Gromada [ɡrɔˈmada] is a Polish word meaning "gathering", "group", or "assembly". In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, the term referred to a village organization which embraced all the inhabitants of a village and acted as a local authority, as well as overseeing tax payments. In this sense the gromada developed between the 16th and 18th centuries, and continued to function in Congress Poland. Their chiefs took the title of sołtys and were elected by the local population.
In communist Poland between 1954 and 1972, gromadas constituted the lowest tier of local government, taking over the role previously played by gminas. A gromada would generally consist of several villages, but they were smaller units than the gminas had been. In 1973 gminas were reintroduced and gromadas abolished. At present the smallest unit of local government in rural Poland (subordinate to the gmina) is the sołectwo.
A gromada is a former Polish unit of local government e.g.
The Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Sound Design was an annual award presented by Drama Desk in recognition of achievements in the theatre among Broadway, Off Broadway and Off-Off Broadway productions. The category was created in 1980, to honor designers of both musicals and plays. It was later split in the 2010 ceremony, to honor plays and musicals separately.
† - indicates the performance won the Tony Award
‡ - indicates the performance was also nominated for the Tony AwardDrama Desk Award for Outstanding Sound Design in a Play
The Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Sound Design in a Play is an annual award presented by Drama Desk in recognition of achievements in the theatre among Broadway, Off Broadway and Off-Off Broadway productions. The category was created in the 2010 ceremony when the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Sound Design was split in two — Sound Design in a Play, and Sound Design in a Musical.
† - indicates the performance won the Tony Award
‡ - indicates the performance was also nominated for the Tony AwardElizabeth of Bosnia
Elizabeth of Bosnia (c. 1339 – January 1387) was queen consort and later regent of Hungary and Croatia, as well as queen consort of Poland.
Daughter of Ban Stephen II of Bosnia, Elizabeth became Queen of Hungary upon marrying King Louis I in 1353. In 1370, she gave birth to a long-anticipated heir, Catherine, and became Queen of Poland when Louis ascended the Polish throne. The royal couple had two more daughters, Mary and Hedwig, but Catherine died in 1378. Initially a consort with no substantial influence, Elizabeth then started surrounding herself with noblemen loyal to her, led by her favourite, Nicholas I Garai. When Louis died in 1382, Mary succeeded him with Elizabeth as regent. Unable to preserve the personal union of Hungary and Poland, the queen dowager secured the Polish throne for her youngest daughter, Hedwig.
During her regency in Hungary, Elizabeth faced several rebellions led by John Horvat and John of Palisna, who attempted to take advantage of Mary's insecure reign. In 1385, they invited King Charles III of Naples to depose Mary and assume the crown. Elizabeth responded by having Charles murdered two months after his coronation, in 1386. She had the crown restored to her daughter and established herself as regent once more, only to be captured, imprisoned and ultimately strangled by her enemies.Gmina
The gmina (Polish pronunciation [ˈɡmina], plural gminy [ˈɡminɨ], from German Gemeinde meaning commune) is the principal unit of the administrative division of Poland, similar to a municipality. As of 2010 there were 2,478 gminy throughout the country.The gmina has been the basic unit of territorial division in Poland since 1974, when it replaced the smaller gromada (cluster). There are three types of gminy:
urban gmina (Polish: gmina miejska) consisting of just one city or town,
mixed urban-rural gmina (Polish: gmina miejsko-wiejska) consisting of a town and surrounding villages and countryside; and
rural gmina (Polish: gmina wiejska) consisting only of villages and countryside (occasionally of just one village).Some rural gminy have their seat in a town which is outside the gmina's division. For example, the rural Gmina Augustów is administered from the town of Augustów, but does not include the town, as Augustów is an urban type gmina in its own right.
The legislative and controlling body of each gmina is the elected municipal council (rada gminy), or in a town: rada miasta (town assembly). Executive power is held by the directly elected mayor of the municipality, called wójt in rural gminy, burmistrz in most urban and urban-rural gminy, or prezydent in towns with more than 400,000 inhabitants and some others which traditionally use the title. A gmina may create auxiliary units (jednostki pomocnicze), which play a subordinate administrative role. In rural areas these are called sołectwa, in towns they may be dzielnice or osiedla and in an urban-rural gmina, the town itself may be designated as an auxiliary unit. For a complete listing of all the gminy in Poland, see List of Polish gminas.Gmina Biłgoraj
Gmina Biłgoraj is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Biłgoraj County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. Its seat is the town of Biłgoraj, although the town is not part of the territory of the gmina.
