Gregory of Nazianzus (Greek: Γρηγόριος ὁ Ναζιανζηνός, Grēgorios ho Nazianzēnos; c. 329 – 25 January 390), also known as Gregory the Theologian or Gregory Nazianzen, was a 4th-century Archbishop of Constantinople, and theologian. He is widely considered the most accomplished rhetorical stylist of the patristic age. As a classically trained orator and philosopher he infused Hellenism into the early church, establishing the paradigm of Byzantine theologians and church officials.. Saint Gregory was saint patron of medieval Bosnia before the Catholic conquest when he was replaced by Saint (pope) Gregory.
Gregory made a significant impact on the shape of Trinitarian theology among both Greek- and Latin-speaking theologians, and he is remembered as the "Trinitarian Theologian". Much of his theological work continues to influence modern theologians, especially in regard to the relationship among the three Persons of the Trinity. Along with the brothers Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa, he is known as one of the Cappadocian Fathers.
Gregory is a saint in both Eastern and Western Christianity. In the Roman Catholic Church he is numbered among the Doctors of the Church; in the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches he is revered as one of the Three Holy Hierarchs, along with Basil the Great and John Chrysostom.
He is also one of only three men in the life of the Orthodox Church who have been officially designated "Theologian" by epithet, the other two being St. John the Theologian (the Evangelist), and St. Symeon the New Theologian.
Saint Gregory of Nazianzus
|Theologian, Doctor of the Church, Great Hierarch, Cappadocian Father, Ecumenical Teacher|
|Died||25 January 390 (aged 60–61)|
|Venerated in||Eastern Orthodox Church|
Roman Catholic Church
|Major shrine||Patriarchal Cathedral of St. George in the Fanar|
|Feast||Eastern Orthodox Church: 25 January (primary feast day)|
30 January (Three Great Hierarchs)
General Roman Calendar: 2 January
General Roman Calendar of 1960: 9 May
Anglican Communion: 2 January
Episcopal Church 9 May
Lutheran Church: 10 January (LCMS); 14 June (ELCA)
|Attributes||Vested as a bishop, wearing an omophorion; holding a Gospel Book or scroll. Iconographically, he is depicted as balding with a bushy white beard.|
Gregory was born of Greek parentage in the family estate of Karbala outside the village of Arianzus, near Nazianzus, in southwest Cappadocia.:18 His parents, Gregory and Nonna, were wealthy land-owners. In AD 325 Nonna converted her husband, a Hypsistarian, to Christianity; he was subsequently ordained as bishop of Nazianzus in 328 or 329.:vii The young Gregory and his brother, Caesarius, first studied at home with their uncle Amphylokhios. Gregory went on to study advanced rhetoric and philosophy in Nazianzus, Caesarea, Alexandria and Athens. On the way to Athens his ship encountered a violent storm, and the terrified Gregory prayed to Christ that if He would deliver him, he would dedicate his life to His service.:28 While at Athens, he developed a close friendship with his fellow student Basil of Caesarea and also made the acquaintance of Flavius Claudius Julianus, who would later become the emperor known as Julian the Apostate.:19,25 In Athens, Gregory studied under the famous rhetoricians Himerius and Proaeresius. Upon finishing his education, he taught rhetoric in Athens for a short time.
In 361 Gregory returned to Nazianzus and was ordained a presbyter by his father's wish, who wanted him to assist with caring for local Christians.:99–102 The younger Gregory, who had been considering a monastic existence, resented his father's decision to force him to choose between priestly services and a solitary existence, calling it an "act of tyranny".:32 Leaving home after a few days, he met his friend Basil at Annesoi, where the two lived as ascetics.:102 However, Basil urged him to return home to assist his father, which he did for the next year. Arriving at Nazianzus, Gregory found the local Christian community split by theological differences and his father accused of heresy by local monks.:107 Gregory helped to heal the division through a combination of personal diplomacy and oratory.
