Grigor Narekatsi[b] (Armenian: Գրիգոր Նարեկացի; anglicized: Gregory of Narek)[c] (c. 950 – 1003/1011) was an Armenian mystical and lyrical poet, monk, and theologian. He is a saint of the Armenian Apostolic Church and was declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope Francis in 2015.
The son of a bishop, Narekatsi was educated by a relative based at the Narekavank, the monastery of Narek, on the southern shores of Lake Van (modern Turkey). He was based there almost all his life. He is best known for his Book of Lamentations, a major piece of mystical literature.
Gregory of Narek
|Doctor of the Church|
Kingdom of Vaspurakan, Bagratid Armenia (present-day Van Province, Turkey)
|Died||c. 1003-1011 (aged ~60)|
|Venerated in||Armenian Apostolic Church|
Armenian Catholic Church
|Canonized||12 April 2015, St. Peter's Basilica by Pope Francis|
|Major shrine||Chapel-Mausoleum at Narek Monastery|
|Feast||October (Armenian Apostolic Church: Holy Translators Day, a moveable feast)|
27 February (Catholic Church)
|Influences||Neoplatonism, Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite|
|Influenced||All Armenian literature, especially verse: Nerses Shnorhali, Sayat-Nova, Yeghishe Charents|
|Major works||Book of Lamentations (Narek)|
Narekatsi was born in the mid-900s: late 940s, 950, 951, 945-951 and died in the early 11th century: 1003 1010, 1011. He lived in the semi-independent Kingdom of Vaspurakan, a part of the larger Bagratid Armenia, with its capital, first, in Kars, then in Ani.
Little is known about his life. He was born in a village on the southern shores of Lake Van, in what is now eastern Turkey, to Khosrov Andzevatsi, a bishop. His father was suspected of pro-Byzantine Chalcedonian beliefs and was eventually excommunicated by Catholicos Anania Mokatsi for his interpretation of the rank of Catholicos as being equivalent to that of a bishop, based on the works of Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite. Grigor and his elder brother Hovhannes were sent to the Narekavank, the monastery of Narek, where he was given religious education by Anania Narekatsi (Ananias of Narek). The latter was his maternal great-uncle and a celebrated scholar who had elevated the status of Narekavank to new heights. Being raised in an intellectual and religious fervor, Grigor was ordained priest in 977 and taught others theology at the monastery school until his death.
Whether Narekatsi led a secluded life or not has become a matter of debate. Arshag Chobanian and Manuk Abeghian believe he did, while Hrant Tamrazian argued that Narekatsi was very well aware of the secular world and his time, had deep knowledge of both peasants and princes and the complexities of the world. Tamrazian believes Narekatsi could not have lived solely on literary ecstasy.
Narekatsi was buried inside the walls of the monastery of Narek. A rectangular-shaped chapel-mausoleum was built on his tomb, which survived until the mid-20th century, when the monastery was destroyed by the Turkish authorities, and later replaced with a mosque.
The Book of Lamentations (Classical Armenian: Մատեան ողբերգութեան, Matean voghbergut’yan) is widely considered Narekatsi's masterpiece. It is often simply called Narek (Նարեկ). Completed towards the end of his life, circa 1002-03, the work has been described as a monologue, a personal lyric and confessional poem, mystical and meditative. It is composed of 95 chapters and over 10,000 lines. Almost all chapters (except two) are titled "Words unto God from the Depths of My Heart". The chapters, which are prayers or elegies, vary in length, but all address God. The central theme is the metaphysical and existential conflict between Narekatsi's desire to be perfect, as taught by Jesus, and his own realization that it is impossible and between the divine grace and his own sense of one's own unworthiness to receive that grace. However, the love and mercy of the all-embracing, all-forgiving, and amazing grace of God compensates the unworthiness of man.