The gmina covers an area of 262.64 square kilometres (101.4 sq mi), and as of 2006 its total population is 12,541.Gmina Tarnawatka
Gmina Tarnawatka is a rural gmina (administrative district) in Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. Its seat is the village of Tarnawatka, which lies approximately 10 kilometres (6 mi) north of Tomaszów Lubelski and 98 km (61 mi) south-east of the regional capital Lublin.
The gmina covers an area of 82.66 square kilometres (31.9 sq mi), and as of 2006 its total population is 4,050 (4,031 in 2013).Gromada, Biłgoraj County
Gromada [ɡrɔˈmada] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Biłgoraj, within Biłgoraj County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland. It lies approximately 3 kilometres (2 mi) north-west of Biłgoraj and 77 km (48 mi) south of the regional capital Lublin.
The village has a population of 941.Gromada, Tomaszów Lubelski County
Gromada [ɡrɔˈmada] is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Tarnawatka, within Tomaszów Lubelski County, Lublin Voivodeship, in eastern Poland.Gromada (disambiguation)
A gromada is a former Polish unit of local government.
Gromada Tursko WielkieGromada may also refer to:
Gromada, Tomaszów Lubelski County in Lublin Voivodeship (east Poland)
Gromada, Biłgoraj County in Lublin Voivodeship (east Poland)Gromada Osiek
Gromada Osiek is a group of several Polish villages, constituted at the lowest tier of local government. They take over the role previously played by Gmina Osiek at a smaller scale than Gmina Osiek. In communist Poland between September 29, 1954 to December 31, 1972 these villages were introduced as a Polish word meaning “Osiek”. These units are created by the Communist Polish Law and have legal effect.
Gromadzka National Council was the executive organ of the group.
The gromada continued to function in interwar Poland (administrative division of the Second Polish Republic. It later became a sołectwo, a subdivision of a gmina (as an auxiliary unit of a commune from the second world war to the end of 1954. At present the smallest unit of local government in rural Poland is the sołectwo.
The gromada originally named localities the territorial council developed between the 15th and 18th centuries, and continued to function in Congress Poland.
As of 29 September 1952 Gromada Osiek consisted of 10 villages: Długołęka, Kąty, Lipnik, Łęg, Mikołajów, Mucharzów, Osieczko, Osiek, Pliskowola and Suchowola. As of 1 July 1952 the gmina Osiek consisted of 14 gromadas: Długołęka, Grabowiec, Kąty, Lipnik, Łęg, Mikołajów, Mucharzów, Osieczko, Osiek, Pliskowola, Strzegom, Suchowola, Wiązownica Mała and Wiązownica Wielka.Gromada Rewolucyjna Londyn
Gromada Rewolucyjna Londyn was a Polish social democratic revolutionary group based in London, England in the late 1850s and early 1860s. It was founded in 1856, and led by the exiles Zenon Świętosławski, Henryk Abicht, Jan Krynski and Ludwik Oborski, In 1858 they sought to make contact with the wider revolutionaries and international communists and plotted to overthrow the government in Poland, however, this action was thwarted by the Prussian police. Their aims were to abolish private property in Poland and to establish a global socialist republic.Gromada Tursko Wielkie
Gromada Tursko Wielkie is a group consisting of several villages, constituted the lowest tier of local government, taking over the role previously played by gmina Tursko Wielkie; at a smaller scale. In communist Poland between 29 September 1954 and 31 December 1972, this assembly was introduced. Gromada was the lowest (next to osiedle) administrative division of Poland.
The Gromadzka National Council was the group's executive organ. These units were created by the Communist Polish Law, and have legal authority.
The gromada continued to function in interwar Poland (administrative division of the Second Polish Republic. Sołectwo) is a subdivision of a gmina (as an auxiliary unit of a commune) from the second world war, to the end of 1954. At present sołectwo is the smallest unit of local government in rural Poland (subordinate to the gmina).
The gromada was originally the name of localities specific to the territorial council developed between the 15th and 18th centuries, and continued to function in Congress Poland.
