Gross register tonnage

Gross register tonnage (GRT, grt, g.r.t., gt) or gross registered tonnage, is a ship's total internal volume expressed in "register tons", each of which is equal to 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3). Gross register tonnage uses the total permanently enclosed capacity of the vessel as its basis for volume. Typically this is used for dockage fees, canal transit fees, and similar purposes where it is appropriate to charge based on the size of the entire vessel.

Net register tonnage subtracts the volume of spaces not available for carrying cargo, such as engine rooms, fuel tanks and crew quarters, from gross register tonnage.[1][2]

Gross register tonnage is not a measure of the ship's weight or displacement and should not be confused with terms such as deadweight tonnage or displacement.

History

Gross register tonnage was defined by the Moorsom Commission in 1854. Gross and net register tonnages were replaced by gross tonnage and net tonnage, respectively, when the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted The International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships on 23 June 1969. The new tonnage regulations entered into force for all new ships on 18 July 1982, but existing vessels were given a migration period of 12 years to ensure that ships were given reasonable economic safeguards, since port and other dues are charged according to ship's tonnage.

Since 18 July 1994 the gross and net tonnages, dimensionless indices calculated from the total moulded volume of the ship and its cargo spaces by mathematical formulae, have been the only official measures of the ship's tonnage.[3] However, the gross and net register tonnages are still widely used in describing older ships.

See also

References

  1. ^ Stopford, Martin (2009), Maritime Economics, Taylor & Francis, p. 752, retrieved 2011-10-17
  2. ^ "Units and Systems of Measurement Their Origin, Development, and Present Status" (PDF). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
  3. ^ International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships. International Maritime Organization (IMO). Retrieved 2011-10-17.
Alexander Marinesko

Alexander Ivanovich Marinesko (Russian: Александр Иванович Маринеско, Ukrainian: Олександр Iванович Марiнеско, Aleksandr Ivanovich Marinesko, Alexander Marinesco; Romanian: Alexandru Marinescu) (15 January 1913 – 25 November 1963) was a Soviet naval officer and, during World War II, the captain of the S-13 submarine that sank the German refugee transport ship Wilhelm Gustloff. The most successful Soviet submarine commander in terms of gross register tonnage (GRT) sunk, with 42,000 GRT to his name, he was posthumously awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union, the highest distinction in the Soviet Union.

Azamara Journey

Azamara Journey is an R-class cruise ship owned and operated by Azamara Club Cruises, a subsidiary of Royal Caribbean Cruises. Gross register tonnage is 30,277, with a capacity of 694 passengers (double occupancy), plus 390 crew members. She was built in 2000 for Renaissance Cruises as R Six. After the bankruptcy of Renaissance Cruises, she sailed for Pullmantur Cruises who renamed her Blue Star in 2003 and Blue Dream in 2005.

Baron of Renfrew (ship)

Baron of Renfrew was a four-masted barque of 5,294 gross register tonnage (GRT), built of wood in 1825 by Charles Wood in Quebec, Canada. She was one of the largest wooden ships ever built, although she was a disposable ship built for a one-way voyage to transport timber to England and did not complete a single voyage before breaking up.

Caddell

Caddell is a surname. Notable people with the surname include:

James Caddell (1794–1826), New Zealand Pākehā Māori, sealer and interpreter

Jason Caddell, guitarist in The Dismemberment Plan, a Washington D.C. based indie rock band

John A. Caddell (1910–2006), American lawyer in the state of Alabama

John B. Caddell, formerly YO-140, is a 712 gross register tonnage, 185-foot, previously United States-flagged water tanker

Patrick Caddell (born 1950), American public opinion pollster and a political film consultant

Shirley Caddell (1931–2010), American country music and rockabilly singer, yodeller, guitarist and songwriter

Trevor Caddell (born 1993), American professional wrestler, better known by the ring name Trevor Lee

Walter Caddell (1879-1944), British military officer

Deadweight tonnage

Deadweight tonnage (also known as deadweight; abbreviated to DWT, D.W.T., d.w.t., or dwt) or tons deadweight (TDW) is a measure of how much weight a ship can carry, not its weight, empty or in any degree of load. DWT is the sum of the weights of cargo, fuel, fresh water, ballast water, provisions, passengers, and crew.DWT is often used to specify a ship's maximum permissible deadweight (i.e. when she is fully loaded so that her Plimsoll line is at water level), although it may also denote the actual DWT of a ship not loaded to capacity.