The book is considered a masterpiece of Christian spiritual literature and the "most beloved work of Armenian literature." It has been historically kept in Armenian homes. Scholars have described its popularity among Armenians as being second only to the Bible.[d] In 1853 American missionary H. G. O. Dwight wrote that the book "it is esteemed as one of the best specimens of fine writing in the [Armenian] language." For centuries, Armenians have treasured the book as an enchanted treasure and have attributed to it miraculous powers. For instance, one passage has been read to the ill in expectation of a cure. In the 21st century, psychiatrist Armen Nersisyan has claimed to have developed a unique type of therapy based on the book, which can cure many diseases, at least partly.
The book's first complete publication was done by Voskan Yerevantsi in Marseille, France in 1673. While the first complete commentary was published in Constantinople in 1745. The work has been translated into English, Russian, French, Arabic and Persian. There are three English translations of the book, with the first one appearing in 1977.
Narekatsi also authored a number of other works. His first extant work is a commentary on the Song of Songs («Մեկնութիւն երգոց երգոյն Սողոմոնի», Meknutiun yergots yergoyn Soghomoni), written in 977, the year he was ordained priest. Ara Baliozian considers it a prose masterpiece. He later wrote hymns, panegyrics on various holy figures, homilies, numerous chants and prayers that are still sung today in Armenian churches. Narekatsi also authored around two dozen tagher (lays), personal poems that are the first religious poems in Armenian literature, and spiritual songs called gandz, both in verse and prose. Narekatsi also composed music for his odes, but they are not considered sharakans (chants).
The central idea of Narekatsi's philosophy is eternal salvation relying solely upon faith and divine grace, and not necessarily upon the institutional church, in which Narekatsi's views are similar to those of the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Narekatsi is believed to have been suspected of heresy and being sympathetic to the Paulicians and Tondrakians—two major sects in medieval Armenia. He notably wrote a treatise against the Tondrakians in the 980s, possibly to clear himself of accusations of being sympathetic to their movement. In the treatise he states some of his theological views. Although Narekatsi does not mention the Tondrakians in the Book of Lamentations, some scholars have interpreted certain chapters as containing anti-Tondrakian elements. In his struggle against the antinomian Tondrakians, Narekatsi followed his predecessor at the monastery of Narek: his great-uncle Anania, who was condemned for supposedly Tondrakian beliefs.
According to Ara Baliozian Narekatsi broke from Hellenistic thought, which was dominant among the Armenian intellectual elite since the 5th-century golden age. He was instead deeply influenced by Neoplatonism. In fact, the Narek school was instrumental in instilling Christian Neoplatonism in Armenian theology. Namely, Christian Neoplatonic concepts such as divinization, the attainment of the power of spiritual vision or discernment through penitential purification of the inner and outer man, and of a symbolic exegetical methodology. He may have been influenced by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite, a pivotal author in Christian Neoplatonism, although this view has been criticized. Soviet philologist Vache Nalbandian argued that in Narekatsi's outlook is essentially anti-feudal and humanistic.
The tone of the Book of Lamentations has been compared to that of Confessions by Augustine of Hippo. Some modern scholars have compared Narekatsi's worldview and philosophy to those of later Sufi mystic poets Rumi and Yunus Emre, and 19th century Russian writers Fyodor Dostoevsky and Leo Tolstoy.
Narekatsi was the first major Armenian lyrical poet and is considered the most beloved person in Armenian Christianity. Robert W. Thomson described him as the "most significant poet of the whole Armenian religious tradition," while Jos Weitenberg declared him the "most outstanding theological, mystical and literary figure of Armenian culture." James R. Russell lists Narekatsi as one of the three visionaries of the Armenian tradition, along with Mesrop Mashtots and Yeghishe Charents. Agop Jack Hacikyan et al. note that through his "lively, vibrant, and highly individual style" Narekatsi shaped, refined, and greatly enriched Classical Armenian through his works. According to Hrachik Mirzoyan, Narekatsi created up to 2,500 new Armenian words, although many of which are not actively used.
According to Hacikyan et al. Narekatsi "deserves to be known as one of the great mystical writers of medieval Christendom." Vrej Nersessian considers Narekatsi a "poet of world stature" in the "scope and breadth of his intellect and poetic inventiveness, and in the brooding, visionary quality of his language"—on a par with St Augustine, Dante, and Edward Taylor. This view has been echoed by Levon Zekiyan. Armenian-born Russian critic Karen A. Stepanyan writes that Narekatsi's genius makes him comparable with Shakespeare, Cervantes, and Dostoevsky.
