Motto: "Ever Conscious of God We Aspire, Build and Advance as One People"
Anthem: Hail Grenada
Map indicating the location of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles
and largest city
|Recognised regional languages||Grenadian Creole English|
Grenadian Creole French
|Ethnic groups |
|Government||Unitary two-party parliamentary system under a constitutional monarchy|
|Cécile La Grenade|
|House of Representatives|
|3 March 1967|
|7 February 1974|
|13 March 1979|
• Constitution Restoration
|4 December 1984|
|348.5 km2 (134.6 sq mi) (185th)|
• Water (%)
• 2016 estimate
|318.58/km2 (825.1/sq mi) (45th)|
|GDP (PPP)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|GDP (nominal)||2019 estimate|
• Per capita
|HDI (2017)|| 0.772|
high · 75th
|Currency||East Caribbean dollar (XCD)|
|ISO 3166 code||GD|
Grenada (/ɡrɪˈneɪdə/ (listen) grih-NAY-də) is a country in the West Indies in the Caribbean Sea at the southern end of the Grenadines island chain. Grenada consists of the island of Grenada itself plus six smaller islands which lie to the north of the main island. It is located northwest of Trinidad and Tobago, northeast of Venezuela and southwest of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Its size is 348.5 square kilometres (134.6 sq mi), and it had an estimated population of 107,317 in 2016. Its capital is St. George's. Grenada is also known as the "Island of Spice" due to its production of nutmeg and mace crops, of which it is one of the world's largest exporters. The national bird of Grenada is the critically endangered Grenada dove.
Before the arrival of Europeans in the Americas, Grenada was inhabited by the indigenous Arawaks and later by the Island Caribs. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the Americas. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever landed or settled on the island. Following several unsuccessful attempts by Europeans to colonise the island due to resistance from the Island Caribs, French settlement and colonisation began in 1650 and continued for the next century. On 10 February 1763, Grenada was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. British rule continued, except for a period of French rule between 1779 and 1783, until 1974. From 1958 to 1962, Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies, a short-lived federation of British West Indian colonies. On 3 March 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974.
Independence was granted on 7 February 1974, without breaking formal ties with the Commonwealth, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada, with Queen Elizabeth as Head of State. In March 1979, the Marxist–Leninist New Jewel Movement overthrew Gairy's government in a coup d'état and established the People's Revolutionary Government (PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop as Prime Minister. On 19 October 1983, hard-line Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. Bishop was later freed by popular demonstration and attempted to resume power, but he was captured and executed by soldiers, and replaced with a military council chaired by Hudson Austin. On 25 October 1983, forces from the United States and the Barbados-based Regional Security System (RSS) invaded Grenada in a U.S.-led operation code-named Operation Urgent Fury. The invasion was highly criticised by the governments of Britain, Trinidad and Tobago and Canada, along with the United Nations General Assembly. Elections were held in December 1984 and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize, who served as Prime Minister until his death in December 1989.
The origin of the name "Grenada" is obscure, but it is likely that Spanish sailors renamed the island for the city of Granada. By the beginning of the 18th century, the name "Grenada", or "la Grenade" in French, was in common use.
On his third voyage to the region in 1498, Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada and named it "La Concepción" in honour of the Virgin Mary. It is said that he may have actually named it "Assumpción", but it is uncertain, as he is said to have sighted what are now Grenada and Tobago from a distance and named them both at the same time. However, history has accepted that it was Tobago he named "Assumpción" and Grenada he named "La Concepción".
In 1499, the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci travelled through the region with the Spanish explorer Alonso de Ojeda and mapmaker Juan de la Cosa. Vespucci is reported to have renamed the island "Mayo", which is how it appeared on maps for around the next 20 years.
In the 1520s, the Spanish named the islands to the north of Mayo as Los Granadillos (Little Granadas), presumably after the mainland Spanish town. Shortly after this, Mayo disappeared from Spanish maps and an island called "Granada" took its place. Although it was deemed the property of the King of Spain, there are no records to suggest the Spanish ever landed or settled on the island.
After French settlement and colonisation in 1652, the French named their colony "La Grenade". On 10 February 1763, the island of La Grenade was ceded to the British under the Treaty of Paris. The British renamed it "Grenada", one of many place name anglicisations they carried out on the island during this time.
About 2 million years ago, Grenada was formed as an underwater volcano. Grenada was inhabited by Arawaks and, subsequently, Island Caribs before it was invaded and colonized by Europeans. Christopher Columbus sighted Grenada in 1498 during his third voyage to the new world.
