, most are shiny black or metallic and have ridged wing covers (elytra). The elytra are fused in some species, particularly large Carabinae, rendering the beetles unable to fly. The genus Mormolyce is known as violin beetles due to their peculiarly shaped elytra. All carabids except the quite primitive flanged bombardier beetles (Paussinae) have a groove on their foreleg tibiae bearing a comb of hairs used for cleaning their antennae.[4]

Brachinus spPCCA20060328-2821B
A Brachinus species typical bombardier beetle (Brachininae: Brachinini) from North Carolina

Defensive secretions

Typical for the ancient beetle suborder Adephaga to which they belong, they have paired pygidial glands in the lower back of the abdomen. These are well developed in ground beetles, and produce noxious or even caustic secretions used to deter would-be predators. In some, commonly known as bombardier beetles, these secretions are mixed with volatile compounds and ejected by a small combustion, producing a loud popping sound and a cloud of hot and acrid gas which can injure small mammals, such as shrews, and is liable to kill invertebrate predators outright.

To humans, getting "bombed" by a bombardier beetle is a decidedly unpleasant experience. This ability has evolved independently twice as it seems – in the flanged bombardier beetles (Paussinae) which are among the most ancient ground beetles, and in the typical bombardier beetles (Brachininae) which are part of a more "modern" lineage. The Anthiini, though, can mechanically squirt their defensive secretions for considerable distances and are able to aim with a startling degree of accuracy; in Afrikaans, they are known as oogpisters ("eye-pissers"). In one of the very few known cases of a vertebrate mimicking an arthropod, juvenile Heliobolus lugubris lizards are similar in color to the aposematic oogpister beetles, and move in a way that makes them look surprisingly similar to the insects at a casual glance.[5]

A folk story claims that Charles Darwin once found himself on the receiving end of a bombardier beetle's attack, based on a passage in his autobiography.[6][7] Darwin stated in a letter to Leonard Jenyns that a beetle had attacked him on that occasion, but he did not know what kind:

A Cychrus rostratus once squirted into my eye & gave me extreme pain; & I must tell you what happened to me on the banks of the Cam in my early entomological days; under a piece of bark I found two carabi (I forget which) & caught one in each hand, when lo & behold I saw a sacred Panagæus crux major; I could not bear to give up either of my Carabi, & to lose Panagæus was out of the question, so that in despair I gently seized one of the carabi between my teeth, when to my unspeakable disgust & pain the little inconsiderate beast squirted his acid down my throat & I lost both Carabi & Panagæus![8]

Ecology

Common habitats are under the bark of trees, under logs, or among rocks[2] or sand by the edge of ponds and rivers. Most species are carnivorous and actively hunt for any invertebrate prey they can overpower.[2] Some run swiftly to catch their prey; tiger beetles (Cicindelinae) can sustain speeds of 9 km/h[9] – in relation to their body length they are among the fastest land animals on Earth. Unlike most Carabidae which are nocturnal, the tiger beetles are active diurnal hunters and often brightly coloured; they have large eyes and hunt by sight. Ground beetles of the species Promecognathus laevissimus are specialised predators of the cyanide millipede Harpaphe haydeniana, countering the hydrogen cyanide which makes these millipedes poisonous to most carnivores.

Relationship with humans

As predators of invertebrates, including many pests, most ground beetles are considered beneficial organisms. The caterpillar hunters (Calosoma) are famous for their habit of devouring prey in quantity, eagerly feeding on tussock moth (Lymantriidae) caterpillars, processionary caterpillars (Thaumetopoeidae) and woolly worms (Arctiidae), which due to their urticating hairs are avoided by most insectivores. Large numbers of the forest caterpillar hunter (C. sycophanta), native to Europe, were shipped to New England for biological control of the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) as early as 1905.