France-based Western Armenian writer Shahan Shahnour has bene Narekatsi's most prominent critic. Shahnour targeted him in his novel Retreat Without Song (Նահանջը առանց երգի, published in 1929) through one of his characters. The latter describes the Book of Lamentations as "the most immoral, unhealthy, poisonous book, a work that had debilitated the Armenians as a nation. The Armenians remain defeated in trying to emulate Grigor's miserable, maimed soul."
Author and critic Ara Baliozian argues that Narekatsi is "our greatest writer because nobody reads him." Paruyr Sevak opined that the Narek has not been read by Armenians as much it has been kissed.
Narekatsi influenced virtually all Armenian literature that came after him. Grigor Magistros Pahlavuni (c. 990–1058) is considered his direct literary successor. Scholars have noted Narekatsi's influence on Armenian poets—medieval and modern ones alike. He inspired prominent medieval poets Hovhannes Imastaser (c. 1047–1129), Nerses Shnorhali (1102–1173) and Frik (c. 1230–1310), and in the modern period, Sayat-Nova (1712–95), Hovhannes Tumanyan (1869–1923), Misak Metsarents (1886–1908), Siamanto (1878–1915), Yeghishe Charents (1897–1937), and Paruyr Sevak (1924–1971). Sevak called the Book of Lamentations a "temple of poesy, on which the destructive action of time has had no effect." Charents lauds the "hallowed brows" of Narekatsi and Nahapet Kuchak in his 1920 poem "I Love My Armenia" («Ես իմ անուշ Հայաստանի»). In another poem ("To Armenia"), Charents lists Narekatsi next to Nerses Shnorhali and Naghash Hovnatan.
Gregory of Narek is a saint of both the Armenian Apostolic and Armenian Catholic churches. His feast is celebrated on October 13 on the Feast of the Holy Translators. His relic is preserved at the Treasury Museum of the Mother See of Holy Etchmiadzin. It was brought out to Etchmiadzin Cathedral on the feast in 2012. Several churches built in Armenia in the 21st century have been named after him,[e] including the cathedral of the Diocese of Gougark in Vanadzor. The St. Gregory of Narek Armenian Apostolic Church in Richmond Heights, Ohio, near Cleveland, was built in 1964. The Armenian Catholic Diocese of Buenos Aires is called the Eparchy of Saint Gregory of Narek.
Narekatsi was often mentioned by Pope John Paul II. In his 1987 encyclical Redemptoris Mater the Pope called him "one of the outstanding glories of Armenia." Article 2678 of Catechism of the Catholic Church, promulgated by John Paul II in 1992, mentions the tradition of prayer in his works. John Paul II referred to him in addresses in 2000 and 2002. In his February 18, 2001 Angelus address John Paul II described him as "one of Our Lady's principal poets" and "the great doctor of the Armenian Church". In his 2001 Apostolic Letter for the 1,700th Anniversary of the Baptism of the Armenian People the Pope stated that Gregory of Narek "probed the dark depths of human desperation and glimpsed the blazing light of grace that shines even there for believers."
It was announced in February 2015 that Gregory of Narek would be named a Doctor of the Church by Pope Francis. On 12 April 2015, on Divine Mercy Sunday, during a Mass for the centennial of the Armenian Genocide at St. Peter's Basilica, Pope Francis officially proclaimed Gregory of Narek as Doctor of the Church in attendance of Armenian President Serzh Sargsyan, Catholicos of All Armenians Karekin II, Catholicos of Cilicia Aram I, and Armenian Catholic Patriarch Nerses Bedros XIX Tarmouni. Francis declared:
Saint Gregory of Narek, a monk of the tenth century, knew how to express the sentiments of your people more than anyone. He gave voice to the cry, which became a prayer, of a sinful and sorrowful humanity, oppressed by the anguish of its powerlessness, but illuminated by the splendour of God’s love and open to the hope of his salvific intervention, which is capable of transforming all things.