Design 1013 ship

The Design 1013 ship (full name Emergency Fleet Corporation Design 1013), also known as the Robert Dollar type, was a steel-hulled cargo ship design approved for mass production by the United States Shipping Board's Emergency Fleet Corporation (EFT) in World War I. Like many of the early designs approved by the EFT, the Design 1013 did not originate with the EFT itself but was based on an existing cargo ship design, in this case one developed by the Skinner & Eddy Corporation of Seattle, Washington.

The Design 1013 ships had a deadweight tonnage of 8,800 and gross register tonnage of 5,600. They had a length of 423 feet 9 inches, beam of 54 feet, draft of 24 feet 2 inches and hold depth of 29 feet 9 inches. Some were powered by Curtis geared steam turbines and others by vertical triple expansion reciprocating steam engines, in either case yielding a service speed of between 11 and 12 knots. Some of the vessels were oil-fired and others coal-fired. They were produced by a variety of shipyards on the west coast of the U.S. including Skinner & Eddy and J. F. Duthie & Co. of Seattle, Los Angeles Shipbuilding & Drydock of Los Angeles, California, and the Northwest Steel Company and Columbia River Shipbuilding Company of Portland, Oregon. Most of them were given names starting with the word West (or in some cases, Western), indicating their west coast origins.A total of 111 of the type were completed—106 for the EFT and an additional five completed later for private contractors. All of them entered service between 1918 and 1920, with the majority probably being completed in 1919. About 37 of the completed ships were acquired by the U.S. Navy either during or shortly after the war for service as auxiliaries, but most of these were quickly decommissioned in 1919 after only a few months' service.

Edna G

Edna G is a tugboat which worked the Great Lakes and is now preserved as a museum ship. Edna G was built by the Cleveland Shipbuilding Company in 1896 for the Duluth and Iron Range Railroad at a cost $35,397.50. She was named for the daughter of J. L. Greatsinger, president of the railroad.She has a length of 92.42 feet, a beam of 23 feet, a depth of 7.42 feet, a gross register tonnage of 154 tons, and a net register tonnage of 67 tons.Home-ported at Two Harbors, Minnesota, Edna G moved ships and barges carrying iron ore and taconite from the Mesabi Range and other smaller sites in the Iron Range region of northeast Minnesota. She spent her entire working career at Two Harbors with the exception of World War I (1917–1919) when she served on the eastern seaboard. She was out of service from 1931 to 1933 due to the depression.Over the years Edna G was involved in several shipwreck rescues including the surviving crew of the Madeira. Her last tow was the Cason J. Calloway on December 30, 1980. She was the last coal-fired, steam-engine tug in service on the lakes when she was retired in 1981.Edna G. is one of the attractions of the Lake County Historical Society in Two Harbors. Following reports of continued weakening of the hull though corrosion and exposure to ice, in January 2017 Two Harbors City Council initiated further studies of the viability of continuing her preservation ashore. Media related to Edna G. at Wikimedia Commons

GRT

GRT may refer to:

Garo language

Gender reassignment therapy

General Recorded Tape, a defunct American audio tape producer

GRT Records, created by General Recorded Tape

General Relativity Theory

Grand River Transit a public transit operator in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Greenbrier River Trail, a state park in West Virginia

Gross register tonnage

GRT Group, former British bus operator

Guangdong Radio and Television, China

Gross tonnage

Gross tonnage (often abbreviated as GT, G.T. or gt) is a nonlinear measure of a ship's overall internal volume. Gross tonnage is different from gross register tonnage. Neither gross tonnage nor gross register tonnage should be confused with measures of mass or weight such as deadweight tonnage or displacement.

Gross tonnage, along with net tonnage, was defined by The International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships, 1969, adopted by the International Maritime Organization in 1969, and came into force on July 18, 1982. These two measurements replaced gross register tonnage (GRT) and net register tonnage (NRT). Gross tonnage is calculated based on "the moulded volume of all enclosed spaces of the ship" and is used to determine things such as a ship's manning regulations, safety rules, registration fees, and port dues, whereas the older gross register tonnage is a measure of the volume of only certain enclosed spaces.