A few species are nuisance pests. Zabrus is one of the few herbivorous ground beetle genera, and on rare occasions Zabrus tenebrioides, for example, occurs abundantly enough to cause some damage to grain crops. Large species, usually Carabinae, can become a nuisance if present in numbers, particularly during outdoor activities such as camping; they void their defensive secretions when threatened, and in hiding among provisions their presence may spoil food. Since ground beetles are generally reluctant or even unable to fly, mechanically blocking their potential routes of entry is usually easy. The use of insecticides specifically for Carabid intrusion may lead to unfortunate side effects, such as the release of their repugnatorial secretions, so it generally is not a good idea unless the same applications are intended to exclude ants, parasites or other crawling pests.

Panagaeus cruxmajor bl
A crucifix ground beetle (Panagaeus cruxmajor) got Charles Darwin into trouble in 1828.

Especially in the 19th century and to a lesser extent today, their large size and conspicuous coloration, as well as the odd morphology of some (e.g. the Lebiini), made many ground beetles a popular object of collection and study for professional and amateur coleopterologists. High prices were paid for rare and exotic specimens, and in the early to mid-19th century, a veritable "beetle craze" occurred in England. As mentioned above, Charles Darwin was an ardent collector of beetles when he was about 20 years old, to the extent that he would rather scour the countryside for rare specimens with William Darwin Fox, John Stevens Henslow, and Henry Thompson than to study theology as his father wanted him to do. In his autobiography, he fondly recalled his experiences with Licinus and Panagaeus, and wrote:

No poet ever felt more delight at seeing his first poem published than I did at seeing in Stephen's Illustrations of British Insects the magic words, "captured by C. Darwin, Esq."[7]

Evolution and systematics

The Adephaga are documented since the end of the Permian, about 250 million years ago. Ground beetles evolved in the latter Triassic, having separated from their closest relatives by 200 million years ago. The family diversified throughout the Jurassic, and the more advanced lineages, such as the Harpalinae, underwent a vigorous radiation starting in the Cretaceous. The closest living relatives of the ground beetles are the false ground beetles (Trachypachidae) and the wrinkled bark beetles (Rhysodidae). They are sometimes even included in the Carabidae as subfamilies or as tribes incertae sedis, but more preferably they are united with the ground beetles in the superfamily Caraboidea.

Much research has been done on elucidating the phylogeny of the ground beetles and adjusting systematics and taxonomy accordingly. While no completely firm consensus exists, a few points are generally accepted: As it seems, the ground beetles consist of a number of more basal lineages and the extremely diverse Harpalinae which contain over half the described species and into which several formerly independent families had to be subsumed.[10]

Subfamilies and selected genera

The taxonomy used here is based on the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera[11] and the Carabidae of the World Database.[12] Other classifications, while generally agreeing with the division into a basal radiation of more primitive lineages and the more advanced group informally called "Carabidae Conjunctae",[13] differ in details. For example, the system used by the Tree of Life Web Project makes little use of subfamilies, listing most tribes as incertae sedis as to subfamily.[14] Fauna Europaea, though, splits rather than lumps the Harpalinae, restricting them to what in the system used here is the tribe Harpalini.[15]

All the approaches mentioned above are legitimate as they agree with the phylogeny as far as it has been resolved. The inclusive Harpalinae presented here are used for two reasons, one scientific and one practical – first, the majority of authors presently use this system, following the Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. Second, the MediaWiki markup cannot at present adequately represent the relationships of the ground beetle subgroups in detail if the restricted view of the Harpalinae is chosen.

Basal ground beetles

Chrysocarabus lateralis.001 - Fragas do Eume
Carabus lateralis (Carabinae: Carabini)
Amblytelus species
Amblytelus sp. (Amblytelinae: Amblytelini)

Carabinae Latreille, 1802 – including Agoninae and Callistinae

Cicindelinae – tiger beetles (roughly 2,600 species; sometimes included in the Carabidae)

Cicindinae

Elaphrinae Latreille, 1802

Hiletinae

Loricerinae Bonelli, 1810

Migadopinae

Nebriinae (includes Notiophilinae, often included in Carabinae)