He became the 36th and the first Armenian Doctor of the Church. He is also the "second saint coming out of the Eastern Church" and the only Doctor "who was not in communion with the Catholic Church during his lifetime."
His name is listed among the saints for 27 February in the Roman Martyrology, where he is defined as "monk, doctor of the Armenians, distinguished for his writings and mystic science." During a mass on June 25, 2016 in Vartanants Square in Gyumri, Francis stated that he "wished to draw greater attention" to Gregory of Narek by making him a Doctor of the Church. He further added:
It is hard to find his equal in the ability to plumb the depths of misery lodged in the human heart. Yet he always balanced human weakness with God’s mercy, lifting up a heartfelt and tearful prayer of trust in the Lord... Gregory of Narek is a master of life, for he teaches us that the most important thing is to recognize that we are in need of mercy. Despite our own failings and the injuries done to us, we must not become self-centred but open our hearts in sincerity and trust to the Lord...
St. Gregory's proclamation as a Doctor of the Church was commemorated by the Vatican City state with a postage stamp put into circulation September 2, 2015. On 5 April 2018 a two-meter-high bronze statue of Narekatsi, erected by Davit Yerevantsi, was unveiled at the Vatican Gardens by Mikael Minasyan, Armenia's Ambassador to the Holy See. The inaugural ceremony was attended by Pope Francis, Armenia's President Serzh Sargsyan, Armenian Apostolic leaders Karekin II and Aram I.
The male name "Narek" is highly popular among Armenians. In 2018 it was the second most common name given to baby boys. It originates from the village and monastery of Narek and owns its popularity to Gregory of Narek and the Book of Lamentations, popularlily known as "Narek."
The Narekatsi Professorship of Armenian Language and Culture, established in 1969, is the oldest endowed chair of the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). In Yerevan, a public school (established in 1967 and renamed in 1990) and a medical center (established in 2003) are named after Narekatsi. Narekatsi is depicted on a postage stamp issued by Armenia in 2001.
A statue of Narekatsi was erected in Yerevan's Malatia-Sebastia district in 2002. A large stone resembling an old manuscript with inscribed lines and images from the Book of Lamentations was unveiled in the Narekatsi quarter of Yerevan's Avan district in 2010.
The Naregatsi Art Institute (Նարեկացի Արվեստի Միություն), a nonprofit organization registered in the U.S., has its headquarters in Yerevan, Armenia (since 2004) and a center in Shushi, Karabakh (since 2006).
Holy Translators – Mesrob, Yeghishe, Moses (Movses) the Poet, David (Tavit) the Philosopher, Gregory of Nareg, Nerses of Kla (grace-filled)
It was a custom for every Armenian household to have a copy of Nareg.
Krikor Naregatzi, a mystic Armenian poet of the Xth Century, wrote his masterpiece, the Nareg, which had replaced the Bible in many Armenian homes.
A number of studies also deal with the visionaries of the Armenian tradition—Mashtots’, Narekats’i, Ch’arents’.
Shanour's main target is GRIGOR NAREKATSI and his book of elegies. It is, we are told, the most immoral, unhealthy, poisonous book, a work that had debilitated the Armenians as a nation. The Armenians remain defeated in trying to emulate GRIGOR'S miserable, maimed soul."We are Orientals and we believe in what is called fate — what is written on our forehead. Some of it is inscribed with indelible Chinese ink; the rest is jotted down with pencil and then there are smudges of dust. It is up to us to change these last."