John B. Caddell

John B. Caddell, formerly YO-140, is a 712 gross register tonnage, 185-foot (56 m), previously United States-flagged water tanker. The ship was wrecked on Staten Island due to the effects of Hurricane Sandy.

M. Davidsen (ship)

M. Davidsen was the name of a passenger ship in Iceland which began operations in 1891. It was 217 Gross register tonnage and 35.25 m (115.6 ft) long by 6.21 m (20.4 ft) wide by 4.86 m (16.0 ft) deep. It had room for 14 passengers. The ship was purchased from Denmark for 225,000 Icelandic króna in 1919 and used to move people and goods between Reykjavík and locations in Faxa Bay and Breiðafjörður. After its purchase it was renamed to Suðurland in 1919.Suðurland is now a derelict hulk near the abandoned herring factory at Djúpavík, Iceland. It was docked there in 1935 to serve as living quarters for men who worked in the factory.

MV Wickenburgh

Wickenburgh was a cargo liner that was built in 1938 as Adler by Lübecker Maschinenbau Gesellschaft, Lübeck for German owners. Requisitioned by the Kriegsmarine in 1940, she was seized by the Allies in Vordingborg, Denmark in May 1945, passed to the Ministry of War Transport (MoWT) and renamed Empire Coningsby. In 1946, she was allocated to the Dutch Government and renamed Margeca. In 1947, she was sold into merchant service and renamed Wickenburgh. A rebuild in 1953 saw her compound steam engine replaced with a diesel engine, with a reduction in gross register tonnage from 1,494 to 1,420. She was sold to Greek owners in 1963 and renamed Nissos Thassos. A further sale to Panama in 1970 saw her renamed Savilco. She served until 1984, when she was scrapped.

Net register tonnage

Net register tonnage (NRT, nrt, n.r.t.) is a ship's cargo volume capacity expressed in "register tons", one of which equals to a volume of 100 cubic feet (2.83 m3). It is calculated by subtracting non-revenue-earning spaces i.e. spaces not available for carrying cargo, for example engine rooms, fuel tanks and crew quarters, from the ship's gross register tonnage. Net tonnage is thus used in situations where a vessel's earning capacity is important, rather than its mere size. Net register tonnage is not a measure of the weight of the ship or its cargo, and should not be confused with terms such as deadweight tonnage or displacement.

Gross and net register tonnages were replaced by gross tonnage and net tonnage, respectively, when the International Maritime Organization (IMO) adopted The International Convention on Tonnage Measurement of Ships on 23 June 1969. The new tonnage regulations entered into force for all new ships on 18 July 1982, but existing vessels were given a migration period of 12 years to ensure that ships were given reasonable economic safeguards, since port and other dues are charged according to ship's tonnage. Since 18 July 1994 the gross and net tonnages, dimensionless indices calculated from the total moulded volume of the ship and its cargo spaces by mathematical formulae, have been the only official measures of the ship's tonnage. However, the gross and net register tonnages are still widely used in describing older ships.

RMAS Lodestone (A115)

RMAS Lodestone (A115) was a Magnet class Royal Navy degaussing ship. She was completed in 1980 by Cleland.

The Magnet class was developed to replace the Ham class minesweepers that had been converted for degaussing. They are 828 tons gross register tonnage (GRT) and have a top speed of 14 knots. They measure 55m x 12m x 4m.In 1997 she was sold to an Italian millionaire and towed to Devonport for conversion to a luxury yacht, the Bleu de Nimes.

SM U-67

SM U-67 was a Type U 66 submarine or U-boat for the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine) during the First World War. She had been laid down in November 1913 as U-8 the second boat of the U-7 class for the Austro-Hungarian Navy (German: Kaiserliche und Königliche (K.u.K.) Kriegsmarine) but was sold to Germany, along with the others in her class, in November 1914.

The submarine was ordered as U-8 from Germaniawerft of Kiel as the second of five boats of the U-7 class for the Austro-Hungarian Navy. After the outbreak of World War I in August 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Navy became convinced that none of the submarines of the class could be delivered to the Adriatic via Gibraltar. As a consequence, the entire class, including U-8, was sold to the German Imperial Navy in November 1914. Under German control, the class became known as the U 66 type and the boats were renumbered; U-8 became U-67, and all were redesigned and reconstructed to German specifications. U-67 was launched in May 1915 and commissioned in August. As completed, she displaced 791 tonnes (779 long tons), surfaced, and 933 tonnes (918 long tons), submerged. The boat was 69.50 metres (228 ft) long and was armed with five torpedo tubes and a deck gun.