By this time Emperor Julian had publicly declared himself in opposition to Christianity.:115 In response to the emperor's rejection of the Christian faith, Gregory composed his Invectives Against Julian between 362 and 363. Invectives asserts that Christianity will overcome imperfect rulers such as Julian through love and patience. This process as described by Gregory is the public manifestation of the process of deification (theosis), which leads to a spiritual elevation and mystical union with God.:121 Julian resolved, in late 362, to vigorously prosecute Gregory and his other Christian critics; however, the emperor perished the following year during a campaign against the Persians.:125–6 With the death of the emperor, Gregory and the Eastern churches were no longer under the threat of persecution, as the new emperor Jovian was an avowed Christian and supporter of the church.:130
Gregory spent the next few years combating Arianism, which threatened to divide the region of Cappadocia. In this tense environment, Gregory interceded on behalf of his friend Basil with Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea (Mazaca).:138–42 The two friends then entered a period of close fraternal cooperation as they participated in a great rhetorical contest of the Caesarean church precipitated by the arrival of accomplished Arian theologians and rhetors.:143 In the subsequent public debates, presided over by agents of the Emperor Valens, Gregory and Basil emerged triumphant. This success confirmed for both Gregory and Basil that their futures lay in administration of the Church.:143 Basil, who had long displayed inclinations to the episcopacy, was elected bishop of the see of Caesarea in Cappadocia in 370.
Gregory was ordained Bishop of Sasima in 372 by Basil.:190–5 Basil created this see in order to strengthen his position in his dispute with Anthimus, bishop of Tyana. The ambitions of Gregory's father to have his son rise in the Church hierarchy and the insistence of his friend Basil convinced Gregory to accept this position despite his reservations. Gregory would later refer to his episcopal ordination as forced upon him by his strong-willed father and Basil.:187–92 Describing his new bishopric, Gregory lamented how it was nothing more than an "utterly dreadful, pokey little hole; a paltry horse-stop on the main road ... devoid of water, vegetation, or the company of gentlemen ... this was my Church of Sasima!" He made little effort to administer his new diocese, complaining to Basil that he preferred instead to pursue a contemplative life.:38–9
By late 372 Gregory returned to Nazianzus to assist his dying father with the administration of his diocese.:199 This strained his relationship with Basil, who insisted that Gregory resume his post at Sasima. Gregory retorted that he had no intention to continue to play the role of pawn to advance Basil's interests. He instead focused his attention on his new duties as coadjutor of Nazianzus. It was here that Gregory preached the first of his great episcopal orations.
Following the deaths of his mother and father in 374, Gregory continued to administer the Diocese of Nazianzus but refused to be named bishop. Donating most of his inheritance to the needy, he lived an austere existence. At the end of 375 he withdrew to a monastery at Seleukia, living there for three years. Near the end of this period his friend Basil died. Although Gregory's health did not permit him to attend the funeral, he wrote a heartfelt letter of condolence to Basil's brother, Gregory of Nyssa and composed twelve memorial poems dedicated to the memory of his departed friend.
Emperor Valens died in 378. The accession of Theodosius I, a steadfast supporter of Nicene orthodoxy, was good news to those who wished to purge Constantinople of Arian and Apollinarian domination.:235 The exiled Nicene party gradually returned to the city. From his deathbed, Basil reminded them of Gregory's capabilities and likely recommended his friend to champion the trinitarian cause in Constantinople.:235–6
In 379, the Antioch synod and its archbishop, Meletios, asked Gregory to go to Constantinople to lead a theological campaign to win over that city to Nicene orthodoxy.:42 After much hesitation, Gregory agreed. His cousin Theodosia offered him a villa for his residence; Gregory immediately transformed much of it into a church, naming it Anastasia, "a scene for the resurrection of the faith".:241 From this little chapel he delivered five powerful discourses on Nicene doctrine, explaining the nature of the Trinity and the unity of the Godhead. Refuting the Eunomion denial of the Holy Spirit's divinity, Gregory offered this argument:
Look at these facts: Christ is born, the Holy Spirit is His Forerunner. Christ is baptized, the Spirit bears witness to this ... Christ works miracles, the Spirit accompanies them. Christ ascends, the Spirit takes His place. What great things are there in the idea of God which are not in His power? What titles appertaining to God do not apply also to Him, except for Unbegotten and Begotten? I tremble when I think of such an abundance of titles, and how many Names they blaspheme, those who revolt against the Spirit!