Շահնուրը «Նարեկին» վերագրում է մեծ դեր, այն դարեր շարունակ հայի համար եղել է Աստվածաշունչ, դարեր շարունակ ազդել է հայ մարդու ոգու և անհատականության վրա` նրան դարձնելով կրավորական, համբերատար, հանդուրժող, նրա մեջ խեղդելով ազատատենչ ոգին: Նարեկացու խիստ քննադատությամբ երևում է Սուրենի ոչ միայն կրոնի նկատմամբ ունեցած հակակրանքը, այլև` նրա ժխտողական վերաբերմունքը մեր անցյալ պատմության, մշակույթի հանդեպ: Անցյալը Շահնուրի համար անողոք քննության նյութ է եղել, որն էլ ժամանակին խիստ դժգոհության տեղիք է տվել:
Գր. Նարեկացու անմիջական հաջորդ ու նրա ավանդները շարունակողը Գր. Մագիստրոս Պահլավունին (990-1058) է:
Գրական առաջին իսկ քայլերից Նարեկացու արվեստը ոգևորել և ուղղորդել է Պ. Սևակին:
But in the Ave Maria, the theotokia, the hymns of St. Ephrem or St. Gregory of Narek, the tradition of prayer is basically the same.
Let us express our desire for the divine life offered in Christ in the warm tones of a great theologian of the Armenian Church, Gregory of Narek (10th century): "It is not for his gifts...
Let us now listen to a teacher of the Armenian tradition, Gregory of Narek (c. 950-1010), who in his Panegyric Address to the Blessed Virgin Mary says to her: "Taking refuge under your most worthy and powerful intercession...
One of Our Lady's principal poets is the great doctor of the Armenian Church, St Gregory of Narek.
Նարեկ գյուղի անունից, որով կոչվել է Գրիգոր Նարեկացին և իր նշանավոր աղոթագիրքը
Abun (or Abuna, which is the status constructus form used when a name follows: Ge'ez አቡነ ’abuna/abune, 'our father'; Amharic and Tigrinya) is the honorific title used for any bishop of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church as well as of the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. It was historically used solely for the head of the Coptic Orthodox Church in Ethiopia during the more than 1000 years when the Coptic Patriarchate of Alexandria appointed only one bishop at a time to serve its Ethiopian flock. When referred to without a name following, it is Abun, and if a name follows, it becomes Abuna (e.g., Abuna Paulos).Armenian Catholic Eparchy of San Gregorio de Narek en Buenos Aires
The Armenian Catholic Eparchy of San Gregorio de Narek en Buenos Aires in an eparchy (Eastern Catholic diocese) of the Armenian Catholic Church (Armenian Rite in Armenian language) for Argentina.
It depends immediately on the Armenian Catholic Patriarch of Cilicia, without being part of his or any other ecclesiastical province.
Its Cathedral episcopal see is the Marian Catedral Armenia de Nuestra Señora de Narek, in Argentina's capital Buenos Aires, dedicated to Our Lady of Nareg.Compline
Compline ( KOM-plin), also known as Complin, Night Prayer, or the Prayers at the End of the Day, is the final church service (or office) of the day in the Christian tradition of canonical hours. The English word compline is derived from the Latin completorium, as Compline is the completion of the working day. The word was first used in this sense about the beginning of the 6th century by St. Benedict in his Rule (Regula Benedicti; hereafter, RB), in Chapters 16, 17, 18, and 42, and he even uses the verb complere to signify Compline: "Omnes ergo in unum positi compleant" ("All having assembled in one place, let them say Compline"); "et exeuntes a completorio" ("and, after going out from Compline")... (RB, Chap. 42).
Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, Lutheran, and certain other Christian denominations with liturgical traditions prescribe Compline services. Compline tends to be a contemplative Office that emphasizes spiritual peace. In many monasteries it is the custom to begin the "Great Silence" after Compline, during which the whole community, including guests, observes silence throughout the night until the morning service the next day.Diocese of Armavir
Diocese of Armavir (Armenian: Արմավիրի թեմ Armaviri t'em), is a diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Church covering the Armavir Province of Armenia. The name is derived from the historic city of Armavir which served as the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Armenia between 331 and 210 BC.