In 1649 a French expedition of 203 men from Martinique led by Jacques du Parquet founded a permanent settlement on Grenada. Within months this led to conflict with the local islanders which lasted until 1654 when the island was completely subjugated by the French. The indigenous islanders who survived either left for neighbouring islands or retreated to remoter parts of Grenada where they were marginalised—the last distinct communities disappeared during the 1700s.
Warfare continued during the 1600s between the French on Grenada and the Caribs of present-day Dominica and St. Vincent and the Grenadines. The French named their new colony La Grenade, and the economy was initially based on sugar cane and indigo. The French established a capital known as Fort Royal (later St. George). To shelter from hurricanes the French navy would often take refuge in the capital's natural harbour, as no nearby French islands had a natural harbour to compare with that of Fort Royal. The British captured Grenada during the Seven Years' War in 1762.
Grenada was formally ceded to Britain by the Treaty of Paris in 1763. The French re-captured the island during the American Revolutionary War, after Comte d'Estaing won the bloody land and naval Battle of Grenada in July 1779. However the island was restored to Britain with the Treaty of Versailles in 1783. Britain was hard pressed to overcome a pro-French revolt in 1795–96 led by Julien Fedon.
Nutmeg was introduced to Grenada in 1843 when a merchant ship called in on its way to England from the East Indies. The ship had a small quantity of nutmeg trees on board which they left in Grenada, and this was the beginning of Grenada's nutmeg industry that now supplies nearly 40% of the world's annual crop.
In 1877 Grenada was made a Crown colony. Theophilus A. Marryshow founded the Representative Government Association (RGA) in 1917 to agitate for a new and participative constitutional dispensation for the Grenadian people. Partly as a result of Marryshow's lobbying, the Wood Commission of 1921–22 concluded that Grenada was ready for constitutional reform in the form of a modified Crown colony government. This modification granted Grenadians the right to elect five of the 15 members of the Legislative Council, on a restricted property franchise enabling the wealthiest 4% of adult Grenadians to vote. Marryshow was named a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in 1943.
In 1950 Eric Gairy founded the Grenada United Labour Party, initially as a trades union, which led the 1951 general strike for better working conditions. This sparked great unrest—so many buildings were set ablaze that the disturbances became known as the "red sky" days—and the British authorities had to call in military reinforcements to help regain control of the situation. On October 10, 1951, Grenada held its first general elections on the basis of universal adult suffrage, with Gairy's party winning six of the eight seats contested. From 1958 to 1962 Grenada was part of the Federation of the West Indies.
On March 3, 1967, Grenada was granted full autonomy over its internal affairs as an Associated State. Herbert Blaize was the first Premier of the Associated State of Grenada from March to August 1967. Eric Gairy served as Premier from August 1967 until February 1974.
Independence was granted on February 7, 1974, under the leadership of Eric Gairy, who became the first Prime Minister of Grenada.
Civil conflict gradually broke out between Eric Gairy's government and some opposition parties including the Marxist New Jewel Movement (NJM). Gairy's party won elections in 1976. The opposition did not accept the result, accusing it of fraud.
In March 1979, the New Jewel Movement launched a coup which removed Gairy, suspended the constitution, and established a People's Revolutionary Government (PRG), headed by Maurice Bishop who declared himself prime minister. His Marxist–Leninist government established close ties with Cuba, Nicaragua, and other communist bloc countries. All political parties except for the New Jewel Movement were banned and no elections were held during the four years of PRG rule.
Some years later a dispute developed between Bishop and certain high-ranking members of the NJM. Though Bishop cooperated with Cuba and the USSR on various trade and foreign policy issues, he sought to maintain a "non-aligned" status. Bishop had been taking his time making Grenada wholly socialist, encouraging private-sector development in an attempt to make the island a popular tourist destination. Hardline Marxist party members, including communist Deputy Prime Minister Bernard Coard, deemed Bishop insufficiently revolutionary and demanded that he either step down or enter into a power-sharing arrangement.
On October 19, 1983, Bernard Coard and his wife Phyllis, backed by the Grenadian Army, led a coup against the government of Maurice Bishop and placed Bishop under house arrest. These actions led to street demonstrations in various parts of the island. Bishop had enough support from the population that he was eventually freed after a demonstration in the capital. When Bishop attempted to resume power, he was captured and executed by soldiers along with seven others, including government cabinet ministers. The Coard regime then put the island under martial law.
After the execution of Bishop, the People's Revolutionary Army (PRA) formed a Military-Marxist government with General Hudson Austin as chairman. The army declared a four-day total curfew, during which anyone leaving their home without approval would be shot on sight.
The overthrow of a moderate government by one which was strongly pro-communist worried the administration of US President Ronald Reagan. Particularly worrying was the presence of Cuban construction workers and military personnel who were building a 10,000-foot (3,000 m) airstrip on Grenada.