Gregory's homilies were well received and attracted ever-growing crowds to Anastasia. Fearing his popularity, his opponents decided to strike. On the vigil of Easter in 379, an Arian mob burst into his church during worship services, wounding Gregory and killing another bishop. Escaping the mob, Gregory next found himself betrayed by his erstwhile friend, the philosopher Maximus the Cynic. Maximus, who was in secret alliance with Peter, bishop of Alexandria, attempted to seize Gregory's position and have himself ordained bishop of Constantinople.:43 Shocked, Gregory decided to resign his office, but the faction faithful to him induced him to stay and ejected Maximus. However, the episode left him embarrassed and exposed him to criticism as a provincial simpleton unable to cope with intrigues of the imperial city.:43
Affairs in Constantinople remained confused as Gregory's position was still unofficial and Arian priests occupied many important churches. The arrival of the emperor Theodosius in 380 settled matters in Gregory's favor. The emperor, determined to eliminate Arianism, expelled Bishop Demophilus. Gregory was subsequently enthroned as bishop of Constantinople at the Basilica of the Apostles, replacing Demophilus.:45
Theodosius wanted to further unify the entire empire behind the orthodox position and decided to convene a church council to resolve matters of faith and discipline.:45 Gregory was of similar mind in wishing to unify Christianity. In the spring of 381 they convened the Second Ecumenical Council in Constantinople, which was attended by 150 Eastern bishops. After the death of the presiding bishop, Meletius of Antioch, Gregory was selected to lead the Council. Hoping to reconcile the West with the East, he offered to recognize Paulinus as Patriarch of Antioch. The Egyptian and Macedonian bishops who had supported Maximus's ordination arrived late for the Council. Once there, they refused to recognise Gregory's position as head of the church of Constantinople, arguing that his transfer from the See of Sasima was canonically illegitimate.:358–9
Gregory was physically exhausted and worried that he was losing the confidence of the bishops and the emperor.:359 Rather than press his case and risk further division, he decided to resign his office: "Let me be as the Prophet Jonah! I was responsible for the storm, but I would sacrifice myself for the salvation of the ship. Seize me and throw me ... I was not happy when I ascended the throne, and gladly would I descend it." He shocked the Council with his surprise resignation and then delivered a dramatic speech to Theodosius asking to be released from his offices. The emperor, moved by his words, applauded, commended his labor and granted his resignation. The Council asked him to appear once more for a farewell ritual and celebratory orations. Gregory used this occasion to deliver a final address (Or. 42) and then departed.:361
Returning to his homeland of Cappadocia, Gregory once again resumed his position as bishop of Nazianzus. He spent the next year combating the local Apollinarian heretics and struggling with periodic illness. He also began composing De Vita Sua, his autobiographical poem.:50 By the end of 383 he found his health too feeble to cope with episcopal duties. Gregory established Eulalius as bishop of Nazianzus and then withdrew into the solitude of Arianzum. After enjoying six peaceful years in retirement at his family estate, he died on 25 January in 390.
Throughout his life Gregory faced stark choices. Should he pursue studies as a rhetor or philosopher? Would a monastic life be more appropriate than public ministry? Was it better to blaze his own path or follow the course mapped for him by his father and Basil? Gregory's writings illuminate the conflicts which both tormented and motivated him. Biographers suggest that it was this dialectic which defined him, forged his character and inspired his search for meaning and truth.:54
Gregory's most significant theological contributions arose from his defense of the doctrine of the Trinity. He is especially noted for his contributions to the field of pneumatology—that is, theology concerning the nature of the Holy Spirit. In this regard, Gregory is the first to use the idea of procession to describe the relationship between the Spirit and the Godhead: "The Holy Spirit is truly Spirit, coming forth from the Father indeed but not after the manner of the Son, for it is not by generation but by procession, since I must coin a word for the sake of clearness." Although Gregory does not fully develop the concept, the idea of procession would shape most later thought about the Holy Spirit.
He emphasized that Jesus did not cease to be God when he became a man, nor did he lose any of his divine attributes when he took on human nature. Furthermore, Gregory asserted that Christ was fully human, including a full human soul. He also proclaimed the eternality of the Holy Spirit, saying that the Holy Spirit's actions were somewhat hidden in the Old Testament but much clearer since the ascension of Jesus into Heaven and the descent of the Holy Spirit at the feast of Pentecost.