Nototylinae

Omophroninae Bonelli, 1810 – round sand beetles

Paussinae – ant nest beetles, flanged bombardier beetles

Promecognathinae

Scaritinae Bonelli, 1810 – pedunculate ground beetles

Siagoninae Bonelli, 1810

Carabidae Conjunctae

Dixussphaerocephalus
Dixus sphaerocephalus (Harpalinae: Harpalini)

Amblytelinae Sloane, 1898[Note 1]

Apotominae

Brachininae – typical bombardier beetles

Broscinae

Dryptinae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Gineminae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Harpalinae (over 20,000 species)

Lebiinae – including Cyclosominae, Mormolycinae, Odacanthinae, Perigoninae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Licininae – including Chlaeniinae, Oodinae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Melaeninae

Migadopinae

Orthogoniinae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Panagaeinae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Platyninae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Pseudomorphinae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Psydrinae

Pterostichinae – including Zabrinae (sometimes in Harpalinae)

Trechinae – including Bembidiinae, Patrobinae

Tribes incertae sedis

  • Amarotypini – Migadopinae or a distinct subfamily?
  • Gehringiini – Psydrinae, Trechinae or a distinct subfamily?

Notes

  1. ^ Usually placed in the Psydrinae or Trechinae, they seem to represent a distinct lineage related to Brachininae and Harpalinae, and in the system used here would consequently be eligible for subfamily status.[16]

References

  1. ^ "Carabidae Taxa". Carabidae of the World. 2011. Archived from the original on 2012-11-02. Retrieved 6 Nov 2017.
  2. ^ a b c Gomes Gonçalves, Marcos Paulo (December 2017). "Relationship Between Meteorological Conditions and Beetles in Mata de Cocal". Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia. 32 (4): 543–554. doi:10.1590/0102-7786324003. ISSN 0102-7786.
  3. ^ B. Kromp (1999). "Carabid beetles in sustainable agriculture: a review on pest control efficacy, cultivation aspects and enhancement". Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment. 74 (1–3): 187–228. doi:10.1016/S0167-8809(99)00037-7.
  4. ^ John L. Capinera. Encyclopedia of Entomology. p. 1746.
  5. ^ R. B. Huey & E. R. Pianka (1977). "Natural selection for juvenile lizards mimicking noxious beetles". Science. 195 (4274): 201–203. doi:10.1126/science.831272. PMID 831272.
  6. ^ "Young Naturalist, A Lifelong Passion". Darwin. American Museum of Natural History. 2005. Archived from the original on December 21, 2010. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  7. ^ a b Nora Barlow, ed. (1958). "Cambridge, 1828–1831". The Autobiography of Charles Darwin. pp. 56–71.
  8. ^ Charles Darwin (1846). "Letter to Leonard Jenyns, October 17, 1846".
  9. ^ "When tiger beetles chase prey at high speeds they go blind temporarily, Cornell entomologists learn - Cornell Chronicle". www.news.cornell.edu.
  10. ^ Shōzō Ōsawa, Zhi-Hui Su & Yūki Inmura (2004). Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Carabid Ground Beetles. Springer. ISBN 4-431-00487-4.
  11. ^ I. Löbl & A. Smetana, ed. (2003). Catalogue of Palaearctic Coleoptera. I. Stenstrup, Denmark: Apollo Books.
  12. ^ "Trees of family Carabidae". Carabidae of the World Database. 2008. Archived from the original on September 19, 2008. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
  13. ^ David R. Maddison (January 1, 1995). "Carabidae Conjunctae". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
  14. ^ David R. Maddison (April 11, 2006). "Carabidae. Ground beetles and tiger beetles". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved July 24, 2008.
  15. ^ "Harpalinae". Fauna Europaea. 2004. Retrieved February 16, 2011.
  16. ^ David R. Maddison (January 1, 1999). "Amblytelini". Tree of Life Web Project. Retrieved July 24, 2008.

