Griffin

The griffin, griffon, or gryphon (Greek: γρύφων, grýphōn, or γρύπων, grýpōn, early form γρύψ, grýps; Latin: gryphus) is a legendary creature with the body, tail, and back legs of a lion; the head and wings of an eagle; and sometimes an eagle's talons as its front feet. Because the lion was traditionally considered the king of the beasts and the eagle the king of birds by the Middle Ages the griffin was thought to be an especially powerful and majestic creature. Since classical antiquity, Griffins were known for guarding treasure and priceless possessions.[1]

In Greek and Roman texts, griffins and Arimaspians were associated with gold deposits of Central Asia. Indeed, as Pliny the Elder wrote, "griffins were said to lay eggs in burrows on the ground and these nests contained gold nuggets."[2]

In medieval heraldry, the Griffin became a Christian symbol of divine power and a guardian of the divine.[3]

Griffin
Knossos fresco in throne palace
Restored griffin fresco in the "Throne Room", Palace of Knossos, Crete, original from Bronze Age
GroupingMythological hybrids
Similar creaturesHippogriff, simurgh, sphinx
MythologyAncient Egyptian, Persian, Renaissance
Other name(s)griffon, gryphon
VAM - Luristan Greife
Bronze griffins from ancient Luristan, Iran, 1st millennium BC. Vorderasiatisches Museum Berlin
Tripode
Bronze griffin head from Olympia, Greece. 7th century BC. Olympia museum
Persepolis 24.11.2009 11-18-45 cropped
Achaemenid griffin at Persepolis, 500–330 BC

Etymology

Psa-Opera del Duomo-Grifone Islamico007
The Pisa Griffin, in the Pisa Cathedral Museum, 11th century

The derivation of this word remains uncertain. It could be related to the Greek word γρυπός (grypos), meaning 'curved', or 'hooked'. Also, this could have been an Anatolian loan word, compare Akkadian karūbu (winged creature), and similar to Cherub. A related Hebrew word is כרוב (kerúv).[4]

Form

Most statuary representations of griffins depict them with bird-like talons, although in some older illustrations griffins have a lion's forelimbs; they generally have a lion's hindquarters. Its eagle's head is conventionally given prominent ears; these are sometimes described as the lion's ears, but are often elongated (more like a horse's), and are sometimes feathered.

Infrequently, a griffin is portrayed without wings, or a wingless eagle-headed lion is identified as a griffin. In 15th-century and later heraldry, such a beast may be called an alce or a keythong.

In heraldry, a griffin always has forelegs like an eagle's hind-legs. A type of griffin with the four legs of a lion was distinguished by perhaps only one English herald of later heraldry as the Opinicus, which also had a camel-like neck and a short tail that almost resembles a camel's tail.

History

Abderacoin
The chief coin type of the Greek city state of Abdera was known as "The Griffon" because of the mythical animal depicted on it.

Representations of griffin-like hybrids with four legs and a beaked head appeared in Ancient Iranian and Ancient Egyptian art dating back to before 3000 BC.[5] In Egypt, a griffin-like animal can be seen in a cosmetic palette from Hierakonpolis, known as the "Two Dog Palette",[6][7] which is dated to ca. 3300-3100 BC.[8]

In Iranian mythology, griffin is called Shirdal means: Lion-Eagle. The Shirdal has appeared in ancient art of Iran since late second millennium BC.[9] Shirdals appeared on cylinder seals from Susa as early as 3000 BC.[10] Shirdals also are common motifs in the art of Luristan, North and North West region of Iran in Iron Age, and Achaemenid art.[11]

Griffin-type creatures combining raptor heads and mammalian bodies were depicted in the Levant, Syria, and Anatolia in the Middle Bronze Age,[12][13] dated at about 1950-1550 BC.[14] Early depictions of griffin types in Ancient Greek art are found in the 15th century BC frescoes in the Throne Room of the Bronze Age Palace of Knossos, as restored by Sir Arthur Evans. Bird-mammal composites were a decorative theme in Archaic and Classical Greek art, but became quite popular by the sixth and fifth centuries BC

Bronzen griffioen ForumHadriani 198894 RMO Leiden
Bronze figure of a griffin, Roman period ( 50 – 270 AD)
Griffin of Perugia
Griffin segreant wearing the mural crown of Perugia, 13th century
A Soldier Fighting A Griffin In The 'Alphonso' Psalter
A soldier fighting a griffin, 'Alphonso' Psalter, 1284
Martin Schongauer, The griffin (15th century)
Martin Schongauer: The griffin, 15th century
Minneteppich KGM
Medieval tapestry, Basel, c. 1450

In Central Asia, the griffin appears about a thousand years after Bronze Age Crete, in the 5th–4th centuries BC, reminiscent of iamges in the Achaemenid Persian Empire. Russian jewelry historian Elena Neva maintained that the Achaemenids considered the griffin "a protector from evil, witchcraft and secret slander".[15] But no writings exist from Achaemenid Persia to support this claim. Robin Lane Fox, in Alexander the Great, 1973:31 and notes p. 506, remarks that a 'lion-griffin' attacks a stag in a pebble mosaic of the fourth century BC [16] at Pella, perhaps serving as an emblem of the kingdom of Macedon or a personal one of Alexander's successor Antipater.

The Pisa Griffin is a large bronze sculpture that has been in Pisa in Italy since the Middle Ages, though it is of Islamic origin. It is the largest bronze medieval Islamic sculpture known, at over three feet tall (42.5 inches, or 1.08 m.), and was probably created in the 11th century in Al-Andaluz (Islamic Spain).[17] From about 1100 it was placed on a column on the roof of Pisa Cathedral until replaced by a replica in 1832; the original is now in the Museo dell' Opera del Duomo (Cathedral Museum), Pisa.

Influenced by dinosaurs?