The diocese was officially founded on May 30, 1996, by Catholicos Karekin I. The seat of the diocese is the Cathedral of Saint Gregory of Narek in the town of Armavir. Bishop Sion Adamyan is currently the primate of the diocese, serving since 2001.Diocese of Gougark
The Diocese of Gougark (Armenian: Գուգարաց թեմ Gougarats t'em), is a diocese of the Armenian Apostolic Church encompassing the northern Lori Province of Armenia. It is named after the historic province of Gugark; the 13th province of the Kingdom of Armenia. The modern-day province of Lori was one of the cantons of historic Gugark. The diocesan headquarters are located in the city of Vanadzor. The seat of the bishop is the Saint Gregory of Narek Cathedral. Until December 2010, the churches of Tavush Province were under the jurisdiction of the Diocese of Gougark, when the new Diocese of Tavush was founded by Catholicos Karekin II.
The Diocese includes 29 working churches with 14 full-time priests.Doctor of the Church
Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints recognized as having made significant contribution to theology or doctrine through their research, study, or writing.Some other churches have similar categories with various names.Holy Translators
The Feast of the Holy Translators (Armenian: Սուրբ Թարգմանչաց տօն, Surb T'argmanchats ton) is dedicated to a group of literary figures, and saints of the Armenian Apostolic Church, who founded the Armenian alphabet, translated the Bible, and started a movement of writing and translating important works into Armenian language.The Holy Translators are:
Gregory of Narek
David the Invincible
Nerses IV the GraciousThe translation of the Bible was finished by the Holy Translators in 425. The first words written in Armenian were the opening line of the Book of Proverbs:
The first Armenian translation of the Bible is among the world's oldest, has survived and is still used in the liturgy of the Armenian Church.The Armenian Church remembers Holy Translators on the Feast of the Holy Translators in October. Churches of Holy Translators are established in Armenia and different diaspora communities (USA, Iran etc.).
According to Dennis Papazian, "the Holy Translators are highly revered in the Armenian church. Many of the works translated have since been lost in their Greek or Syriac original, but have been preserved in the Armenian."John Mamikonean
John or Hovhan Mamikonyan (in Armenian Հովհան Մամիկոնյան), was a 10th-century Armenian noble from the Mamikonian dynasty, author of the History of Taron, which is a continuation of the account of Zenob Glak. John is not known from any source other than his History, and in the colophon self-identifies as the 35th bishop of Glak after Zenob.Khosrov of Andzev
Khosrov of Andzev (died 964) was the father of Gregory of Narek, a tenth century poet. His two sons, Grigor and Hovhannes, studied at Narek monastery under abbot Anania Narekasti. He mainly wrote on topics such as the Armenian Apostolic Church and its ceremonies.List of cathedrals in Armenia
The Armenian Apostolic Church is the national church of Armenia.Malatia-Sebastia District
Malatia-Sebastia (Armenian: Մալաթիա-Սեբաստիա վարչական շրջան, Malatia-Sebastia varčakan šrĵan) is one of the 12 districts of Yerevan, the capital of Armenia, located in the western part of the city. As of the 2011 census, the district has a population of 132,900.
Malatia-Sebastia is bordered by the Ajapnyak District form the north, Kentron District from the east and Shengavit District from the south. It also has borders with the Armavir Province from the east and the Ararat Province from the southeast.The name of the community is derived from two former major Armenian settlements in modern-day Turkey; Malatya and Sivas.
The district is unofficially divided into smaller neighborhoods such as: Nor Malatia, Zoravar Andranik, Shahumyan, Araratyan and Haghtanak.Narek
Narek (in Armenian Նարեկ), an Armenian given name, alternatively Nareg in Western Armenian.Narekavank
Narekavank (Armenian: Նարեկավանք, "Monastery of Narek", Western Armenian: Nareg) was a tenth-century Armenian monastery in the historic province of Vaspurakan, near the southern shores of Lake Van, in present-day eastern Turkey. The monastery was one of the most prominent in medieval Armenia and had a major school. The poet Gregory of Narek (Grigor Narekatsi) notably flourished at the monastery. It was abandoned in 1915 during the Armenian Genocide, and reportedly demolished around 1951. A mosque now stands on its location.Nikoghos Tahmizian
Nikoghos Tahmizian (1926–2011, Armenian: Նիկողոս Թահմիզյան; also spelled: Nikogos Tahmizyan) was an Armenian musicologist, theorist and historian. His professional accomplishments were to decipher neumes (khaz) of Armenian church music, analyze the musical theory of old Armenia and research the life and works of Armenian composers from medieval times to modern era.Tahmizian's discoveries in the area of the medieval Armenian notational system open a door to understanding and interpreting the liturgical chants (Шаракан) of the period. His book Modern Neumology (2003) summarizes his forty years of research in the field. Several dozen neumatic symbols have now been revealed, defined, categorized and interpreted as a result of his work.