Further reading

  • E. Csiki (1946). Die Käferfauna des Karpaten-Beckens [The beetle fauna of the Carparthian basin] (in German). Budapest. pp. 71–546.
  • K. Kult (1947). Klíč k určování brouků čeledi Carabidae Československé republiky [Key to the beetles of family Carabidae of the Czech Republic] (in Czech). Prague.
  • C. H. Lindroth (1942). Coleoptera, Carabidae. Svensk Insectenfauna, Vol. 9 (in Swedish). Stockholm. pp. 1–260.
  • Edmund Reitter (1908–1917). Die Käfer des Deutschen Reiches [The beetles of the German Empire] (in German). Stuttgart: K. G. Lutz.

External links

Anthia sexguttata

Anthia sexguttata, or the six-spot ground beetle, is a beetle of the Family Carabidae.

Calathus (beetle)

Calathus is a genus of ground beetle native to the Palearctic (including Europe), the Near East and North Africa. There are at least 190 described species in Calathus.

Carabus auratus

Carabus auratus, the golden ground beetle, is a member of the family Carabidae, or ground beetles, native to central and western parts of Europe.

Carabus intricatus

Carabus intricatus, the blue ground beetle, is a species of ground beetle found in Europe.It is a large beetle (24–35 millimetres or 0.9–1.4 inches in length), with a metallic purple or blue and roughly surfaced elytra; the second pair of wings (which are used by beetles for flying) under the elytra are reduced. In Britain it was only recorded three times in the twenty years up to 1993 and was considered extinct there. But in 1994 it was found in a couple of places near Dartmoor.Carabus intricatus are nocturnal carnivores that are mainly active in the spring and early summer. Tests have shown they prefer slugs from the genus Limax, especially Limax marginatus. They were also found to have a taste for liver, dog food, and crabsticks.

In the wild, the adults are found under bark on dead wood, and under rocks. It does not require ground vegetation, and likes damp, rotten, moss-covered wood.The beetles seem to be active throughout the year and a fully-grown larva has been found in summer. This specimen also ate slugs prior to pupating, and emerged as an adult some three weeks later. It is thought that it may take two years to complete its life cycle. The adults are very long-lived.

Carabus violaceus

Carabus violaceus, sometimes called the violet ground beetle, or the rain beetle is a nocturnal species of a beetle, from a family Carabidae.

Carno wind farm

Carno is a wind farm of 68 turbines which started operation in October 1996. It covers an area of over 600 hectares on Trannon Moor, a plateau to the west of the village of Carno in Powys, Mid Wales, 400 metres (1,300 ft) above sea level.Carno currently has the largest production capacity in Wales.

Originally consisting of 56 wind turbines each of 600 kilowatts (kW) maximum output, the combined maximum power of 33.6 megawatts (MW) made Carno the largest Wind Farm in Europe at the time of its construction. The total project cost was approximately £26 million.

Information:

Number of turbines: 56 (extended to 68 with Carno 2 in 2008)

Turbine manufacturer: Bonus Energy A/S, Denmark

Turbine rating: 600 kW.

Combined maximum power: 33.6MW

Tower height to hub: 31.5 metres (103 ft)

Blade number and diameter: 3 blades, each 44 metres (144 ft) long

Annual production: 90 million units

Wildlife information: 37 species of birds. 512 species of insects & spiders, including one Red Data Book entry, the nationally scarce Trechus rivularis ground beetle.

Archaeological features: Bronze Age cairns, standing stones and a possible Roman road crossing from east to west.Public footpaths cross the site and are waymarked on Ordnance Survey maps.

In 2008, an extension designated "Carno 2" was completed, bringing the total number of turbines to 68, comprising 12 new Siemens 1.3MW wind turbines with a hub height of 49 metres (161 ft), blade length of 30 metres (98 ft) and rotor diameter of 62 metres (203 ft) giving a tip height of 80 metres (260 ft).

Clivina

Clivina is a genus of ground beetle native to the Palearctic, the Nearctic, the Near East and North Africa. There are at least 580 described species in Clivina.