Bishop had stated the purpose of the airstrip was to allow commercial jets to land, but US military analysts argued that the only reason for constructing such a long and reinforced runway was so that it could be used by heavy military transport planes. The contractors, American and European companies, and the EEC, which provided partial funding, all claimed the airstrip did not have military capabilities. Reagan was worried that Cuba – under the direction of the Soviet Union – would use Grenada as a refuelling stop for Cuban and Soviet aeroplanes loaded with weapons destined for Central American communist insurgents.
On October 25, 1983, combined forces from the United States and from the Regional Security System (RSS) based in Barbados invaded Grenada in an operation codenamed Operation Urgent Fury. The US stated this was done at the behest of Prime Minister Eugenia Charles of Dominica. While the Governor-General of Grenada, Sir Paul Scoon, later stated that he had also requested the invasion, it was highly criticised by the governments of Britain, Trinidad and Tobago, and Canada. The United Nations General Assembly condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law" by a vote of 108 in favour to 9, with 27 abstentions. The United Nations Security Council considered a similar resolution, which was supported by 11 nations and opposed by only one — the United States, which vetoed the motion.
After the invasion of the island nation, the pre-revolutionary Grenadian constitution came into operation once again. Eighteen members of the PRG and the PRA (army) were arrested after the invasion on charges related to the murder of Maurice Bishop and seven others. The eighteen included the top political leadership of Grenada at the time of the execution as well as the entire military chain of command directly responsible for the operation that led to the executions. Fourteen were sentenced to death, one was found not guilty and three were sentenced to 45 years in prison. The death sentences were eventually commuted to terms of imprisonment. Those in prison have become known as the Grenada 17.
When US troops withdrew from Grenada in December 1983, Nicholas Brathwaite of the National Democratic Congress was appointed prime minister of an interim administration by Scoon until elections could be organised. The first democratic elections since 1976 were held in December 1984, and were won by the Grenada National Party under Herbert Blaize who served as prime minister until his death in December 1989.
Ben Jones succeeded Blaize as prime minister and served until the March 1990 election, which was won by the National Democratic Congress under Nicholas Brathwaite who returned as prime minister for a second time until he resigned in February 1995. He was succeeded by George Brizan who served until the June 1995 election which was won by the New National Party under Keith Mitchell who went on to win the 1999 and 2003 elections and served for a record 13 years until 2008.
In 2000–02, much of the controversy of the late 1970s and early 1980s was once again brought into the public consciousness with the opening of the truth and reconciliation commission. The commission was chaired by a Roman Catholic priest, Father Mark Haynes, and was tasked with uncovering injustices arising from the PRA, Bishop's regime, and before. It held a number of hearings around the country. Brother Robert Fanovich, head of Presentation Brothers' College (PBC) in St. George's tasked some of his senior students with conducting a research project into the era and specifically into the fact that Maurice Bishop's body was never discovered. Paterson also uncovered that there was still a lot of resentment in Grenadian society resulting from the era and a feeling that there were many injustices still unaddressed.
On September 7, 2004, after being hurricane-free for 49 years, the island was directly hit by Hurricane Ivan. Ivan struck as a Category 3 hurricane and damaged or destroyed 90% of the island's homes. On July 14, 2005, Hurricane Emily, a Category 1 hurricane at the time, struck the northern part of the island with 80-knot (150 km/h; 92 mph) winds, causing an estimated USD $110 million (EC$297 million) worth of damage. By December 2005, 96% of all hotel rooms were open for business and to have been upgraded in facilities and strengthened to an improved building code. The agricultural industry and in particular the nutmeg industry suffered serious losses, but that event has begun changes in crop management and it is hoped that as new nutmeg trees gradually mature, the industry will return to its pre-Ivan position as a major supplier in the Western world.
In April 2007, Grenada jointly hosted (along with several other Caribbean nations) the 2007 Cricket World Cup. The Island's Prime Minister was the CARICOM representative on cricket and was instrumental in having the World Cup games brought to the region. After Hurricane Ivan, the government of the People's Republic of China (PRC) paid for the new $40 million national stadium and provided the aid of over 300 labourers to build and repair it. During the opening ceremony, the anthem of the Republic of China (ROC, Taiwan) was accidentally played instead of the PRC's anthem, leading to the firing of top officials.
The 2008 election was won by the National Democratic Congress under Tillman Thomas.
The island of Carriacou is the largest island in the Grenadines. It is located between the Caribbean Sea and Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago. Smaller islands are Petite Martinique, Ronde Island, Caille Island, Diamond Island, Large Island, Saline Island, and Frigate Island. Most of the population lives on Grenada, and major towns there include the capital, St. George's, Grenville and Gouyave. The largest settlement on the other islands is Hillsborough on Carriacou.