Adrienne Mayor, a classical folklorist and historian of science, proposes that the ancient Greek idea and image of the griffin in classical art and literature beginning in the seventh century BC was influenced in part by the fossilized remains of beaked dinosaurs such as Protoceratops observed on the way to gold deposits by nomadic prospectors of ancient Scythia (Central Asia),[18] This hypothesis is necessarily speculative, based on a number of Greek and Latin literary sources and related artworks, beginning with the first written ancient descriptions of griffins in a lost work by Aristeas of Proconnessus (a Greek who traveled to the Altai region between Mongolia and NW China) in the seventh century BC), cited by Aeschylus and Herodotus (ca 450 BC) and ending with Aelian (third century AD). Mayor's suggestion has been contested in a blog claiming that it ignores pre-Mycenaean accounts and bird-lion composites in earlier art that goes far earlier than 7th century BCE.[19].

A multitude of imaginary composite creatures combining features of birds, reptiles, and mammals can be found in ancient Mediterranean and Near Eastern art, including mammals with bird heads in Minoan, Mycenaean,and Egyptian art, but there are no pre-Mycenaean written accounts about Griffins; and as Mayor has explained, in fact no written accounts earlier than Herodotus in the fifth century BC survive to tell us anything about imaginary hybrid bird-lion imagery in earlier cultures. Mayor's suggestion is necessarily speculative, intended to account for the profusion of Greco-Latin literary accounts of the "gryps" (Griffin) as a real animal of the East and the accompanying popularity of artistic representations that arose in Greece after travelers like Aristeas brought back tales of "Griffins" from Central Asia.

Ancient parallels

Several ancient mythological creatures are similar to the griffin. These include the Lamassu, an Assyrian protective deity, often depicted with a bull or lion's body, eagle's wings, and human's head.

Sumerian and Akkadian mythology feature the demon Anzu, half man and half bird, associated with the chief sky god Enlil. This was a divine storm-bird linked with the southern wind and the thunder clouds.

Jewish mythology speaks of the Ziz, which resembles Anzu, as well as the ancient Greek Phoenix. The Bible mentions the Ziz in Psalms 50:11. This is also similar to Cherub. The cherub, or sphinx, was very popular in Phoenician iconography.

In ancient Crete, griffins became very popular, and were portrayed in various media. A similar creature is the Minoan Genius.

In the Hindu religion, Garuda is a large bird-like creature which serves as a mount (vahana) of the Lord Vishnu. It is also the name for the constellation Aquila.

Medieval lore

Venice - Statue of a griffin
Statue of a griffin at St Mark's Basilica in Venice

In medieval legend, griffins not only mated for life, but if either partner died, then the other would continue the rest of its life alone, never to search for a new mate. The griffin was thus made an emblem of the Church's opposition to remarriage. Being a union of an aerial bird and a terrestrial beast, it was seen in Christendom to be a symbol of Jesus, who was both human and divine. As such it can be found sculpted on some churches.[1]

According to Stephen Friar's New Dictionary of Heraldry, a griffin's claw was believed to have medicinal properties and one of its feathers could restore sight to the blind.[1] Goblets fashioned from griffin claws (actually antelope horns) and griffin eggs (actually ostrich eggs) were highly prized in medieval European courts.[20]

When Genoa emerged as a major seafaring power in the Middle Ages and Renaissance, griffins commenced to be depicted as part of the republic's coat of arms, rearing at the sides of the shield bearing the Cross of St. George.

By the 12th century, the appearance of the griffin was substantially fixed: "All its bodily members are like a lion's, but its wings and mask are like an eagle's."[21] It is not yet clear if its forelimbs are those of an eagle or of a lion. Although the description implies the latter, the accompanying illustration is ambiguous. It was left to the heralds to clarify that.

A hippogriff is a legendary creature, supposedly the offspring of a griffin and a mare.

Heraldic significance

Johann-Vogel-Meditationes-emblematicae-de-restaurata-pace-Germaniae MGG 1034
Griffin in Johann Vogel: Meditationes emblematicae de restaurata pace Germaniae, 1649
Bevan Crest
A heraldic griffin passant of the Bevan family crest
Griffioen, Kasteel de Haar, juli 2003
Heraldic guardian griffin at Kasteel de Haar, Netherlands, 1892–1912

In heraldry, the griffin's amalgamation of lion and eagle gains in courage and boldness, and it is always drawn to powerful fierce monsters. It is used to denote strength and military courage and leadership. Griffins are portrayed with the rear body of a lion, an eagle's head with erect ears, a feathered breast, and the forelegs of an eagle, including claws. These features indicate a combination of intelligence and strength.[22]

In British heraldry, a male griffin is shown without wings, its body covered in tufts of formidable spikes, with a short tusk emerging from the forehead, as for a unicorn.[23] The female griffin with wings is more commonly used.

In architecture

In architectural decoration the griffin is usually represented as a four-footed beast with wings and the head of an eagle with horns, or with the head and beak of an eagle.

The statues that mark the entrance to the City of London are sometimes mistaken for griffins, but are in fact (Tudor) dragons, the supporters of the city's arms.[24] They are most easily distinguished from griffins by their membranous, rather than feathered, wings.

In literature

For fictional characters named Griffin, see Griffin (surname)

Flavius Philostratus mentioned them in The Life of Apollonius of Tyana:

As to the gold which the griffins dig up, there are rocks which are spotted with drops of gold as with sparks, which this creature can quarry because of the strength of its beak. “For these animals do exist in India” he said, “and are held in veneration as being sacred to the Sun ; and the Indian artists, when they represent the Sun, yoke four of them abreast to draw the images ; and in size and strength they resemble lions, but having this advantage over them that they have wings, they will attack them, and they get the better of elephants and of dragons. But they have no great power of flying, not more than have birds of short flight; for they are not winged as is proper with birds, but the palms of their feet are webbed with red membranes, such that they are able to revolve them, and make a flight and fight in the air; and the tiger alone is beyond their powers of attack, because in swiftness it rivals the winds.[25]

And the griffins of the Indians and the ants of the Ethiopians, though they are dissimilar in form, yet, from what we hear, play similar parts; for in each country they are, according to the tales of poets, the guardians of gold, and devoted to the gold reefs of the two countries.[26]

Griffins are used widely in Persian poetry; Rumi is one such poet who writes in reference to griffins.[27]

In Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy, after Dante and Virgil's journey through Hell and Purgatory has concluded, Dante meets a chariot dragged by a griffin in Earthly Paradise. Immediately afterwards, Dante is reunited with Beatrice. Dante and Beatrice then start their journey through Paradise.