His research into the musical heritage of Armenia revealed and explained the most crucial periods in the history of Armenian music and its notorious representatives. He brought to life the musical contributions of Mesrop Mashtots (5th century), Sahak Partev (Isaac of Armenia, 4th/5th century), Movses Khorenatsi (5th century), Gregory of Narek (Grigor Narekatsi, 10th century), Nerses Shnorhali (12th century), Sayat-Nova (18th century), Makar Yekmalian (19th century), Dikran Tchouhadjian (19th century), Komitas (early 20th century) and others. His work placed an overall historical perspective of the musical development in Armenia from 5th to 20th Centuries. He categorized the period from ancient times to the 12th century as an ascending era, and the timeframe from 13th to 18th centuries as a period of creative decline.
He also conducted extensive research into the theory of Armenian music from the pagan era to the church music of the 8th Century A.D. In his defining book entitled 'Theory of Music in Ancient Armenia' (published in Armenia, 1977, in Russian) he interpreted and classified the modal system used during this period. He also analyzed the metric and rhythmic constructs and their formational significance. He explained the uniqueness of the Armenian oktoechos and shed light upon the conceptual and aesthetical issues of the medieval music of Armenia. Moreover, he brought into focus the specific characteristics of the Armenian modes as compared and contrasted with Persian, Arabic, Turkish, as well as Greek, Russian and Caucasian modal systems.Throughout his career, Tahmizian published over a dozen books and around two hundred articles and essays in Armenian, Russian, English, French and Polish. He has also delivered over 60 academic lectures in universities and conservatories throughout the former Soviet Union, as well as London (1978), Rome (1981), Tokyo (1985), Paris (1989), San Francisco (1990) and New York City (1993). He contributed to the Russian Music Encyclopedia (published from 1973 to 1982 in Moscow, six volumes, in Russian), and Armenian Encyclopedia (published from 1974 to 1987 in Yerevan, thirteen volumes, in Armenian).Our Lady of Narek Cathedral, Buenos Aires
The Our Lady of Narek Cathedral (Spanish: Catedral de Nuestra Señora de Narek ) also called Armenian Cathedral of Our Lady of Narek (Catedral Armenia de Nuestra Señora de Narek) is an Armenian Catholic cathedral church that is located in the Charcas street in the city of Buenos Aires the capital of Argentina. The congregation follows the Armenian rite and is in full communion with the Pope. It is one of the five Catholic cathedrals in Buenos Aires, others following the Roman rite (Metropolitan Cathedral of the Holy Trinity and the Military Cathedral), Maronite Rite (Cathedral of St. Maron), Ukrainian rite (Our Lady of Patrocinio Cathedral). It should not be confused with the Armenian Cathedral of St. Gregory the Enlightener (Armenian Apostolic Church).
The property on which the present structure was built was purchased in 1942 where a small chapel operated, the work of the new church was developed between 1971 and 1981 when it was officially consecrated. The temple is the main church of the Armenian Eparchy of San Gregory of Narek in Buenos Aires (Eparchia Sancti Gregorii Narekiani Bonaërensis Armenorum) created in 1989 by the bull "Cum Christifideles ritus Armeni in Republica Argentina" of the then Pope John Paul II to meet the religious needs of the local Armenian Catholic community.
The church is under the pastoral responsibility of Bishop Vartán Waldir Boghossian.Saint Gregory (disambiguation)
Saint Gregory, also Pope Gregory I or Gregory the Dialogist (c. 540 – 604), was Pope from 590 until his death.