As of 29 September 1952, Gromada Tursko Wielkie consisted of 13 villages: Matiaszów, Nakol, Niekrasów, Niekurza, Osala, Strużki, Sworoń, Szwagrów, Trzcianka Dolna, Trzcianka Folwarczna, Trzcianka Górna, Tursko Małe and Tursko Wielkie. As of 1 July 1952 the gmina Tursko Wielkie consisted of 13 gromadas: Luszyca, Matiaszów, Niekrasów Ukazowy, Niekurza, Okrągła, Ossala, Rudniki, Strużki, Sworoń, Trzcianka Górna, Tursko Małe, Tursko Wielkie and Zawada.Hramada
Hramada (Belarusian: Грамада, [ɣramaˈda], sometimes also wrongly spelled as Gramada or confused for the Ukrainian word Hromada or Polish word Gromada) is a Belarusian word that means gathering of people, i.e., assembly. Historically a hramada was meant as a peasant commune, which gathered meetings for discussing and resolving current issues.
Historically the word was often used in names of Belarusian leftist political parties.
Historical political parties:
Belarusian Socialist Assembly
Belarusian Peasants' and Workers' UnionModern political parties:
Belarusian Social Democratic Party (Assembly)
Belarusian Social Democratic Assembly
Belarusian Social Democratic Party (People's Assembly)Hughie
Hughie is a short two-character play by Eugene O’Neill set in the lobby of a small hotel on a West Side street in midtown New York during the summer of 1928. The play is essentially a long monologue delivered by a small-time hustler named Erie Smith to the hotel’s new night clerk Charlie Hughes, lamenting how Smith’s luck has gone bad since the death of Hughie, Hughes' predecessor. O’Neill wrote Hughie in 1942, although it did not receive its world premiere until 1958, when it was staged in Sweden at the Royal Dramatic Theatre with Bengt Eklund as Erie Smith. It was first staged in English at the Theater Royal in Bath, England in 1963 with Burgess Meredith as Erie.The play was first presented on Broadway in 1964 starring Jason Robards as Erie and directed by José Quintero. Robards received a Tony Award nomination for his performance, and revived the production in 1975 in Berkeley, California with Jack Dodson as Charlie Hughes. Robards and Dodson returned to perform it at the Hyde Park Festival Theatre in 1981 and the Trinity Repertory Theatre in Providence, Rhode Island in 1991, also televising their performances in 1984 for PBS.
Hughie has been produced on Broadway three times since the 1964 Robards/Quintero production. In 1975 it was paired in repertory with another short play, Duet, this time with Ben Gazzara as Erie (who also won a Tony Award nomination for the role), and in 1996 by the Circle in the Square Theatre in a production directed by and starring Al Pacino. The designers for that production were David Gallo (sets), Donald Holder (lights), Candice Donnelly (costumes) and John Gromada (sound). The Goodman Theater in Chicago put on the play in January and February 2010, with Brian Dennehy in the title role. The production was variously well-reviewed, with emphasis on Dennehy's strong performance. The play was revived in 2013 at the Shakespeare Theatre Company in Washington, D.C. with Richard Schiff as Erie. It returned for a fourth time to Broadway with Forest Whitaker as Erie Smith in February 2016. The 2016 revival was directed by Michael Grandage with Darren Bagert as a lead producer. The production had a shortened run of 55 performances and closed on March 27, 2016.Hughie has been televised at least four times in addition to the 1984 Robards/Dodson version: in 1959 (for Swedish television), 1960 (Norwegian television), 1963 (Dutch television) and 1983 (French television).John Gromada
John Gromada (born 1964) is a prolific, award-winning composer and sound designer. He is best known for his many scores for theatrical productions in New York on and off-Broadway and in regional theatres. Broadway plays he has scored include the 2014 production of The Elephant Man, starring Bradley Cooper, The Trip to Bountiful with Cicely Tyson, Gore Vidal's,The Best Man (play), Seminar (play) by Theresa Rebeck,Next Fall (play), Chazz Palminteri's A Bronx Tale, David Auburn's The Columnist, and Proof, Lisa Kron's Well, Rabbit Hole, and A Few Good Men ; revivals of Prelude to a Kiss, Summer and Smoke, Twelve Angry Men, Torch Song, and A Streetcar Named Desire. His score for the nine-hour production of Horton Foote's The Orphans' Home Cycle was featured at the Hartford Stage Company and Signature Theatre in New York. Gromada also designed the sound for the Broadway production of Bruce Norris' Tony award-winning play, Clybourne Park
Gromada first emerged on the theatre scene in the late 1980s creating powerful soundscores blending original music and abstract sound design. His industrial music score for Sophie Treadwell's Machinal at the New York Shakespeare Festival earned him a Village Voice Obie Award in 1991. In 1996 he won the Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Sound Design for his musique concrète soundscore for Caryl Churchill's The Skriker, directed by Mark Wing-Davey for NYSF. In 2009 His work on Donald Margulies' "Shipwrecked! An Entertainment — The Amazing Adventures of Louis de Rougemont (As Told by Himself)" earned him a Lucille Lortel Award, and In 2012 he won another Drama Desk Award for his work on 'The Best Man (play)'. In 2013 Gromada was nominated for a Tony Award for Best Sound Design of a Play for his work on The Trip to Bountiful In recent years he has also become known also for his lyrical, acoustic chamber scores, particularly for his work on the plays of Tennessee Williams. Williams plays he has scored include The Glass Menagerie, A Streetcar Named Desire, Sweet Bird of Youth, The Night of the Iguana, Camino Real, Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Summer and Smoke, A Lovely Sunday for Creve Coeur, The Milk Train Doesn't Stop Here Anymore and Red Devil Battery Sign.