Sir John Mandeville wrote about them in his 14th century book of travels:

In that country be many griffins, more plenty than in any other country. Some men say that they have the body upward as an eagle and beneath as a lion; and truly they say sooth, that they be of that shape. But one griffin hath the body more great and is more strong than eight lions, of such lions as be on this half, and more great and stronger than an hundred eagles such as we have amongst us. For one griffin there will bear, flying to his nest, a great horse, if he may find him at the point, or two oxen yoked together as they go at the plough. For he hath his talons so long and so large and great upon his feet, as though they were horns of great oxen or of bugles or of kine, so that men make cups of them to drink of. And of their ribs and of the pens of their wings, men make bows, full strong, to shoot with arrows and quarrels.[28]

John Milton, in Paradise Lost II, refers to the legend of the griffin in describing Satan:

As when a Gryfon through the Wilderness

With winged course ore Hill or moarie Dale,
Pursues the ARIMASPIAN, who by stelth
Had from his wakeful custody purloind
The guarded Gold [...]

Griffins appear in the fairy tales Jack the Giant Killer, The Griffin (fairy tale) and The Singing, Springing Lark.

In The Son of Neptune by Rick Riordan, Percy Jackson, Hazel Levesque, and Frank Zhang are attacked by griffins in Alaska.

In the Harry Potter series, the character Albus Dumbledore has a griffin-shaped knocker. Also, the character Godric Gryffindor's surname is a variation on the French griffon d'or ("golden griffon").

Pomponius Mela- "In Europe, constantly falling snow makes those places contiguous with the Riphean Mountains so impassable that, in addition, they prevent those who deliberately travel here from seeing anything. After that comes a region of very rich soil but quite uninhabitable because griffins, a savage and tenacious breed of wild beasts, love- to an amazing degree- the gold that is mined from deep within the earth there, and because they guard it with an amazing hostility to those who set foot there." (Romer, 1998.)

Isidore of Seville – "The Gryphes are so called because they are winged quadrupeds. This kind of wild beast is found in the Hyperborean Mountains. In every part of their body they are lions, and in wings and heads are like eagles, and they are fierce enemies of horses. Moreover they tear men to pieces." (Brehaut, 1912) [29]

Modern uses

The griffin is the symbol of the Philadelphia Museum of Art; bronze castings of them perch on each corner of the museum's roof, protecting its collection.[30][31] Similarly, prior to the mid-1990s a griffin formed part of the logo of Midland Bank (now HSBC).

The griffin is used in the logo of United Paper Mills, Vauxhall Motors, and of Scania and its former group partners SAAB-Aircraft and Saab Automobile. The latest fighter produced by the SAAB-Aircraft company bears the name of "Gripen" (Griffin), but as a result of public competition. During World War II, the Heinkel firm named its heavy bomber design for the Luftwaffe after the legendary animal, as the Heinkel He 177 Greif, the German form of "griffin". General Atomics has used the term "Griffin Eye" for its intelligence surveillance platform based on a Hawker Beechcraft King Air 35ER civilian aircraft[32]

The "Griff" statue by Veres Kalman 2007 in the forecourt of the Farkashegyi cemetery in Budapest, Hungary.

"Griff" Statue in the forecourt of the Farkasréti Cemetery Budapest
"Griff" Statue in the forecourt of the Farkashegyi Cemetery Budapest, 2007

Griffins, like many other fictional creatures, frequently appear within works under the fantasy genre. Examples of fantasy-oriented franchises that feature griffins include Warhammer Fantasy Battle, Warcraft, Heroes of Might and Magic, the Griffon in Dungeons & Dragons, Ragnarok Online, Harry Potter, The Spiderwick Chronicles, My Little Pony: Friendship is Magic, and The Battle for Wesnoth.

POL województwo zachodniopomorskie COA

The red griffin rampant was the coat of arms of the dukes of Pomerania and survives today as the armorial of West Pomeranian Voivodeship (historically, Farther Pomerania) in Poland. It is also part of the coat of arms of the german State of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, representing the historical region Vorpommern (Hither Pommerania).

Wappen Greifswald

Similarly, the coat of arms of Greifswald, Germany, in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, also shows a red griffin rampant – perched in a tree, reflecting a legend about the town's founding in the 13th century.

Seal of Heraklion

Seal of Heraklion, Greece

UtJR flag

Flag of the Utti Jaeger Regiment of the Finnish Army

School emblems and mascots

FASTWÜRMS - Gryphon
The Gryphon is the emblem and mascot of the University of Guelph

Three gryphons form the crest of Trinity College, Oxford (founded 1555), originating from the family crest of founder Sir Thomas Pope. The college's debating society is known as The Gryphon, and the notes of its master emeritus show it to be one of the oldest debating institutions in the country, significantly older than the more famous Oxford Union Society.[33] Griffins are also mascots for VU University Amsterdam,[34] Reed College,[35] Sarah Lawrence College,[36] the University of Guelph, and Canisius College.

The official seal of Purdue University was adopted during the University's centennial in 1969. The seal, approved by the Board of Trustees, was designed by Prof. Al Gowan, formerly at Purdue. It replaced an unofficial one that had been in use for 73 years.[37]

The College of William and Mary in Virginia changed its mascot to the griffin in April 2010.[38][39] The griffin was chosen because it is the combination of the British lion and the American eagle.

The 367th Training Support Squadron's and 12th Combat Aviation Brigade feature griffins in their unit patches.

The emblem of the Greek 15th Infantry Division features an axe-wielding griffin on its unit patch.

The English independent school of Wycliffe College features a griffin on its school crest.

The mascot of St Mary's College, one of the sixteen colleges in Durham University.

The mascot of Glenview Senior Public School in Toronto is the Gryphon, and the name is incorporated into its sporting teams.

The mascot of the L&N STEM Academy in Knoxville, Tennessee, a public science, technology, engineering and math high school serving grades 9-12, is the Gryphon. The school opening in August 2011. The Gryphon is also incorporated into the school's robotics team.

The mascot of Charles G. Fraser Junior Public School in Toronto is the Griffin, and an illustration of a griffin forms the school's logo.

The mascot of Glebe Collegiate Institute in Ottawa is the Gryphon, and the team name is the Glebe Gryphons.