In contrast to the Neo-Arian belief that the Son is anomoios, or "unlike" the Father, and with the Semi-Arian assertion that the Son is homoiousios, or "like" the Father, Gregory and his fellow Cappadocians maintained the Nicaean doctrine of homoousia, or consubstantiality of the Son with the Father.:9,10 The Cappadocian Fathers asserted that God's nature is unknowable to man; helped to develop the framework of hypostases, or three persons united in a single Godhead; illustrated how Jesus is the eikon of the Father; and explained the concept of theosis, the belief that all Christians can be assimilated with God in "imitation of the incarnate Son as the divine model.":10
Some of Gregory's theological writings suggest that, like his friend Gregory of Nyssa, he may have supported some form of the doctrine of apocatastasis, the belief that God will bring all of creation into harmony with the Kingdom of Heaven. This led some late-nineteenth century Christian universalists, notably J. W. Hanson and Philip Schaff, to describe Gregory's theology as universalist. This view of Gregory is also held by some modern theologians, such as John Sachs who said that Gregory had "leanings" toward apocatastasis, but in a "cautious, undogmatic" way. However, it is not clear or universally accepted that Gregory held to the doctrine of apocatastasis.
Apart from the several theological discourses, Gregory was also one of the most important early Christian men of letters, a very accomplished orator, perhaps one of the greatest of his time.:21 Gregory was also a very prolific poet who wrote theological, moral and biographical poems.
Gregory's great nephew Nichobulos served as his literary executor, preserving and editing many of his writings. A cousin, Eulalios, published several of Gregory's more noteworthy works in 391.:xi By 400, Rufinius began translating his orations into Latin. As Gregory's works circulated throughout the empire they influenced theological thought. His orations were cited as authoritative by the First Council of Ephesus in 431. By 451 he was designated Theologus, or Theologian by the Council of Chalcedon:xi – a title held by no others save John the Apostle and Symeon the New Theologian (949–1022 AD). He is widely quoted by Eastern Orthodox theologians and highly regarded as a defender of the Christian faith. His contributions to Trinitarian theology are also influential and often cited in the Western churches. Paul Tillich credits Gregory of Nazianzus for having "created the definitive formulae for the doctrine of the trinity". Additionally, the Liturgy of St Gregory the Theologian in use by the Coptic Church is named after him.
Following his death, Saint Gregory was buried at Nazianzus. His relics, consisting of portions of his body and clothing, were transferred to Constantinople in 950, into the Church of the Holy Apostles. Part of the relics were taken from Constantinople by Crusaders during the Fourth Crusade, in 1204, and ended up in Rome. On 27 November 2004, those relics, along with those of John Chrysostom, were returned to Istanbul (Constantinople) by Pope John Paul II, with the Vatican retaining a small portion of both. The relics are now enshrined in the Patriarchal Cathedral of St. George in the Fanar.
During the six years of life which remained to him after his final retirement to his birthplace, Gregory composed the greater part of the copious poetical works which has passed down from generation. These include a valuable autobiographical poem of nearly 2,000 lines; about one hundred other shorter poems relating to his past career; and a large number of epitaphs, epigrams, and epistles to well-known people during that era. The poems that he wrote that dealt with his personal affairs refer to the continuous illness and severe sufferings (physical and spiritual) which assailed him during his last years. In the tiny plot of ground at Arianzus, all that remained to him of his rich inheritance was by a fountain near which there was a shady walk. At this point, Gregory retired to spend his days as a hermit. It was at this point he decided to write theological discourses and poetry of both a religious and an autobiographical nature. He would sometimes receive occasional visits from intimate friends, as well as sometimes from strangers who were attracted to his retreat by his large reputation for sanctity and learning. He died about 25 January 390, although the exact date of his death is unknown.
The Lutheran Church–Missouri Synod commemorates Gregory, along with Basil the Great and Gregory of Nyssa (the Cappadocian Fathers) on 10 January. The Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches celebrate two feast days in Gregory's honor. 25 January is his primary feast; 30 January, known as the feast of the Three Great Hierarchs, commemorates him along with John Chrysostom and Basil of Caesarea. The US Episcopal Church now remembers this Gregory on 9 May, as did the Roman Church up to 1960 (and still does, wherever the usus antiquior or traditional Roman Rite is celebrated), and the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America commemorates Gregory of Nazianzus together with his friends St. Basil the Great and St. Gregory of Nyssa on 14 June. The Roman Catholic Church observes his feast day on 2 January, which is also Gregory's Holy Day, on 2 January, a "Lesser Festival", in the Church of England.