In 2009 Gromada began to write the score for a new music theatre piece based on Michael Pollan's best-selling book, The Botany of Desire, which had a first workshop in Berkeley in April, 2009.In the summer of 2011, his score for the Public Theater's production of Measure for Measure was heard at the Delacorte Theatre in Central Park. The production was directed by David Esbjornson. Music from this and other productions has been released on iTunes and other digital music services.
Gromada composed the theme music for the new ITV television series, The Interrogators, on the Biography Channel, and also composed an original score for the Lifetime network's 2014 film adaptation of The Trip to Bountiful directed by Michael Wilson (director) and starring Cicely Tyson and Vanessa Williams. John Gromada lives in New York with his wife Barbara and two daughters, Aniela and Sylvie.Kaluga electoral district (Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917)
The Kaluga electoral district (Russian: Калужский избирательный округ) was a constituency created for the Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917. The electoral district covered the Kaluga Governorate. The constituency was assigned 8 seats in the Constituent Assembly.In Kaluga, the SR list was dominated by leftist elements.In Kaluga town the Kadets emerged victorious with 6,857 votes (49.2%), followed by the Bolsheviks with 3,454 votes (24.7%), Mensheviks 2,321 votes (16.7%), SRs 772 votes (5.5%), Gromada 320 votes (2.3%), Old Believers 166 voters (1.2%) and Popular Socialists 54 votes (0.4%). In the town garrison, the Bolsheviks got the major share of votes (1,619 votes, 72.5%), followed by the Kadets 298 votes (13.3%), SRs 203 votes (9.1%), Mensheviks 86 votes (3.9%), Gromada 17 votes (0.7%) and 8 Popular Socialists (0.4%).List of Slavic Native Faith's organisations
List of organisations of Slavic Native Faith (Rodnovery) by country. Some organisations have their headquarters and major following in one country but have branches in other countries as well.Minsk electoral district (Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917)
The Minsk electoral district (Russian: Минский избирательный округ) was a constituency created for the Russian Constituent Assembly election, 1917.
The electoral district consisted of the Minsk Governorate and the parts of the Vilna Governorate and the Kovno Governorate that were not under German occupation. Notably, the soldiers based in the garrison in Minsk voted in the Western Front electoral district rather than the Minsk electoral district.White Russian separatism was a negligible force in the electoral district. The conservative press reported a quiet and orderly election in the province.The most voted list in the city of Minsk was the Jewish National Electoral Committee, which obtained 12,688 votes (35.5%), followed by the Bolsheviks with 9,521 votes (26.7%), the Polish list 4,242 votes (11.9%), Menshevik-Bund 2,870 votes (8%), Kadets 2,057 votes (5.8%), Poalei-Zion 1,463 votes (4.1%), Russian Democrats 1,446 votes (4.1%), SRs 977 votes (2.7%), United Jewish Socialist Labour Party 278 votes (0.8%), Gromada 160 votes (0.4%) and Landowners 49 voters.Oskar Halecki
Oskar Halecki (26 May 1891, Vienna – 17 September 1973, White Plains, New York) was a Polish historian, social and Catholic activist.