The griffin is the official mascot of Chestnut Hill College and Gwynedd Mercy College, both in Pennsylvania.

Also Griffin is the Official mascot of Maria Clara High School, known as the Blue Griffins in PobCaRan cluster of Caloocan City Philippines, which excels in Cheerleading.

The mascot of Leadership High School in San Francisco, CA was chosen by the student body by popular vote to be the Griffin after the Golden Gate University Griffins, where they operated out of from 1997 to 2000.

Public organizations (non-educational)

A griffin appears in the official seal of the Municipality of Heraklion, Greece.

In professional sports

POL COA Gryf
The Gryf coat of arms of the knighthood family Gryfici. Used by c. 481 Polish noble families.

The Grand Rapids Griffins professional ice hockey team of the American Hockey League.

Suwon Samsung Bluewings's mascot "Aguileon" is Griffin. The name "Aguileon" is a compound using Spanish; "aguila" means "eagle", "leon" means "lion".

Amusement parks

Busch Gardens Williamsburg's highlight attraction is a dive coaster called "Griffon", which opened in 2007. In 2013, Cedar Point Amusement Park in Sandusky, Ohio opened the "GateKeeper" steel roller coaster which features a griffin as its mascot.

In film and television

MervGriffinEntertainment
Company logo for Merv Griffin Entertainment using a silver griffin statue.

Film and television company Merv Griffin Entertainment uses a griffin for its production company. Merv Griffin Entertainment was founded by entrepreneur Merv Griffin and is based in Beverly Hills, California. His former company Merv Griffin Enterprises also used a griffin for its logo.

Griffins appear in The Chronicles of Narnia: The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe, and The Chronicles of Narnia: Prince Caspian.

In Business

Saab Automobile previously used the griffin in their logo.

Information security firm Halock uses a griffin to represent protecting data and systems.

Use for real animals

Some large species of Old World vultures are called griffines, including the griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus). The scientific name for the Andean condor is Vultur gryphus, Latin for "griffin-vulture". The Catholic Douay-Rheims version of the Bible uses griffon for a creature referred to as vulture or ossifrage in other English translations (Leviticus 11:13).

Origin

Hyperborean-gryphon-persepolis-protoceratops-psittacosaurus-skeletons
Early historic references to the gryphon describe the area of the Dzungarian Gate, a region where protoceratops and psittacosaurus skeletons are very common.

A theory, postulated by Adrienne Mayor, is that the griffin of classical Greek literature and art was influenced by observations and accounts brought back to the Mediterranean region by traders and travelers along the Silk Road from the Turfan Basin and western reaches of the Gobi Desert where fully articulated white fossils of Protoceratops beaked dinosaurs continually weather out against reddish ground. Such fossils, seen by ancient observers, may have been interpreted as evidence of a half-bird-half-mammal creature .[40][41] Over repeated retelling and drawing recopying its bony neck frill (which is rather fragile and may have been frequently broken or entirely weathered away) may become large mammal-type external ears, and its beak may be treated as evidence of part-bird nature and lead to bird-type wings being added.[42]

Paleontologist Mark Witton has contested this hypothesis, believing that it relies on ignorance of pre-Greek griffin accounts and art, which have occurred considerably before the Central Asian trade scenario.[43] But no "pre-Greek griffin written accounts" exist to tell us what was believed about imaginary hybrid bird-mammal and other composite figures from the pre-classical time period. Mayor's hypothesis suggests that unfamiliar fossils exhibiting bird and mammal features--beaks, four legs, and eggs in nests-- can help explain the belief recorded in numerous Greek and Roman sources from Herodotus and Aeschylus to Pliny, Pausanias, and Aelian that Griffins were real animals observed in the deserts along the Silk Route and might also help account for the proliferation of reports and illustrations of Griffins that began after the seventh century BC.