Gregory of Nazianzus or Nazianzen, St c. 330-c. 389 AD •Greek prelate and theologian- Born of Greek parents in Cappadocia, he was educated in Caesarea, Alexandria and Athens.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
|Titles of the Great Christian Church|
| Archbishop of Constantinople
Disputed by Maximus
Amphilochius of Iconium (Greek: Ἀµφιλόχιος Ἰκονίου) was a Christian bishop of the fourth century, son of a Cappadocian family of distinction, born, perhaps at Caesarea, ca. 339/340, died probably 394–403. His father was an eminent lawyer, and his mother Livia remarkable for gentleness and wisdom. He is venerated as a saint on Nov. 22.He was probably first cousin to Gregory of Nazianzus, and was brought up in the peculiarly religious atmosphere of the Christian aristocracy of his native province. He studied law in Antioch with Libanius, practised at Constantinople, but soon retired to lead a religious life in the vicinity of his friend and relative, the "theologian" of Nazianzus.He was soon drawn within the circle of influence around Basil of Caesarea, and seems to have been for a while a member of the Christian "City of the Poor" that Basil had built at Cæsarea. Early in 374 he was bishop of the important see of Iconium, probably placed there by Basil, whom he continued to aid in Cappadocian ecclesiastical affairs until Basil's death (379). Thenceforth he remained in close relations with Gregory of Nazianzus, and accompanied him to the Council of Constantinople (381), where Jerome met and conversed with him (De Vir. Ill., c. 133).In the history of theology he occupies a place of prominence for his defence of the divinity of the Holy Spirit against the Macedonians. It was to him that Basil dedicated his work "On the Holy Spirit". He wrote a similar work, now lost. We know, however, that he read it to Jerome on the occasion of their meeting at Constantinople.His attitude towards Arianism is illustrated by the well-known anecdote concerning his audience with Theodosius I and his son Arcadius. When the Emperor rebuked him for ignoring the presence of his son, he reminded him that the Lord of the universe abhorreth those who are ungrateful towards His Son, their Saviour and Benefactor.He was very energetic against the Messalians, and contributed to the extirpation of that group. Basil, who appointed him to his bishopric, had a high opinion of Amphilochius. In the next generation Theodoret described him in very flattering terms, and he is quoted by councils as late as 787. Jerome also includes him as one of the Cappadocians in a list of Christian exemplars of secular erudition. Because Amphilochius only started to study theology after he became a bishop, his work retains a certain simplicity. According to Georges Florovsky, it becomes evident in his theological writing that he has no philosophical background or particular interest in it. His writing was contingent upon his needs as a pastor and teacher in the struggle against heresy. That said, Florovsky also praises his writing as "inspired by a calm and sincere faith" and his homiletic use of rhetoric, describing it as "reminiscent of Gregory the Theologian."Anaphora of Saint Gregory
The Liturgy of Saint Gregory the Theologian (or Anaphora of Saint Gregory) is one of the three Anaphoras retained by the Coptic Church. The text is named after Saint Gregory of Nazianzus, one of the Cappadocian Fathers.
The anaphora or Eucharistic Prayer that is part of this liturgy is distinct as it is entirely addressed to Christ and not to the Father as anaphoras usually are.Anthimus of Tyana
Anthimus of Tyana was a Christian bishop of the Cappadocian city of Tyana. Tyana increased in prominence when Roman Emperor Valens divided Cappadocia into two provinces and Tyana became the capital of Cappadocian Secundus in 371. This led to the conflict with Basil of Caesarea (the previous capital of the combined Cappadocia), who had only become bishop there in 370, for which Anthimus of Tyana is best known.