The islands are of volcanic origin with extremely rich soil. Grenada's interior is very mountainous with Mount St. Catherine being the highest at 840 m (2,760 ft). Several small rivers with beautiful waterfalls flow into the sea from these mountains.
The climate is tropical: hot and humid in the rainy season and cooled by the trade winds in the dry season. Grenada, being on the southern edge of the hurricane belt, has suffered only three hurricanes in fifty years.
Hurricane Janet passed over Grenada on September 23, 1955, with winds of 185 km/h (115 mph), causing severe damage. The most recent storms to hit have been Hurricane Ivan on September 7, 2004, causing severe damage and thirty-nine deaths and Hurricane Emily on July 14, 2005, causing serious damage in Carriacou and in the north of Grenada which had been relatively lightly affected by Hurricane Ivan.
As a Commonwealth realm, Queen Elizabeth II is Queen of Grenada and Head of State. The Crown is represented by a Governor-General, currently Cécile La Grenade. Day-to-day executive power lies with the Head of Government, the Prime Minister. Although appointed by the Governor-General, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the Parliament.
The Parliament consists of a Senate (thirteen members) and a House of Representatives (fifteen members). The senators are appointed by the government and the opposition, while the representatives are elected by the population for five-year terms.
On February 19, 2013, Prime Minister Keith Claudius Mitchell, 65, led the New National Party (NNP) to victory with a clean sweep of 15 seats. Mitchell is Grenada's ninth prime minister since it attained political independence from Britain in 1974.
On March 13th, 2018, Prime Minister Keith C. Mitchell, led the New National Party (NNP) to victory again. Securing all 15 seats.
Grenada is, along with much of the Caribbean region, a member of the Commonwealth of Nations. The organisation, which is primarily the old British colonies, focuses on fostering international relations between its members.
Grenada is one of the thirty five (35) states which has ratified the OAS charter and is a member of the Organisation. The Charter of the Organisation of American States was signed in Bogota in 1948 and was amended by several protocols which were agreed to in different countries. The naming convention which is used with respect to the naming of the protocols is name of the city and the year in which the Protocol was signed, being included in the Protocol, such as Cartagena de Indias in 1985, Managua 1993, according to the website of the OAS.
Grenada entered into the Inter-American system in 1975 according to the OAS's website.
The last Summit of the Americas, the seventh, was held in Panama City, Panama in 2015 with the eight summit being held in Lima, Peru in 2018 according to the website of the Summits of Americas. Since Grenada is a member of the OAS, in light of changes in the global economy, discoveries in the Oil and Gas sector in Guyana, possible exploration for Oil and Gas which is in the discussion stage in Grenada, representations on behalf of Grenada are likely to be made at that Summit.
Seven other countries signed the Double Taxation Relief (CARICOM) Treaty on that day. These countries were: Antigua & Barbuda, Belize, Jamaica, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & The Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, with another country Guyana signing the agreement on August 18, 1994. This treaty covered concepts such as taxes, residence, tax jurisdictions, capital gains, business profits, interest, dividends, royalties and other areas.
On June 30, 2014, Grenada signed a Model 1 agreement with the United States of America in relation to Foreign Account Tax Compliance Act (FATCA).
Grenada's military has two branches:
Grenada is divided into six parishes:
Carriacou and Petite Martinique, two of the Grenadines, have the status of dependency.
Grenada's economic picture is soured by a heavy external debt problem. With government debt service payments running at about 25% of total revenues in 2017, Grenada was listed 9th worst in a study of 126 developing countries. Tourist facilities are being expanded; tourism is the leading foreign exchange earner. Major short-term concerns are the rising fiscal deficit and the deterioration in the external account balance. Grenada shares a common central bank and a common currency (the East Caribbean dollar) with seven other members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS).
Grenada is a globally important producer of several different spices. Most notably nutmeg and mace, of which Grenada is the world's second largest producer (after Indonesia), providing 20% of the world supply. Nutmeg is depicted on the Grenadian flag.
Coffee is also present on Grenada, but generally as wild plants and used locally.
In 2014, an annual Pure Chocolate Festival was created. Some of the activities which have taken place according to the website "Grenada Chocolate Festival" are visits to the cocoa farms which have been in existence since around 1920 and which are located in rainforests which are ecologically sensitive; "dance the cocoa" which is a traditional way to separate the skins from the seed of the cocoa; and sampling of cocoa infused cuisine which may have developed as part of the country's culture.
Tourism is Grenada's main economic force. Conventional beach and water-sports tourism is largely focused in the southwest region around St George, the airport and the coastal strip. Ecotourism is growing in significance. Most small ecofriendly guesthouses are located in the Saint David and Saint John parishes. The tourism industry is increasing dramatically with the construction of a large cruise ship pier and esplanade. Up to four cruise ships per day were visiting St. Georges in 2007–2008 during the cruise ship season.