Delta green ground beetle

The Delta green ground beetle (Elaphrus viridis) is a species of ground beetle restricted to a small region within Solano County, California. Its color is a metallic-green, usually with bronze spots on its elytra, though some lack these spots. The lack or reduction of circular pits on the elytra helps distinguish it from other ground beetles. Typical adults are about a quarter-inch (0.6 cm) in length.The Delta green ground beetle plays a useful role in its ecosystem by pollinating plants, fruits, and vegetables.

The beetle's common name probably refers to the triangular marking on its pronotum. The species name, viridis, comes from the Latin word for green.

Elaphrus

Elaphrus is a genus of ground beetle native to the Palearctic, the Nearctic, the Near East and Northern Africa. It contains the following species:

Elaphrus americanus Dejean, 1831

Elaphrus angulonotus Shi & Liang, 2008

Elaphrus angusticollis R. F. Sahlberg, 1844

Elaphrus aureus P.W.J. Muller, 1821

Elaphrus californicus Mannerheim, 1843

Elaphrus cicatricosus Leconte, 1848

Elaphrus citharus Goulet And Smetana, 1997

Elaphrus clairvillei Kirby, 1837

Elaphrus comatus Goulet, 1983

Elaphrus cupreus Duftschmid, 1812

Elaphrus finitimus Casey, 1920

Elaphrus fuliginosus Say, 1830

Elaphrus hypocrita Semenov, 1926

Elaphrus japonicus Ueno, 1954

Elaphrus laevigatus Leconte, 1852

Elaphrus lapponicus Gyllenhal, 1810

Elaphrus lecontei Crotch, 1876

Elaphrus lheritieri Antoine, 1947

Elaphrus lindrothi Goulet, 1983

Elaphrus marginicollis Goulet, 1983

Elaphrus mimus Goulet, 1983

Elaphrus olivaceus Leconte, 1863

Elaphrus parviceps Van Dyke, 1925

Elaphrus potanini Semenov, 1889

Elaphrus punctatus Motschulsky, 1844

Elaphrus purpurans Hausen, 1891

Elaphrus pyrenoeus Motschulsky, 1850

Elaphrus riparius (Linnaeus, 1758)

Elaphrus ruscarius Say, 1834

Elaphrus sibiricus Motschulsky, 1844

Elaphrus smaragdiceps Semenov, 1889

Elaphrus splendidus Fischer Von Waldheim, 1828

Elaphrus sugai Nakane, 1987

Elaphrus tibetanus Semenov, 1904

Elaphrus trossulus Semenov, 1904

Elaphrus tuberculatus Maklin, 1878

Elaphrus uliginosus Fabricius, 1792

Elaphrus ullrichii W. Redtenbacher, 1842

Elaphrus viridis Horn, 1878

Elaphrus weissi Dostal, 1996

Eype Mouth

Eype Mouth is a natural break in a line of sea cliffs on the Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site in west Dorset on the south coast of England. The small River Eype drains into the sea at this point. Eype means 'a steep place' in Old English. The village of Eype (divided into the settlements Lower and Higher Eype) lies just upstream of the rivermouth, which is reached by a single narrow lane which runs down through Lower Eype to a shingle beach with car park.

The coast to the west of the rivermouth is a noted site for rare beetles. Two species found here are unknown elsewhere in Great Britain:

Sphaerius acaroides lives in mud and at plant roots at the edge of standing freshwater pools on the site; this species is particularly noteworthy in that it is the only British representative of the suborder Myxophaga.

the weevil Sitona gemellatus occurs on the site, being found at the roots of leguminous plants (although this species has been recorded in similar habitat at Sidmouth, Devon, it has not been recorded from there recently.Other rare beetles found at this site include the tiger beetle Cicindela germanica, the ground beetle Drypta dentata and the weevil Baris analis.

Harpalus (genus)

Harpalus is a genus of ground beetle with about 500 species and subspecies.

Harpalus pensylvanicus

Harpalus pensylvanicus is a species of ground beetle in the subfamily Harpalinae. It is found throughout North America. It was described by Degeer in 1774.The adults of the species are shiny black on the top, reddish brown underneath, and the elytra have lines. The larvae are black with a reddish head and the body is tapered with two long cerci. The species food includes the seeds of ragweed and assorted grasses. The species occasionally damages ripening strawberries which is probably how it gets water. It is attracted to lights. The common name of the species is Pennsylvania ground beetle.