A part of the IV Flotilla throughout the war, U-67 sank 18 ships with a combined gross register tonnage (GRT) of 39,937 in thirteen war patrols. She also damaged three other ships of 14,766 GRT. On 20 November 1918, nine days after the Armistice, U-67 was surrendered to the British. She was broken up in 1921 at Fareham.

SS Arabic (1908)

SS Arabic was a passenger steamship launched on 7 November 1908 as the SS Berlin and it was built by the A.G. Weser shipbuilding company in Germany. Her Gross Register Tonnage was advertised at 16,786. She made her maiden voyage on 1 May 1909 from New York to Genoa and Bremerhaven. In September 1914 she became an auxiliary cruiser with the Imperial German Navy as a minelayer.

SS Chusan

The SS Chusan was a British ocean liner and cruise ship, built for the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O)'s Indian and Far East Service in 1950. She was named after Chusan, a small island off China. A smaller version of the SS Himalaya, the Chusan had a gross register tonnage of 24,215; and a capacity of 1,565 passengers and crew. She was built as a replacement for the ship RMS Viceroy of India, lost in the Second World War. She was 646.5 feet (197.1 m) long. The Chusan is said to have brought new standards of shipboard luxury to India and the Far East. She was the last passenger liner built for P & O by Vickers-Armstrongs.

Chusan entered service in 1950, with her maiden voyage from London, England to Bombay, India. But she first made two "shake down" "all first class trips", one of a week's length and the other of a fortnight, sailing to Lisbon, Casablanca and Madeira. For most of her working life, she carried passengers between London, Bombay, and Japan, but from 1963 also operated to Sydney, Australia. In 1973, she retired from service and was sold to be scrapped at Chou’s Iron and Steel Company Ltd. in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

SS Geelong

Geelong was a ship which owned by the Blue Anchor Line, and, after 1910, by P&O. She was constructed in 1904 by Barclay, Curle and Co. Ltd., at Glasgow, Scotland. When originally constructed, she had accommodation for 120 saloon and 200 third-class passengers, and also carried cargo. Her gross register tonnage was 7700 (or 7,951) tons, and she was 450 feet (137 meters) long, powered by triple-expansion steam engines, and capable of 14 knots, with an average cruise speed of 12 knots.In August 1909, Geelong participated in a search for her sister ship Waratah , which had disappeared without trace close to the South African coast, and was thought to be disabled and drifting.During World War I, the Government of Australia leased Geelong for use as a troopship to transport the Australian Imperial Force to the Middle East and Europe. Designated HMAT A2 Geelong, the ship departed on her first voyage as a troopship on 22 September 1914, carrying 440 soldiers from Melbourne, Australia, consisting of the Australian Army′s 3rd Field Artillery Brigade, the 3rd Field Company Engineers, and some members of the 12th Infantry Battalion. She proceeded to Hobart, Australia, where she picked up another 912 soldiers, consisting of the 12th Infantry Battalion and the 3rd Light Horse Regiment. She left Hobart, bound for Egypt, on 20 October 1914.

Her second outbound trooping voyage left Adelaide, Australia, on 31 May 1915, transporting 1,264 soldiers of the 27th Infantry Battalion and the 7th Field Ambulance unit. She also picked up another 252 soldiers, who were reinforcements for various other units, from Fremantle, Australia, on 7 June 1915.

Her final departure from Australia was on 18 November 1915, carrying 1,362 soldiers, including the 32nd Infantry Battalion and some reinforcements for other units. Shortly after disembarking the men in Egypt, Geelong sank after a collision with SS Bonvilston, an Admiralty store ship, in the Mediterranean Sea near Alexandria, Egypt, on 1 January 1916. There was no loss of life.

Tonnage

Tonnage is a measure of the cargo-carrying capacity of a ship. The term derives from the taxation paid on tuns or casks of wine. In modern maritime usage, "tonnage" specifically refers to a calculation of the volume or cargo volume of a ship. Tonnage should not be confused with displacement, which refers to the actual weight of the vessel. Tonnage is commonly used to assess fees on commercial shipping.

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