Tourism is concentrated in the southwest of the island, around St. George, Grand Anse, Lance Aux Epines, and Point Salines. Grenada has many idyllic beaches around its coastline including the 3 km (1.9 mi) long Grand Anse Beach in St George which is considered to be one of the finest beaches in the world and often appears in countdowns of the world's top ten beaches. Besides these excellent beaches, tourists' favourite points of interest yet in Grenada are the waterfalls. The nearest to St. George's is the Annandale Waterfalls, but other notable ones like Mt. Carmel, Concord, Seven Sisters and Tufton Hall are also within easy reach.
In 2017 the Carriacou Maroon & String Band Music Festival enters its seventh year. In 2017, occurring in April, the event lasts for three days, occurs in three venues, however it is classified as one festival according to the pure Grenada website. The concept of String Bands is historical in nature.
In 2017 the Annual Budget Marine Spice Island BillFish Tournament (48) will be entering its 48th year of existence. The Tournament lasts for four days and in 2017 it starts on Jan 21.
Island Water World Sailing Week, as its name suggests, is an event which lasts for a week and in 2017 will be held towards the end of January into February. This event is similar to the America Cup which is hosted upon agreement or calling out.
Many of these events stimulate the economy as they attract boats and persons who may need repairs to their boats or who may need to learn new routes to shelter their boats during hurricanes or Inter Tropical Convergence Zones (ITCZs) which are weather systems which affect this part of the world for almost half of the year every year.
The Grenada Sailing Festival Work Boat Regatta starts in January and lasts for a few days. From the photos on the website Grenada Sailing Festival, it appears that the style of the race is similar is similar to that event in which CARICOM national, Andrew Lewis raced at the 2016 Summer Olympics.
St. George's University has rapidly expanded in recent years, and has a major economic impact, particularly in southern portions of the island. While some of its approximately 5,000 students are from Grenada, including many undergraduates, and many medical students serve rotations off of the island, the majority of students are from other countries and bring substantial revenue to the island while studying there. St. George's University is among the island's largest employers, and students patronise many off-campus landlords and other businesses.
St. George's University is one of the Organisation of American States (OAS) Consortium of Universities according to the OAS webpage.
Flights at the Maurice Bishop International Airport connect with other Caribbean islands, the United States, Canada, and Europe. There is a daily fast ferry service between St. George and Hillsborough.
A majority of Grenadine citizens (82%) are descendants of the African slaves who were captured and forced against their will to the island by the English and French; few of the indigenous Carib and Arawak population survived the French purge at Sauteurs. A small percentage of descendants of indentured workers from India were brought to Grenada mainly from the North Indian states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh between May 1, 1857 – January 10, 1885. Today, Grenadians of Indian descent comprise the second largest ethnic group. There is also a small community of French and English descendants. The rest of the population is of mixed descent (13%).
Grenada, like many of the Caribbean islands is subject to a large amount of migration, with a large number of young people wanting to leave the island to seek life elsewhere. With estimated 107,317 people living in Grenada, estimates and census data suggest that there are at least that number of Grenadian-born people in other parts of the Caribbean (such as Barbados and Trinidad) and at least that number again in First World countries. Popular migration points for Grenadians further north include New York City, Toronto, the United Kingdom (in particular, London and Yorkshire; see Grenadians in the UK) and sometimes Montreal, or as far south as Australia. This means that probably around a third of those born in Grenada still live there. With a possibility of 220,000 Grenadians or Half Grenadians live outside the country which brings the Grenadian population to 327,000 people.
English is the country's official language, but the main spoken language is either of two creole languages (Grenadian Creole English and Grenadian Creole French) which reflect the African, European, and native Indian heritage of the nation. The creoles contain elements from a variety of African languages; Grenadian Creole, however, is also influenced by French.
Some Hindi/Bhojpuri terms are still spoken amongst the Indian descendants, mostly those pertaining to the kitchen; such as aloo, geera, karela, seim, chownkay, and baylay. The term bhai, which means "brother" in Urdu and Hindi, is a common form of greeting amongst Indo-Grenadians males of equal status.
Although French influence on Grenadian culture is much less visible than on some other Caribbean islands, surnames and place names in French remain, and the everyday language is laced with French words and the local dialect, or Patois. Stronger French influence is found in the well seasoned spicy food and styles of cooking similar to those found in New Orleans, and some French architecture has survived from the 1700s. Island culture is heavily influenced by the African roots of most of the Grenadians, but Indian and Carib Amerindian influence is also seen with dhal puri, rotis, Indian sweets, cassava and curries in the cuisine.