Saint Gregory may also refer to:
Gregory Thaumaturgus, (Gregory the Wonderworker), or Gregory of Neocaesarea (died 270)
Gregory of Spoleto (died 304)
Gregory the Illuminator, or Gregory the Enlightener (died 331), Armenian saint, founder of the Armenian Apostolic Church
Gregory of Nazianzus the Elder (died 373), bishop of Nazianzus, father of Gregory the Theologian and Caesarius of Nazianzus
Gregory of Nazianzus, or Gregory the Theologian (died 390), one of the Three Holy Hierarchs
Gregory of Nyssa (died after 394), Bishop of Nyssa
Gregory of Tours (died 594), Gallo-Roman historian and Bishop of Tours
Pope Gregory II (died 731), Pope from 715 to his death
Pope Gregory III (died 741), Pope from 731 to his death
Gregory of Utrecht, (died c. 770), German bishop
Gregory of Dekapolis (died 816), Byzantine monk
Gregory of Crete (Gregory of Akrita, died 820), Cretan saint venerated January 5
Gregory of Narek (died c. 1003): Armenian monk and mystic
Gregory of Moesia, (died 1012), Bulgarian bishop venerated January 8
Pope Gregory VII (died 1085), Pope from 1073 to his death
Gregory the Wonderworker of the Kiev Near Caves (died 1093), Kievan saint venerated January 8
Gregory the Iconographer (12th century), Kievan iconographer and saint venerated August 8
Gregory of Assos (died 1150), Bishop of Assos, venerated March 4
Gregory of Novgorod (died 1193), Archbishop of Novgorod, venerated May 24
Gregory of Nicomedia (died 1240), Byzantine ascetic and saint venerated April 2
Gregory the Byzantine (died 1310), Byzantine monk and saint venerated April 6
Gregory of Sinai (died 1347), Byzantine monk
Gregory the Singer (died 1355), Byzantine monk and saint venerated October 1
Gregory Palamas (died 1359), Archbishop of Thessalonica
Gregory the Hermit (14th century), Kievan saint venerated January 8
Gregory (14th century), founder of Osiou Gregoriou monastery
Gregory of Rostov (died 1416), Abbott of Kamenny Monastery and Archbishop of Rostov, Yiaroslavl and White Lake, venerated May 3
Gregory of Pelsheme (died 1442), Abbot of Pelsheme and Wonderworker of Vologda, venerated September 30
Patriarch Gregory V of Constantinople (1746–1821), Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople
Gregory (Orologas) of Kydonies (1864–1922), Metropolitan of Cydoniae
Grigol Peradze (1899–1942), Georgian ArchimandriteShahamir Shahamirian
Shahamir Shahamirian was an 18th-century writer and philosopher, notable figure in the Armenian liberation movement and a wealthy Armenian merchant in Madras. Shahamirian was born in New Julfa, Iran. He then moved to India where he became an affluent merchant. In 1771, Shahamirian found the first Armenian printing press in Madras. In 1772 Shahamirian published the first work of Armenian political philosophy. He promoted the vision of a state, a revolutionary idea in the 18th century among Armenians.Vanadzor
Vanadzor (Armenian: Վանաձոր pronounced [vɑnɑˈdzɔɾ]), is an urban municipal community and the third-largest city in Armenia serving as the capital of Lori Province in the northern part of the country. It is located about 128 kilometres (80 miles) north of the capital Yerevan. As of the 2011 census, the city had a population of 86,199, down from 148,876 reported at the 1979 official census. Currently, the town has an approximate population of 82,200 as per the 2016 official estimate. Vanadzor is the seat of the Diocese of Gougark of the Armenian Apostolic Church.Yared
Saint Yared (Ge'ez: ቅዱስ ያሬድ; April 25, 505 – May 20, 571) was a legendary Aksumite musician from Tigray credited with inventing the sacred music tradition of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, Eritrean Orthodox Church and Ethiopian Catholic Church and Ethiopia's system of musical notation. He is responsible for creating the Zema or the chant tradition of Ethiopia, particularly the chants of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, which are still performed today. He is regarded as a saint of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church with a feast day of 11 Genbot (May 19). His name is from the Biblical person known in English as "Jared" (Gen. 5:15).
of the faithful