Anthimus asserted that the change in his city's political status should be matched with a change in its religious status and declared himself in authority over several Cappadocian towns in his new province which had previously been under Basil's oversight. His success in enforcing these claims within his province was aided by the presence of Arians who did not wish to be under Basil's authority, though the evidence points against Anthimus himself being Arian. The conflict became physical at one point when Basil and his friend Gregory of Nazianzus set out with a mule train to collect supplies from the monastery of St. Orestes, which was under Basil's authority. Some of Anthimus' retainers blocked their path close to St. Orestes, near Sasima, and a scuffle broke out. In 372 as a part of the conflict Basil set up Gregory of Nazianzus as bishop of the small town of Sasima which Anthimus claimed authority over. It was little more than a junction of roads and previously had no bishop. Now it gained a bishop from each side, with Anthimus' choice staying. Likewise Basil made his younger brother Gregory bishop of Nyssa to aid in the conflict. He attempted to establish his authority at Doara by similar means. Basil and Anthimus later settled their differences; Eusebius of Samosata seems to have mediated the conflict and each bishop was accepted as having authority over his own region. At some point in the process Nazianzus was acknowledged to owe its allegiance to Tyana. Before complete peace came to prevail between Anthimus and Basil a new upset emerged with Basil over Anthimus' willingness to accept a candidate named Faustus for installation as a bishop in Armenia. Faustus had first come to Basil and been turned down until such time as Theodotus of Nicopolis and other Armenian bishops could be consulted, but upon turning to Anthimus he received his request.In any case by 375 Gregory considered Anthimus to be in complete agreement with him. Anthimus was described as elderly when this conflict began, and we hear little more of him after its end. The most significant impact of these events was a break in affection between Gregory of Nazianzus and Basil over the pressure Basil had placed on him to take his new role. That break lasted to Basil's death in 379.Basil of Caesarea
Basil of Caesarea, also called Saint Basil the Great (Greek: Ἅγιος Βασίλειος ὁ Μέγας, Ágios Basíleios o Mégas; Coptic: Ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲃⲁⲥⲓⲗⲓⲟⲥ; 329 or 330 – January 1 or 2, 379), was the bishop of Caesarea Mazaca in Cappadocia, Asia Minor (modern-day Turkey). He was an influential theologian who supported the Nicene Creed and opposed the heresies of the early Christian church, fighting against both Arianism and the followers of Apollinaris of Laodicea. His ability to balance his theological convictions with his political connections made Basil a powerful advocate for the Nicene position.
In addition to his work as a theologian, Basil was known for his care of the poor and underprivileged. Basil established guidelines for monastic life which focus on community life, liturgical prayer, and manual labor. Together with Pachomius, he is remembered as a father of communal monasticism in Eastern Christianity. He is considered a saint by the traditions of both Eastern and Western Christianity.
Basil, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa are collectively referred to as the Cappadocian Fathers. The Eastern Orthodox Church and Eastern Catholic Churches have given him, together with Gregory of Nazianzus and John Chrysostom, the title of Great Hierarch. He is recognized as a Doctor of the Church in the Roman Catholic Church. He is sometimes referred to by the epithet Ouranophantor (Greek: Οὐρανοφάντωρ), "revealer of heavenly mysteries".Caesarius of Nazianzus
For others with this name, see Caesarius.Caesarius of Nazianzus (also spelled Cæsarius [pronounced "Kesarios"] and Caesarios [Gr.] ) (c. 331 – 368) was a prominent physician and politician. He is best known as the younger brother of Gregory of Nazianzus. He is recognized as a saint in the Eastern Orthodox and the Catholic Church.Cappadocian Fathers
The Cappadocian Fathers, also traditionally known as the Three Cappadocians, are Basil the Great (330–379), who was bishop of Caesarea; Basil's younger brother Gregory of Nyssa (c. 335 – c. 395), who was bishop of Nyssa; and a close friend, Gregory of Nazianzus (329–389), who became Patriarch of Constantinople. The Cappadocia region, in modern-day Turkey, was an early site of Christian activity, with several missions by Paul in this region.