The "oildown" is considered to be the national dish. The name refers to a dish cooked in coconut milk until all the milk is absorbed, leaving a bit of coconut oil in the bottom of the pot. Early recipes call for a mixture of salted pigtail, pig's feet (trotters), salt beef and chicken, dumplings made from flour, and provision like breadfruit, green banana, yam and potatoes. Callaloo leaves are sometimes used to retain the steam and add extra flavour.
Soca, calypso, and reggae set the mood for Grenada's annual Carnival activities. Over the years rap music became famous among Grenadian youths, and there have been numerous young rappers emerging in the island's underground rap scene. Zouk is also being slowly introduced onto the island. The islanders' African and Carib Amerindian heritage plays an influential role in many aspects of Grenada's culture.
An important aspect of the Grenadian culture is the tradition of story telling, with folk tales bearing both African and French influences. The character, Anancy, a spider who is a trickster, originated in West Africa and is prevalent on other islands as well. French influence can be seen in La Diablesse, a well-dressed she-devil, and Ligaroo (from "loup-garou"), a werewolf.
Grenada has competed in every Summer Olympics since the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. Kirani James won the first Olympic gold medal for Grenada in the men's 400 meters in 2012 in london and silver in 2016.
As with other islands from the Caribbean, cricket is the national and most popular sport and is an intrinsic part of Grenadian culture. The Grenada national cricket team forms a part of the Windward Islands cricket team in regional domestic cricket, however it plays as a separate entity in minor regional matches, as well as having previously played Twenty20 cricket in the Stanford 20/20.
Grenada National Cricket Stadium of St. George's hosts domestic and international cricket matches. Devon Smith, West Indies record holder to win the List-A West Indian domestic competition for the second time, was born in the small town of Hermitage.
Grenada is a city in Grenada County, Mississippi, United States. The population was 13,092 at the 2010 census. It is the county seat of Grenada County.Grenada County, Mississippi
Grenada County is a county located in the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census, the population was 21,906. Its county seat is Grenada. The county is named for the province of Granada in southern Spain. Its western border is formed by the Yazoo River and it fronts on the Mississippi Delta. Cotton cultivation was important to its economy well into the 20th century.
The Grenada, MS Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Grenada County.Grenada at the Olympics
Grenada first competed at the Olympic Games in 1984, and has participated in each Summer Olympic Games since then. Grenada won its first medal in 2012, a gold in athletics.
The Grenada Olympic Committee was formed in 1984 and recognized in the same year.
Grenada has not competed in any Winter Olympic Games. After 28 years of competing in the Summer Olympic Games, Grenada won its first medal at the London 2012 Olympics, when Kirani James clocked a new national record of 43.94 seconds on 6 August 2012 to win gold in the Men's 400 meters. It became the smallest country in the history to win a Summer Olympic gold medal.
At the Rio 2016 Olympics James again won another medal, this time a silver. On the 14th August 2016 James ran a time of 43.76s. As a result of its performance Grenada has the distinction of being the most efficient country at the Rio games as comes to the medal tally when compared to the country's population.Grenada national football team
The Grenada national football team is the national team of Grenada and is controlled by the Grenada Football Association which is a member of the Caribbean Football Union of CONCACAF. The team is nicknamed The Spice Boys, a reference to the country being dubbed as the "Island of Spice" or the "Spice Isle".
Grenada has never qualified for the World Cup but have finished second in the Caribbean Cup in 1989 and 2008. Their second-place finish in the 2008 Caribbean Cup gave Grenada its first qualification to a major international competition, that being the 2009 CONCACAF Gold Cup.Grenada–United States relations
Grenada – United States relations are bilateral relations between Grenada and the United States. The United States recognized Grenada on the 7 February 1974, as the same day as Grenada got independence from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. These nations formally established diplomatic relations on 29 November 1974.Grenadines
The Grenadines are a chain of small islands that lie on a line between the larger islands of Saint Vincent and Grenada in the Lesser Antilles. Nine are inhabited, including the mainland Saint Vincent and the Grenadines islands: Young Island, Bequia, Mustique, Canouan, Union Island, Mayreau, Petit St Vincent, and Palm Island. Prominent uninhabited islands of the Grenadines include Petit Nevis, used by whalers, and Petit Mustique, which was the center of a prominent real estate scam in the early 2000s.
The northern two-thirds of the chain, including about 32 islands and cays, are part of the country of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. The southern third of the chain belongs to the country of Grenada. Carriacou is the largest and most populous of the Grenadines (excluding Grenada).History of Grenada
The recorded history of the Caribbean island of Grenada begins in the early 17th century. First settled by indigenous peoples, by the time of European contact it was inhabited by the Caribs. French colonists drove most of the Caribs off the island and established plantations on the island, eventually importing African slaves to work on the sugar plantations.