Hexhamshire Moors

Hexhamshire Moors is a Site of Special Scientific Interest covering an extensive area of moorland in the Wear Valley district of north-west County Durham and the Tynedale district of south-west Northumberland, England.

It is a broadly rectangular area, occupying most of the upland between the valleys of the River East Allen to the west and Devil's Water to the east. The southern part of the site shares boundaries with the Muggleswick, Stanhope and Edmundbyers Commons and Blanchland Moor SSSI to the east and is separated from the Allendale Moors SSSI only by a very narrow strip of the East Allen valley.

The area has one of the largest expanses of blanket bog and heathland in northern England. Acid bogs occur in the vicinity of the numerous flushes that drain the moorland plateau, and localised patches of acid grassland have developed in areas that are regularly grazed by sheep.Floristically, much of the area is species-poor, but there are small populations of some nationally scarce species, including bog orchid, Hammarbya paludosa, which is found on the blanket peat, and forked spleenwort, Asplenium septentrionale, whose presence at one locality in the Northumberland part of the site is, to date, the only known record for that county.

The site's principal importance lies in its nationally important breeding populations of birds: three species—merlin, Eurasian golden plover and short-eared owl—are listed in Annex 1 of the European Commission's Birds Directive as requiring special protection and several others, including red grouse, Eurasian curlew, common redshank, Eurasian oystercatcher and dunlin, are listed in the United Kingdom's Red Data Book (Birds).Much of the moorland heath also supports a rich assemblage of invertebrates, including several scarce species of ground beetle, Carabidae.

The site is within the North Pennines Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.

Panagaeus cruxmajor

Panagaeus cruxmajor, the crucifix ground beetle, is a rare European ground beetle. In England it occurs in a few places only. Panagaeus bipustulatus is a commoner relative, looking very much alike except for being smaller. The crucifix ground beetle is sometimes included in P. bipustulatus, but most modern authors consider it distinct.

The largely black and rather bristly beetle is 8–10 millimetres (0.31–0.39 in) in length, with large red spots on its wing cases which give the appearance of a red background behind a black cross. It shelters under pieces of wood during the day, and is a nocturnal predatory species thought to mainly feed on semi-aquatic snails.

It was greatly treasured by 19th century collectors, and Charles Darwin recounted an incident when he was an undergraduate at the University of Cambridge around 1828. He had already collected two ground beetles when he "saw a sacred Panagæus crux major". He tried putting one of the other beetles in his mouth to free his hand, but it ejected acrid fluid down his throat, causing him to spit it out and lose all three.

Pitsea Marsh

Pitsea Marsh is a 94.6 hectare Site of Special Scientific Interest in Pitsea in Essex. The southern half is the Wat Tyler Country Park, and the northern half is private land.The site has a variety of habitats, such as grassland, scrub, reedbed, fen, ponds and saltmarsh. It was reclaimed in the seventeenth century, when Pitseahall Fleet was excavated to construct sea walls. The Fleet has a large and varied bird population. Dykes and ponds support the scarce emerald damselfly, and other rare invertebrates include Roesel's bush-cricket, a harvestman Leiobunum rotundum, a hoverfly xanthandrus comtus, and a ground beetle dyschirius impunctipennis.There is access to the country park from Pitsea Hall Lane.

Rhyzodiastes xii

Rhyzodiastes xii, known alternatively as the Daddy Xi beetle, is a species of ground beetle that attracted media attention in 2016, when an entomologist named it after the paramount leader of China, Xi Jinping, who is the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.