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b c Friar, Stephen (1987). A New Dictionary of Heraldry. London: Alphabooks/A & C Black. p. 173. ISBN 978-0-906670-44-6.
  2. ^ Mayor, A. and Heaney, M. (1993). "Griffins and Arimaspeans". Folklore. 104 (1–2): 40. doi:10.1080/0015587X.1993.9715853.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ von Volborth, Carl-Alexander (1981). Heraldry: Customs, Rules and Styles. Poole: New Orchard Editions. pp. 44–45. ISBN 978-1-85079-037-2.
  4. ^ William H. C. Propp,Exodus 19–40, volume 2A of The Anchor Bible, New York: Doubleday, 2006, ISBN 0-385-24693-5, Notes to Exodus 15:18, page 386, referencing: Julius Wellhausen, Prolegomena to the History of Israel, Edinburgh: Black, 1885, page 304. Also see: Robert S. P. Beekes, Etymological Dictionary of Greek, volume 1, Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010 ISBN 978-90-04-17420-7, page 289, entry for γρυπος, "From the archaeological perspective, origin in Asia Minor (and the Near East: Elam) is very probable."
  5. ^ Illustrated Dictionary of Egyptian Mythology. Buffaloah.com. Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  6. ^ The Gryphon Lore. www.myth-and-fantasy.com. Retrieved on 24 May 2014.
  7. ^ Strange (Fantastic) Animals of Ancient Egypt. Touregypt.net. Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  8. ^ Patch, Diana (29 May 2012). Dawn of Egyptian Art. Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 139–140. ISBN 978-0300179521. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  9. ^ Taheri, Sadreddin (2017). "The Semiotics of Archetypes, in the Art of Ancient Iran and its Adjacent Cultures". Tehran: Shour Afarin Publications.
  10. ^ Image of Persian griffin from The Granger Collection. www.granger.com. Retrieved on 26 May 2014.
  11. ^ Taheri, Sadreddin (2013). "Gopat and Shirdal in the Ancient Middle East". نشریه هنرهای زیبا- هنرهای تجسمی. 17 (4): 13–22. doi:10.22059/jfava.2013.30063.
  12. ^ Teissier, Beatrice (31 December 1996). Egyptian Iconography on Syro-Palestinian Cylinder Seals of the Middle Bronze Age. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 88–90. ISBN 978-3525538920. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  13. ^ Aruz, Joan; Benzel, Kim; Evans, Jean M. (2008). Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C. Metropolitan Museum of Art and Yale University Press. p. 137. ISBN 978-1588392954. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  14. ^ Teissier, Beatrice (31 December 1996). Egyptian Iconography on Syro-Palestinian Cylinder Seals of the Middle Bronze Age. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. pp. 5–6. ISBN 978-3525538920. Retrieved 24 May 2014.
  15. ^ Neva, Elena. "Central Asian Jewelry and their Symbols in Ancient Time Archived 25 July 2014 at the Wayback Machine" Artwis; citing Pugachenkova, G. (1959) "Grifon v drevnem iskusstve central’noi Azii." Sovetskya Arheologia, 2 pp. 70, 83
  16. ^ Dartmouth College expedition
  17. ^ Quantara; Hoffman, 318
  18. ^ Adrienne Mayor, Archaeology Magazine, November–December 1994, pp. 53–59; Mayor, The First Fossil Hunters, 2000.
  19. ^ Mark Witton, Why Protoceratops Almost Certainly Wasn't The Inspiration For Griffin Legend
  20. ^ Bedingfeld, Henry; Gwynn-Jones, Peter (1993). Heraldry. Wigston: Magna Books. pp. 80–81. ISBN 978-1-85422-433-0.
  21. ^ White, T. H. (1992) [1954]. The Book of Beasts: Being a Translation From a Latin Bestiary of the Twelfth Century. Stroud: Alan Sutton. pp. 22–24. ISBN 978-0-7509-0206-9.
  22. ^ Stefan Oliver, Introduction to Heraldry. David & Charles, 2002. P. 44.
  23. ^ Male griffin depicted in Debrett's Peerage, 1968, p. 222, sinister supporter of Earl of Carrick (Ireland)
  24. ^ The City Arms, City of London Corporation, hosted by webarchive
  25. ^ Flavius Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, translated by F. C. Conybeare, volume I, book III.XLVIII., 1921, p. 333.
  26. ^ Flavius Philostratus, The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, translated by F. C. Conybeare, vol. II, book VI.I., 1921, p. 5.
  27. ^ The Essential Rumi, translated from Persian by Coleman Barks, p 257
  28. ^ The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, Chapter XXIX, Macmillan and Co. edition, 1900.
  29. ^ "Griffin".eaudrey.com., n.p., 14 March 2013 <http://www.eaudrey.com/myth/griffin.htm>
  30. ^ Philadelphia Museum of Art – Giving : Giving to the Museum : Specialty License Plates. Philamuseum.org. Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  31. ^ Glassteelandstone.com Archived 11 May 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Philadelphia Museum of Art: Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States, Glass Steel and Stone
  32. ^ GA-ASI Introduces Griffin Eye Manned ISR System Archived 11 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine. GA-ASI.com (20 July 2010). Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  33. ^ Trinity.ox.ac.uk. Trinity.ox.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  34. ^ VU university Amsterdam. About the griffin. Retrieved on 5 November 2013.
  35. ^ Reed college#Griffin
  36. ^ Sarah Lawrence Gryphons. Gogryphons.com. Retrieved on 23 October 2013.
  37. ^ Traditions. Big Ten. Purdue.edu. Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  38. ^ Pantless Man-Bird To Lead William and Mary Into Battle. Deadspin.com (7 April 2010). Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  39. ^ W&M welcomes newest member of the Tribe. Wm.edu (8 April 2010). Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  40. ^ Protoceratops. Wikidino. Retrieved on 2 January 2012.
  41. ^ BBC Four television program Dinosaurs, Myths and Monsters, 8.00–0.00 pm Sat 10 December 2011 and 9.55–10.55 pm Tue 13 December 2011
  42. ^ Mayor 2000
  43. ^ Mark Witton, Why Protoceratops Almost Certainly Wasn't The Inspiration For Griffin Legend

Further reading

  • Wild, F., Gryps-Greif-Gryphon (Griffon). Eine sprach-, kultur- und stoffgeschichtliche Studie (Wien, 1963) (Oesterreichische Akademie der Wissenschaften, Philologisch-historische Klasse, Sitzungberichte, 241).
  • Bisi, Anna Maria, Il grifone: Storia di un motivo iconografico nell'antico Oriente mediterraneo (Rome: Università) 1965.
  • Taheri, Sadreddin (2013). "Gopat (Sphinx) and Shirdal (Gryphon) in the Ancient Middle East". نشریه هنرهای زیبا- هنرهای تجسمی. 17 (4): 13–22. doi:10.22059/jfava.2013.30063.
  • Joe Nigg, The Book of Gryphons: A History of the Most Majestic of All Mythical Creatures (Cambridge, Apple-wood Books, 1982).
  • This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainWood, James, ed. (1907). "article name needed". The Nuttall Encyclopædia. London and New York: Frederick Warne.

External links

Media related to Griffins at Wikimedia Commons

Bell 412

The Bell 412 is a twin-engine utility helicopter of the Huey family manufactured by Bell Helicopter. It is a development of the Bell 212, with the major difference being the composite four-blade main rotor.

Blake Griffin

Blake Austin Griffin (born March 16, 1989) is an American professional basketball player for the Detroit Pistons of the National Basketball Association (NBA). He played college basketball for the Oklahoma Sooners, when he was named the Consensus National Player of the Year as a sophomore. Griffin was selected first overall by the Los Angeles Clippers in the 2009 NBA draft, and has since been a six-time NBA All-Star and a five-time All-NBA selection.

Griffin won four high school state titles at Oklahoma Christian School under his father, head coach Tommy Griffin. Griffin played two seasons of college ball for the Sooners before entering the 2009 NBA draft, when he was selected by the Clippers. During the final pre-season game of 2009, he broke his left kneecap, had surgery, and missed the entire 2009–10 season. Griffin made his NBA debut as a rookie the following season, in which he was selected as an All-Star, won the NBA Slam Dunk Contest, and was named the NBA Rookie of the Year. In 2011, Sports Illustrated called him one of the NBA's 15 Greatest Rookies of All Time.

British National Party

The British National Party (BNP) is a far-right, fascist political party in the United Kingdom. It is headquartered in Wigton, Cumbria, and its current leader is Adam Walker. A minor party, it has no elected representatives at any level of UK government. Founded in 1982, the party reached its greatest level of success in the 2000s, when it had over fifty seats in local government, one seat on the London Assembly, and two Members of the European Parliament.