Control of the island was disputed by Great Britain and France in the 18th century, with the British ultimately prevailing. In 1795, Fédon's Rebellion, inspired by the Haitian Revolution, very nearly succeeded, and was crushed with significant military intervention. Slavery was abolished in the 1830s. In 1885, the island became the capital of the British Windward Islands.
Grenada achieved independence from Britain in 1974. Following a coup by the Marxist New Jewel Movement in 1983, the island was invaded by United States troops and the government overthrown. The island's major crop, nutmeg, was significantly damaged by Hurricane Ivan in 2004.Hurricane Ivan
Hurricane Ivan was a large, long-lived, Cape Verde hurricane that caused widespread damage in the Caribbean and United States. The cyclone was the ninth named storm, the sixth hurricane and the fourth major hurricane of the active 2004 Atlantic hurricane season. Ivan formed in early September, and reached Category 5 strength on the Saffir-Simpson Hurricane Scale.
Ivan caused catastrophic damage to Grenada as a strong Category 3 storm, heavy damage to Jamaica as a strong Category 4 storm and then Grand Cayman, Cayman Islands and the western tip of Cuba as a Category 5 storm. After peaking in strength, the hurricane moved north-northwest across the Gulf of Mexico to strike Pensacola/Milton, Florida and Alabama as a strong Category 3 storm, causing significant damage. Ivan dropped heavy rains on the Southeastern United States as it progressed northeast and east through the eastern United States, becoming an extratropical cyclone. The remnant low from the storm moved into the western subtropical Atlantic and regenerated into a tropical cyclone, which then moved across Florida and the Gulf of Mexico into Louisiana and Texas, causing minimal damage. Ivan caused an estimated $26.1 billion (2004 USD) along its path, of which $20.5 billion occurred in the United States.List of Caribbean islands
A list of islands in the Caribbean Sea, in alphabetical order by country of ownership and/or those with full independence and autonomy.List of heads of government of Grenada
The following article contains a list of heads of government of Grenada, from the establishment of the office of Chief Minister in 1960 to the present day.Monarchy of Grenada
The monarch of Grenada is the head of state of Grenada. The present monarch is Elizabeth II, who is also Sovereign of a number of the other Commonwealth realms. The Queen's constitutional roles are mostly delegated to the Governor-General of Grenada. Royal succession is governed by the English Act of Settlement of 1701, which is part of constitutional law.New Jewel Movement
The New Joint Endeavor for Welfare, Education, and Liberation, or New JEWEL Movement (NJM) was a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party in the Caribbean island nation of Grenada that was led by Maurice Bishop. Established in 1973, the NJM issued its manifesto prior to the granting of Independence to Grenada in 1974. The movement took control of the country with a successful revolution in 1979 and ruled by decree as the People's Revolutionary Government until 1983. In 1983, its leader Maurice Bishop was killed by paramilitaries affiliated with hard-liners in his own party. This led to a military government, which was deposed by the US military in a 1983 invasion.Nutmeg
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica. Myristica fragrans (fragrant nutmeg or true nutmeg) is a dark-leaved evergreen tree cultivated for two spices derived from its fruit: nutmeg, from its seed, and mace, from the seed covering. It is also a commercial source of an essential oil and nutmeg butter. The California nutmeg, Torreya californica, has a seed of similar appearance, but is not closely related to Myristica fragans, and is not used as a spice. If consumed in amounts exceeding its typical use as a spice, nutmeg powder may produce allergic reactions, cause contact dermatitis, or have psychoactive effects. Although used in traditional medicine for treating various disorders, nutmeg has no known medicinal value.Parliament of Grenada
The Parliament of Grenada is composed of the monarch and two chambers: Senate and the House of Representatives.People's Revolutionary Government (Grenada)
The People's Revolutionary Government (PRG) was proclaimed on 13 March 1979 after the New Jewel Movement overthrew the government of Grenada in a revolution. The government suspended the constitution and ruled by decree until a factional conflict broke out, culminating in an invasion by the United States on 25 October 1983.St. George's, Grenada
St. George's is the capital of Grenada. The town is surrounded by a hillside of an old volcano crater and is on a horseshoe-shaped harbor.