The Cappadocians advanced the development of early Christian theology, for example the doctrine of the Trinity, and are highly respected as saints in both Western and Eastern churches.Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints recognized as having made significant contribution to theology or doctrine through their research, study, or writing.Some other churches have similar categories with various names.Evagrius Ponticus
Evagrius Ponticus (Greek: Εὐάγριος ὁ Ποντικός, "Evagrius of Pontus"), also called Evagrius the Solitary (345–399 AD), was a Christian monk and ascetic. One of the most influential theologians in the late fourth-century church, he was well known as a thinker, polished speaker, and gifted writer. He left a promising ecclesiastical career in Constantinople and traveled to Jerusalem, where in 383 he became a monk at the monastery of Rufinus and Melania the Elder. He then went to Egypt and spent the remaining years of his life in Nitria and Kellia, marked by years of asceticism and writing. He was a disciple of several influential contemporary church leaders, including Basil of Caesarea, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Macarius of Egypt. He was a teacher of others, including John Cassian and Palladius.Gregory of Nazianzus the Elder
Gregory the Elder, or Gregory of Nazianzus the Elder, (c. 276 – 374) was the bishop of the see of Nazianzus in Roman province of Cappadocia. However, he is better remembered as the patriarch of an important family of ecclesiastics.Gregory of Nyssa
Gregory of Nyssa, also known as Gregory Nyssen (Greek: Γρηγόριος Νύσσης; c. 335 – c. 395), was bishop of Nyssa from 372 to 376 and from 378 until his death. He is venerated as a saint in Roman Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, and Anglicanism. Gregory, his elder brother Basil of Caesarea, and their friend Gregory of Nazianzus are collectively known as the Cappadocian Fathers.
Gregory lacked the administrative ability of his brother Basil or the contemporary influence of Gregory of Nazianzus, but he was an erudite theologian who made significant contributions to the doctrine of the Trinity and the Nicene Creed. Gregory's philosophical writings were influenced by Origen. Since the mid-twentieth century, there has been a significant increase in interest in Gregory's works from the academic community, particularly involving universal salvation, which has resulted in challenges to many traditional interpretations of his theology.Homilies of St. Gregory of Nazianzus
The Homilies of St. Gregory of Nazianzus is a ninth century illuminated manuscript commissioned in Constantinople by Photios I as a commemoration to the emperor Basil I between 879-883. The illustrations from the manuscript are held today in the Bibliothèque nationale de France as part of their collection of Greek manuscripts.Maximus I of Constantinople
Maximus, also known as Maximus I or Maximus the Cynic, was the intrusive archbishop of Constantinople in 380, where he became a rival of Gregory Nazianzus.Nazianzus
Nazianzus (Greek: Ναζιανζός, Nazianzos) was a small town in the late Roman province of Cappadocia Tertia.Nonna of Nazianzus
Saint Nonna of Nazianzus was the wife of Gregory of Nazianzus the Elder, and the mother of Gregory the Theologian, Caesarius, and Gorgonia. She lived in Cappadocia, a province of the Roman Empire in present-day central Turkey.Patrologia Graeca
The Patrologia Graeca (or Patrologiae Cursus Completus, Series Graeca) is an edited collection of writings by the Christian Church Fathers and various secular writers, in the Greek language. It consists of 161 volumes produced in 1857–1866 by J. P. Migne's Imprimerie Catholique, Paris. It includes both the Eastern Fathers and those Western authors who wrote before Latin became predominant in the Western Church in the 3rd century, e.g. the early writings collectively known as the Apostolic Fathers, such as the First and Second Epistle of Clement, the Shepherd of Hermas, Eusebius, Origen, and the Cappadocian Fathers Basil the Great, Gregory of Nazianzus, and Gregory of Nyssa.
The 161 volumes are bound as 166 (vols. 16 and 87 being in three parts and vol. 86 in two). An important final volume, which included some supplements and a full index, was never published, as the plates were destroyed in a fire (1868) at the printer.The first series contained only Latin translations of the originals (81 vols., 1856-61). The second series contains the Greek text with a Latin translation (166 vols., 1857-66). The texts are interlaced, with one column of Greek and a corresponding column on the other side of the page that is the Latin translation. Where the Greek original has been lost, as in the case of Irenaeus, the extant Greek fragments are interspersed throughout the Latin text. In one instance, the original is preserved in Syriac only and translated into Latin. Quite often, information about the author is provided, also in Latin.