Taking its name from that of a defunct 1960s far-right party, the BNP was created by John Tyndall and other former members of the fascist National Front (NF). During the 1980s and 1990s, the BNP placed little emphasis on contesting elections, in which it did poorly. Instead, it focused on street marches and rallies, creating the Combat 18 paramilitary—its name a coded reference to Nazi German leader Adolf Hitler—to protect its events from anti-fascist protesters. A growing 'moderniser' faction was frustrated by Tyndall's leadership, and ousted him in 1999. The new leader Nick Griffin sought to broaden the BNP's electoral base by presenting a more moderate image, targeting concerns about rising immigration rates, and emphasising localised community campaigns. This resulted in increased electoral growth throughout the 2000s, to the extent that it became the most electorally successful far-right party in British history. Concerns regarding financial mismanagement resulted in Griffin being ousted in 2014. By this point the BNP's membership and vote share had declined dramatically, groups like Britain First and National Action had splintered off, and the English Defence League had supplanted it as the UK's foremost far-right group.

Ideologically positioned on the extreme-right or far-right of British politics, the BNP has been characterised as fascist or neo-fascist by political scientists. Under Tyndall's leadership, it was more specifically regarded as neo-Nazi. The party is ethnic nationalist, and it espouses the view that only white people should be citizens of the United Kingdom. It calls for an end to non-white migration into the UK and for non-white Britons to be stripped of citizenship and removed from the country. Initially, it called for the compulsory expulsion of non-whites, although since 1999 has advocated voluntary removals with financial incentives. It promotes biological racism and the white genocide conspiracy theory, calling for global racial separatism and condemning interracial relationships. Under Tyndall, the BNP emphasised anti-semitism and Holocaust denial, promoting the conspiracy theory that Jews seek to dominate the world through both communism and international capitalism. Under Griffin, the party's focus switched from anti-semitism towards Islamophobia. It promotes economic protectionism, Euroscepticism, and a transformation away from liberal democracy, while its social policies oppose feminism, LGBT rights, and societal permissiveness.

Operating around a highly centralised structure that gave its chair near total control, the BNP built links with far-right parties across Europe and created various sub-groups, including a record label and trade union. The BNP attracted most support from within White British working-class communities in northern and eastern England, particularly among middle-aged and elderly men. Polls suggested that most Britons favoured a ban on the party, it faced much opposition from anti-fascists, religious organisations, the mainstream media, and most politicians, and BNP members were banned from various professions.

Family Guy (season 17)

Family Guy's seventeenth season premiered on Fox in the United States on September 30, 2018, and ended on May 12, 2019.The series follows the dysfunctional Griffin family, consisting of father Peter, mother Lois, daughter Meg, son Chris, baby Stewie, and the family dog Brian, who reside in their hometown of Quahog. The season's executive producers are Seth MacFarlane, Alec Sulkin, Richard Appel, Steve Callaghan, Danny Smith, Kara Vallow, Mark Hentemann, Tom Devanney, Patrick Meighan and Cherry Chevapravatdumrong. The season's showrunners are Sulkin and Appel.

During this season, Brian marries a dying woman (played by Casey Wilson) in a two-episode arc ("Married... with Cancer", "Dead Dog Walking"), Peter's graying hair nets him a job as a scaremongering news anchor and as President Donald Trump's press secretary in another two-episode arc ("Hefty Shades of Gray", "Trump Guy"), Quagmire meets a teenage daughter (played by Mandy Moore) whom he never knew he had ("No Giggity, No Doubt"), the Griffins take on the Korean Olympics ("The Griffin Winter Games"), Brian and Stewie shrink to microscopic size ("Big Trouble in Little Quahog"), and Peter and Brian compete to become the next Pawtucket Brewery mascot (“Pawtucket Pete”).

Grey DeLisle

Erin Grey Van Oosbree (born August 24, 1973), credited as Grey DeLisle () and Grey Griffin, is an American voice actress and singer-songwriter. She has done voice acting for numerous animated films, television shows, and video games. Her voice roles include Vicky from The Fairly OddParents, Samantha "Sam" Manson from Danny Phantom, Mandy from The Grim Adventures of Billy & Mandy, Frankie Foster, Duchess, and Goo from Foster's Home for Imaginary Friends, Yumi Yoshimura from Hi Hi Puffy AmiYumi, Azula from Avatar: The Last Airbender, Kimiko Tohomiko from Xiaolin Showdown, as well as Lola, Lana, and Lily Loud from The Loud House, Queen Butterfly and Jackie Lynn Thomas from Star vs. the Forces of Evil, Vambre Warrior from Mighty Magiswords, Kitty Katswell from T.U.F.F. Puppy, and Prince Puppycorn from Unikitty!. She has been the voice of Daphne Blake in the Scooby-Doo cartoons and direct-to-videos and other appearances since 2000. In video games, she voices characters such as Amanda Valenciano Libre from Metal Gear Solid: Peace Walker and Jacqueline Natla in both Tomb Raider games; Anniversary and Underworld. On September 27, 2018, Griffin released her debut comedy act, titled, "My First Comedy Special".

Griffin Park

Griffin Park is a football ground in Brentford, situated in the London Borough of Hounslow, Greater London. It has been the home ground of Championship club Brentford since it was built in 1904. The ground is situated in a predominantly residential area and is known for being the only English league football ground to have a pub on each corner. The ground gets its name from the griffin, featured in the logo of Fuller's Brewery, which at one point owned the orchard on which the stadium was built.

Kathy Griffin

Kathleen Mary Griffin (born November 4, 1960) is an American comedian and actress. She has starred in several comedy specials for cable TV and has released several comedy albums. In 2007 and 2008, Griffin won Primetime Emmy Awards for her reality show Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List. She has also appeared on TV and on film numerous times, mainly in supporting roles.

Born in Oak Park, Illinois, she moved to Los Angeles in 1978, where she studied drama at the Lee Strasberg Theatre and Film Institute and became a member of the improvisational comedy troupe The Groundlings. In the 1990s, Griffin began performing as a stand-up comedian and also appeared as a guest star on several television shows. She achieved wider recognition after her role as a supporting character in the NBC sitcom Suddenly Susan (1996–2000).