St. George's is a popular Caribbean tourist destination. The town has developed in recent years, while preserving its history, culture, and natural environment. The town is home of St. George’s University School of Medicine and it is also where the country's international airport is located, Maurice Bishop International Airport. The main exports are cocoa bean cacao, nutmeg, and mace spice.It has a moderate tropical climate that ensures the success of spice production. Nutmegs are a key crop, followed by spices such as cocoa, mace, cloves, vanilla, cinnamon and ginger.United States invasion of Grenada
The United States invasion of Grenada began on 25 October 1983. The invasion, led by the United States, of the Caribbean island nation of Grenada, which has a population of about 91,000 and is located 160 kilometres (99 mi) north of Venezuela, resulted in a U.S. victory within a matter of days. Codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, it was triggered by the internal strife within the People's Revolutionary Government that resulted in the house arrest and the execution of the previous leader and second Prime Minister of Grenada Maurice Bishop, and the establishment of a preliminary government, the Revolutionary Military Council with Hudson Austin as Chairman. The invasion resulted in the appointment of an interim government, followed by democratic elections in 1984. The country has remained a democratic nation since then.
Grenada gained independence from the United Kingdom in 1974. The Marxist-Leninist New Jewel Movement seized power in a coup in 1979 under Maurice Bishop, suspending the constitution and detaining a number of political prisoners. Among Bishop's core principles were workers' rights, women's rights, and the struggle against racism and Apartheid. Under Bishop's leadership, the National Women's Organization was formed which participated in policy decisions along with other social groups. Women were given equal pay and paid maternity leave, and sex discrimination was made illegal. Organisations for education (Center for Popular Education), health care, and youth affairs (National Youth Organization) were also established.
In 1983, an internal power struggle began over Bishop's relatively moderate foreign policy approach, and on 19 October, hard-line military junta elements captured and executed Bishop and his partner Jacqueline Creft, along with three cabinet ministers and two union leaders. Subsequently, following appeals by the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States and the Governor-General of Grenada, Paul Scoon, the Reagan Administration in the U.S. quickly decided to launch a military intervention. U.S. President Ronald Reagan's justification for the intervention was in part explained as "concerns over the 600 U.S. medical students on the island" and fears of a repeat of the Iran hostage crisis.
The U.S. invasion began six days after Bishop's death, on the morning of 25 October 1983, just two days and several hours after the bombing of the U.S. Marine barracks in Beirut. The invading force consisted of the U.S. Army's Rapid Deployment Force (the 1st and 2nd Ranger Battalions and 82nd Airborne Division paratroopers); U.S. Marines (22nd MAU); U.S. Army Delta Force; U.S. Navy SEALs, and ancillary forces totaling 7,600 U.S.troops, together with Jamaican forces, and troops of the Regional Security System (RSS).
USAF Pararescue and TACP personnel from the 21St Tass, Shaw AFB were attached to various other Special Operations Units during the Grenada conflict. The invasion force defeated Grenadian resistance after a low-altitude airborne assault by Rangers on Point Salines Airport at the south end of the island, and a Marine helicopter and amphibious landing on the north end at Pearls Airport. The military government of Hudson Austin was deposed and replaced by a government appointed by Governor-General Paul Scoon.
The invasion was criticized by many countries including Canada. British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher privately disapproved of the mission and the lack of notice she received, but publicly supported the intervention. The United Nations General Assembly, on 2 November 1983 with a vote of 108 to 9, condemned it as "a flagrant violation of international law". Conversely, it enjoyed broad public support in the United States and over time, a positive evaluation from the Grenadian population, who appreciated the fact that there had been relatively few civilian casualties, as well as the return to democratic elections in 1984. The U.S. awarded more than 5,000 medals to its soldiers for merit and valor.The date of the invasion is now a national holiday in Grenada, called Thanksgiving Day, which commemorates the freeing, after the invasion, of several political prisoners who were subsequently elected to office. A truth and reconciliation commission was launched in 2000 to re-examine some of the controversies of the era; in particular, the commission made an unsuccessful attempt to find Bishop's body, which had been disposed of at Hudson Austin's order, and never found.
For the U.S., the invasion also highlighted issues with communication and coordination between the different branches of the United States military when operating together as a joint force, contributing to investigations and sweeping changes in the form of the Goldwater-Nichols Act and other reorganizations.Visa policy of Grenada
Visitors to Grenada must obtain a visa from one of the Grenadian diplomatic missions or in certain cases in United Kingdom diplomatic missions unless they come from one of the visa exempt countries or countries whose citizens may obtain a visa on arrival. Cruise ship passengers of all nationalities can visit Grenada for up to 24 hours without a visa.Grenada signed a mutual visa-waiver agreement with the European Union on 28 May 2015 which was ratified on 15 December 2015.Citizens of Canada, United Kingdom and the United States are exempt from holding a passport and may enter on a declaration while using a proof of citizenship bearing a photograph and one photo ID. When departing from the United States, however, a passport is required per the regulations of U.S. Department of Homeland Security.
Articles relating to Grenada