A Greek, D. Scholarios, added a half-published list of the authors and subjects, (Athens, 1879) and began a complete table of contents (Athens, 1883). In 1912, Garnier Frères, Paris, published a Patrologia Graeca index volume, edited by Ferdinand Cavallera.Pseudo-Nonnus
Pseudo-Nonnus, also called Nonnus Abbas (i.e. "Nonnus the Abbot"), a 6th-century AD commentator on Gregory of Nazianzus.Saint Gregory (disambiguation)
Saint Gregory, also Pope Gregory I or Gregory the Dialogist (c. 540 – 604), was Pope from 590 until his death.
Saint Gregory may also refer to:
Gregory Thaumaturgus, (Gregory the Wonderworker), or Gregory of Neocaesarea (died 270)
Gregory of Spoleto (died 304)
Gregory the Illuminator, or Gregory the Enlightener (died 331), Armenian saint, founder of the Armenian Apostolic Church
Gregory of Nazianzus the Elder (died 373), bishop of Nazianzus, father of Gregory the Theologian and Caesarius of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus, or Gregory the Theologian (died 390), one of the Three Holy Hierarchs
Gregory of Nyssa (died after 394), Bishop of Nyssa
Gregory of Tours (died 594), Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours
Pope Gregory II (died 731), Pope from 715 to his death
Pope Gregory III (died 741), Pope from 731 to his death
Gregory of Utrecht, (died c. 770), German bishop
Gregory of Dekapolis (died 816), Byzantine monk
Gregory of Crete (Gregory of Akrita, died 820), Cretan saint venerated January 5
Gregory of Narek (died c. 1003): Armenian monk and mystic
Gregory of Moesia, (died 1012), Bulgarian bishop venerated January 8
Pope Gregory VII (died 1085), Pope from 1073 to his death
Gregory the Wonderworker of the Kiev Near Caves (died 1093), Kievan saint venerated January 8
Gregory the Iconographer (12th century), Kievan iconographer and saint venerated August 8
Gregory of Assos (died 1150), Bishop of Assos, venerated March 4
Gregory of Novgorod (died 1193), Archbishop of Novgorod, venerated May 24
Gregory of Nicomedia (died 1240), Byzantine ascetic and saint venerated April 2
Gregory the Byzantine (died 1310), Byzantine monk and saint venerated April 6
Gregory of Sinai (died 1347), Byzantine monk
Gregory the Singer (died 1355), Byzantine monk and saint venerated October 1
Gregory Palamas (died 1359), Archbishop of Thessalonica
Gregory the Hermit (14th century), Kievan saint venerated January 8
Gregory (14th century), founder of Osiou Gregoriou monastery
Gregory of Rostov (died 1416), Abbott of Kamenny Monastery and Archbishop of Rostov, Yiaroslavl and White Lake, venerated May 3
Gregory of Pelsheme (died 1442), Abbot of Pelsheme and Wonderworker of Vologda, venerated September 30
Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople (1746–1821), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Gregory (Orologas) of Kydonies (1864–1922), Metropolitan of Cydoniae
Grigol Peradze (1899–1942), Georgian ArchimandriteSt. Gregory's Church (St. Nazianz, Wisconsin)
St. Gregory Parish, also known as St. Gregory Nazianzen, is a Catholic parish of the Diocese of Green Bay. Its historic parish church, dedicated to Saint Gregory of Nazianzus, is located at 214 Church Street in the village of St. Nazianz, Wisconsin.Three Holy Hierarchs
The Three Hierarchs (Ancient Greek: Οἱ Τρεῖς Ἱεράρχαι; Greek: Οι Τρεις Ιεράρχες) of Eastern Christianity refers to Basil the Great (also known as Basil of Caesarea), Gregory the Theologian (also known as Gregory of Nazianzus) and John Chrysostom. They were highly influential bishops of the early church who played pivotal roles in shaping Christian theology. In Eastern Christianity they are also known as the Three Great Hierarchs and Ecumenical Teachers, while in Roman Catholicism the three are honored as Doctors of the Church. The three are venerated as saints in Eastern Orthodoxy, Catholicism, Anglicanism, and other Christian churches.
|Bishops of Heraclea/Byzantium|
Roman period (38-330 AD)
|Archbishops of Constantinople|
Roman period (330–451 AD)
|Patriarchs of Constantinople|
|Patriarchs of Constantinople|
|Patriarchs of Constantinople|
Turkish period (since 1923 AD)