Her Bravo reality show Kathy Griffin: My Life on the D-List (2005–2010) became a ratings hit for the network and earned her two Emmy Awards for Outstanding Reality Program. Griffin has released six comedy albums, all of which received Grammy Award nominations. Her first album, For Your Consideration (2008), made her the first female comedian to debut at the top of the Billboard Top Comedy Albums chart. In 2009, she released her autobiography, Official Book Club Selection: A Memoir According to Kathy Griffin.

Griffin has taped numerous standup comedy specials with HBO and Bravo. For the latter network, she has recorded 16 television specials, breaking the Guinness World record for the number of aired TV specials on any network, by any comedian in the history of comedy.In 2011, she also became the first comedian to have four televised specials in a year. Aside from her comedy career, she is an LGBT activist involved in causes such as same-sex marriage and the repeal of "Don't ask, don't tell". She has also participated in two USO tours. Griffin is known for her conversational style and controversial statements on celebrities, religion and sexuality. After being nominated for six years in a row for the Grammy for Best Comedy Album, she won the award in 2014.

List of Family Guy characters

Family Guy is an American animated comedy series created by Seth MacFarlane for the Fox Broadcasting Company. Characters are listed only once, normally under the first applicable subsection in the list; very minor characters are listed with a more regular character with who they are associated.

Meg Griffin

Megan "Meg" Griffin is a fictional character in the animated television series Family Guy. Meg is the eldest child of Peter and Lois Griffin and older sister of Stewie and Chris, but is also the family's scapegoat who receives the least of their attention and bears the brunt of their abuse. She is often bullied, ridiculed, and ignored.

Meg first appeared on television, along with the rest of the Griffin family, in a 15-minute short on December 20, 1998. She was created and designed by Family Guy creator Seth MacFarlane, who was asked to pitch a pilot to the Fox Broadcasting Company, based on The Life of Larry and Larry & Steve, two shorts made by MacFarlane featuring a middle-aged man named Larry and an intellectual dog, Steve. After the pilot was given the greenlight, the Griffin family appeared in the episode "Death Has a Shadow".

Originally voiced by Lacey Chabert during the first season, Meg has been voiced by Mila Kunis since season 2.

Merv Griffin

Mervyn Edward Griffin Jr. (July 6, 1925 – August 12, 2007) was an American television host and media mogul. He began his career as a radio and big band singer who went on to appear in film and on Broadway. From 1965 to 1986, Griffin hosted his own talk show, The Merv Griffin Show. He also created the internationally popular game shows Jeopardy! and Wheel of Fortune through his television production companies, Merv Griffin Enterprises and Merv Griffin Entertainment.

Nick Griffin

Nicholas John Griffin (born 1 March 1959) is a British politician who represented North West England as a Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from 2009 to 2014. He served as chairman and then president of the far-right British National Party (BNP) from 1999 to 2014, when he was expelled from the party.

Born in Barnet, Griffin was educated at Woodbridge School in Suffolk. He joined the National Front at the age of 14 and, following his graduation from the University of Cambridge, became a political worker for the party. In 1980 he became a member of its governing body, and later wrote articles for several right-wing magazines. He was the National Front's candidate for the seat of Croydon North West in 1981 and 1983, but left the party in 1989. In 1995 he joined the BNP and in 1999 became its leader. He stood as the party's candidate in several elections and became a member of the European Parliament for North West England in the 2009 European elections.

In 1998, Griffin was convicted of distributing material likely to incite racial hatred, for which he received a suspended prison sentence. In 2006 he was acquitted of separate charges of inciting racial hatred. Griffin has been criticised for many of his comments on political, social, ethical and religious matters, but after becoming leader of the BNP he sought to distance himself from some of his previously held positions, which included Holocaust denial. In recent years, events where Griffin has been invited to participate in public debates or political discussions have proven controversial and often resulted in protests and cancellations.

Party of Five

Party of Five is an American television teen and family drama created by Christopher Keyser and Amy Lippman that originally aired on Fox for six seasons from September 12, 1994, to May 3, 2000. The series featured an ensemble cast led by Scott Wolf as Bailey, Matthew Fox as Charlie, Neve Campbell as Julia, and Lacey Chabert as Claudia Salinger, who with their baby brother Owen (played by several actors) constitute five siblings whom the series follows after the loss of their parents in a car accident. Notable co-stars included Scott Grimes, Paula Devicq, Michael Goorjian, Jeremy London, and Jennifer Love Hewitt. While categorized as a series aimed at teenagers and young adults, Party of Five explored several mature themes, including substance and domestic abuse, cancer, and the long-term effects of parental loss.Despite receiving positive reviews from television critics after its debut, including TV Guide naming it "The Best Show You're Not Watching" in 1995, the series suffered from low ratings during its first and second seasons, during which speculation arose that it would soon be cancelled. However, in 1996, Party of Five won the Golden Globe Award for Best Television Series – Drama, after which ratings and popularity grew for the majority of the remainder of the series. A spin-off starring Hewitt debuted on the network in 1999, Time of Your Life, which was cancelled after one season.

Patty Griffin

Patricia Jean Griffin (born March 16, 1964) is an American singer-songwriter and musician. She is a vocalist and plays guitar and piano. She is known for her stripped-down songwriting style in the folk music genre. Her songs have been covered by numerous musicians, including Emmylou Harris, Ellis Paul, Rory Block, Dave Hause, Sugarland and the Dixie Chicks.

In 2007, Griffin received the Artist of the Year award from the Americana Music Association, and her album Children Running Through won the award for Best Album.

In 2011, Griffin's album Downtown Church won the Grammy Award for Best Traditional Gospel Album.

Peter Griffin

Peter Griffin is the main character of the American animated sitcom Family Guy. He is voiced by the series' creator, Seth MacFarlane, and first appeared on television, along with the rest of the Griffin family, in the 15-minute pilot pitch of Family Guy on December 20, 1998. Peter was created and designed by MacFarlane himself. MacFarlane was asked to pitch a pilot to the Fox Broadcasting Company based on Larry & Steve, a short made by MacFarlane which featured a middle-aged character named Larry and an intellectual dog, Steve. After the pilot was given the green light, the Griffin family appeared in the episode "Death Has a Shadow".