Synuchus

Synuchus is a genus of ground beetle native to the Palearctic (including Europe) and the Near East. It contains the following species:

Synuchus adelosia Andrewes, 1934

Synuchus agonoides (Bates, 1889

Synuchus agonus Tschitscherine, 1895

Synuchus amamioshimae Habu, 1978

Synuchus andrewesi Habu, 1955

Synuchus angusticeps Tanaka, 1962

Synuchus angustus Habu, 1978

Synuchus arcuaticollis Motschulsky, 1860

Synuchus assamensis Deuve, 1986

Synuchus atricolor Bates, 1883

Synuchus bellus Habu, 1978

Synuchus brevis Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus breviusculus Mannerheim, 1849

Synuchus calathinus Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus callitheres Bates, 1873

Synuchus cathaicus Bates, 1873

Synuchus chabo Habu, 1955

Synuchus chinensis Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus congruus (A. Morawitz, 1862)

Synuchus coreanus Kinschenhofer, 1990

Synuchus crocatus Bates, 1883

Synuchus cycloderus Bates, 1873

Synuchus dubius (Leconte, 1854)

Synuchus dulcigradus Bates, 1873

Synuchus elburzensis Morvan, 1977

Synuchus formosanus Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus fukuharai Habu, 1955

Synuchus fulvus Habu, 1978

Synuchus gigas Keyimu & Deuve, 1998

Synuchus gravidus Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus hikosanus Habu, 1955

Synuchus himalayicus Jedlicka, 1935

Synuchus impunctatus (Say, 1823)

Synuchus inadai Morita & Arai, 2003

Synuchus intermedius Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus ishigakiensis Morita & Toyoda, 2003

Synuchus keinigus Morvan, 1994

Synuchus laticollis Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus limbalis Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus longipes Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus longissimus Habu, 1978

Synuchus macer Habu, 1978

Synuchus major Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus melantho Bates, 1883

Synuchus microtes Habu, 1978

Synuchus minimus Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus montanus Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus nanpingensis Kirschenhofer, 1997

Synuchus narae Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus nitidus Motschulsky, 1861

Synuchus nordmanni A. Morawitz, 1862

Synuchus orbicollis A. Morawitz, 1862

Synuchus pallidulus Habu, 1978

Synuchus pallipes Andrewes, 1934

Synuchus patroboides Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus picicolor Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus pinguiusculus Habu, 1978

Synuchus pseudomorphus Semenov, 1889

Synuchus pulcher Habu, 1978

Synuchus rectangulus Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus rjabuchinii Lafer, 1989

Synuchus robustus Habu, 1978

Synuchus rufofuscus Jedlicka, 1940

Synuchus rufulus Habu, 1978

Synuchus satoi Morita & Toyoda, 2003

Synuchus semirufus (Casey, 1913)

Synuchus shibatai Habu, 1978

Synuchus sichuanensis Kirschenhofer, 1997

Synuchus sikkimensis Andrewes, 1934

Synuchus sinomeridionalis Keyimu & Deuve, 1998

Synuchus sinuaticollis Habu, 1978

Synuchus suensoni Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus taiwanus Habu, 1978

Synuchus takeuchii Habu, 1955

Synuchus tanzawanus Habu, 1955

Synuchus testaceus Jedlicka, 1940

Synuchus tokararum Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus truncatus Habu, 1978

Synuchus ventricosus Lindroth, 1956

Synuchus vivalis Illiger, 1798

Synuchus yasumatsui Habu, 1955

Trachypachidae

The Trachypachidae (or sometimes false ground beetles) are a family of beetles that generally resemble small ground beetles, but that are distinguished by the large coxae of their rearmost legs. There are only six known extant species in the family, with four species of Trachypachus found in northern Eurasia and northern North America, and two species of Systolosoma in Chile. They were much more diverse in the past, with many members belonging to the extinct subfamily Eodromeinae, the first fossils known of this family are of the genera Petrodromeus and Permunda from the Permian-Triassic boundary of Russia.Their habits are similar to those of the ground beetles; they are usually found in the leaf litter of conifer forests.

To quote G. E. Ball, "the most interesting thing about this small family is its uncertain phylogenetic relationships"; it has been classified as a subfamily of Carabidae, and as a family been placed in several different positions relative to other beetle families.

Trechinae

Trechinae is a subfamily in the ground beetle family, Carabidae.

Extant Coleoptera families

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