Peter is married to Lois Griffin and is the father of Meg, Chris, and Stewie. He also has a dog named Brian, with whom he is best friends. He has worked at a toy factory, and at Quahog's Brewery. Despite the suburban blue-collar routine of his life, he has had a number of remarkable experiences.

Peter's voice was inspired by the security guards that MacFarlane heard at his school. His appearance was a redesign of the protagonist Larry from MacFarlane's previous animated short films The Life of Larry and Larry & Steve. He has appeared in several pieces of Family Guy merchandise, including toys, T-shirts, and video games, and has made crossover appearances in other shows, including The Simpsons, South Park, Drawn Together, American Dad! and Family Guys spin-offs The Cleveland Show and Bordertown.

Robert Griffin III

Robert Lee Griffin III (born February 12, 1990), nicknamed RG3 or RGIII, is an American football quarterback for the Baltimore Ravens of the National Football League (NFL). He played college football at Baylor, where he won the 2011 Heisman Trophy. He was drafted in the first round of the 2012 NFL Draft (second overall) by the Washington Redskins, who had traded up to get him.

Griffin had a successful rookie season with the Redskins, setting records for the highest passer rating and highest touchdown to interception ratio by a rookie quarterback, and leading the Redskins to the top of their division and their first playoff appearance in five seasons. He won the 2012 NFL Offensive Rookie of the Year award and was named to the 2013 Pro Bowl, although was unable to participate due to a knee injury he suffered late in the season. Griffin was less successful during his subsequent tenure with the Redskins, as he was plagued by injuries and poor performances.

After suffering a concussion during the 2015 preseason, Griffin was replaced by Kirk Cousins, who started the rest of the season. Griffin was released by the team following the end of the season and signed shortly after with the Cleveland Browns. His tenure with the Browns was also plagued with injuries, and he was subsequently released after one season. After spending the entire 2017 season as a free agent, Griffin signed with the Ravens in 2018.

St. Martin's Press

St. Martin's Press is a book publisher headquartered in the Flatiron Building in Manhattan, New York City. St. Martin's Press is considered one of the largest English-language publishers bringing to the public some 700 titles a year under eight imprints.

The imprints include St. Martin's Press (mainstream and bestseller books), St. Martin's Griffin (mainstream paperback books, including science fiction and romance), Minotaur (mystery, suspense, and thrillers), Picador (specialty books), Thomas Dunne Books (suspense and mainstream), and All Points Books (politics).

St. Martin's Press's current editor in chief is George Witte.

Stewie Griffin

Stewart Gilligan "Stewie" Griffin is a fictional character from the animated television series Family Guy. He is voiced by series creator Seth MacFarlane and first appeared on television, along with the rest of the Griffin family, in a 15-minute short on December 20, 1998. Stewie was created and designed by MacFarlane himself, who was asked to pitch a pilot to the Fox Broadcasting Company, based on The Life of Larry and Larry & Steve, two shorts made by MacFarlane featuring a middle-aged man named Larry and an intellectual dog, Steve. After the pilot was given the greenlight, the Griffin family appeared in the episode "Death Has a Shadow".

An infant who acts in an adult way, Stewie was initially obsessed with violence and matricide. He is the youngest child of Peter and Lois Griffin, and the youngest brother of Meg and Chris. Over the duration of the series, the violent aspects of Stewie's personality have been toned down, and he has evolved into an eccentric, friendly and flamboyant scamp. He has also come to have a very close friendship with the family's anthropomorphic dog, Brian (whom he originally used to antagonize in the earliest episodes). Stewie is considered to be the show's breakout character and has received numerous award accommodations from writers such as Jodiss Pierre. Wizard magazine rated him the 95th greatest villain of all time.

The 100 (TV series)

The 100 (pronounced The Hundred ) is an American post-apocalyptic science fiction drama television series that premiered on March 19, 2014, on The CW. The series, developed by Jason Rothenberg, is loosely based on the novel series of the same name by Kass Morgan.The series follows a group of post-apocalyptic survivors, chiefly a group of criminal adolescents, including Clarke Griffin (Eliza Taylor), Finn Collins (Thomas McDonell), Bellamy Blake (Bob Morley), Octavia Blake (Marie Avgeropoulos), Jasper Jordan (Devon Bostick), Monty Green (Christopher Larkin), Raven Reyes (Lindsey Morgan), John Murphy (Richard Harmon), and Wells Jaha (Eli Goree). They are among the first people from a space habitat, the Ark, to return to Earth after a devastating nuclear apocalypse. Other lead characters include Dr. Abby Griffin (Paige Turco), Clarke's mother; Marcus Kane (Henry Ian Cusick), a council member on the Ark; and Thelonious Jaha (Isaiah Washington), the Chancellor of the Ark and Wells's father.

In May 2018, the series was renewed for a sixth season, which premiered on April 30, 2019. In April 2019, the series was renewed for a seventh season.

Ty Dolla Sign

Tyrone William Griffin Jr. (born April 13, 1985), known professionally as Ty Dolla Sign (stylized as Ty Dolla $ign or Ty$), is an American singer, songwriter, and record producer. He first gained major recognition in 2010 for his guest feature on YG's "Toot It and Boot It", which he had written and produced for Def Jam Recordings. In the summer of 2013, he signed a record deal with Wiz Khalifa's Taylor Gang Records. In November 2015, he released his debut studio album, Free TC, which peaked at number 14 on the Billboard 200.

Ty Dolla Sign is known for his songs "Paranoid", "Or Nah", and "Blasé", as well as his writing contributions to "Loyal", "Post to Be", "FourFiveSeconds", and "Psycho", which was his first track to hit number one on the Billboard Hot 100. Aside from his solo music career, Ty Dolla Sign is also a member of production team D.R.U.G.S., alongside Chordz 3D, Buddah Shampoo, Nate 3D, James Koo, Fuego, and DJ Dahi.

Officials
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heraldic
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See also:
Canting
Alliance
(Courtesy)
Funerary
Tinctures
Rules
Tricking
Hatching
Fimbriation

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