Gregory Scott Paul (born December 24, 1954) is an American freelance researcher, author and illustrator who works in paleontology, and more recently has examined sociology and theology. He is best known for his work and research on theropod dinosaurs and his detailed illustrations, both live and skeletal. Professionally investigating and restoring dinosaurs for three decades, Paul received an on-screen credit as dinosaur specialist on Jurassic Park and Discovery Channel's When Dinosaurs Roamed America and Dinosaur Planet. He is the author and illustrator of Predatory Dinosaurs of the World (1988), The Complete Illustrated Guide to Dinosaur Skeletons (1996), Dinosaurs of the Air (2001), The Princeton Field Guide to Dinosaurs (2010), Gregory S. Paul's Dinosaur Coffee Table Book (2010), and editor of The Scientific American Book of Dinosaurs (2000).
Paul's recent research on the interactions of religion and society has received international press and media coverage.
Gregory S. Paul
Gregory Paul in 2011
|Born||December 24, 1954|
Washington D.C., United States
|Residence||Baltimore, Maryland, United States|
|Known for||Accurate dinosaur restorations|
Pioneering feathered theropods during "Dinosaur Renaissance"
|Fields||Paleontology, Paleoart, Sociology, Theology|
|Influences||Charles R. Knight, William Scheele, Bill Berry|
|Influenced||Artists during and after the "Dinosaur Renaissance"|
Paul helped pioneer the "new look" of dinosaurs in the 1970s. Through a series of dynamic ink drawings and oil paintings he was among the first professional artists to depict them as active, warm-blooded and – in the case of the small ones – feathered. Many later dinosaur illustrations are a reflection of his anatomical insights or even a direct imitation of his style. The fact that he worked closely with paleontologists, did his own independent paleontological research and created a series of skeletal restorations of all sufficiently known dinosaurs, lead many to regard his images as a sort of scientific standard to be followed. This tendency is stimulated by his habit of constantly redrawing older work to let it reflect the latest finds and theories. Much of it is in black-and-white, in ink or colored pencil. Sculptors have used these anatomical templates as a resource for decades, and still do today many unauthorized and uncredited Even one of his scientific critics, Storrs L. Olson, described him in a review in the Scientific American as "a superior artist". He was inspired by classic paleoartists such as Charles R. Knight, and has a fondness for the dinosaur restorations of the little-known artist Bill Berry.
Paul's line art and paintings have been published in over 100 popular books and shown in more documentaries than other modern paleoartists  including several television programs such as The Nature of Things, NOVA, Horizon, and PaleoWorld. Among the magazines his art has appeared in are: Time, Smithsonian, Discover, Scientific American, Equinox and Natural History.
From 1977 to 1984, Paul was an informal research associate and illustrator for Robert Bakker in the Earth and Planetary Sciences department at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. Paul lacks a formal degree in paleontology, but has participated in numerous field expeditions and has authored or co-authored over 30 scientific papers and over 40 popular science articles. Paul proposed that some of the bird-like feathered theropods were winged fliers, and that others were secondarily flightless, an idea supported by some fossils from China. Paul proposed the controversial thermoregulatory concept of "terramegathermy", which argues that only animals with high basal metabolic rates can exceed one tonne on land. Paul has named the following dinosaurs, alone or with co-authors:
The first three of these are now commonly assigned to other taxa. The theropod Cryptovolans pauli (now Microraptor) is named after him in recognition of his (presumed correct) predictions about feathered and flying dinosaurs. Sellacoxa pauli is named after him to recognize his recent work in iguanodont research.
Aside from many scientific articles, Paul has written four books on paleontology, all illustrated by the author:
Paul was also editor of The Scientific American Book of Dinosaurs (2000).
Because creationists claim that popular acceptance of evolution harms societies, and because the sociology of religion's cultural impact is under-researched, Paul began to investigate what he labels the "moral-creator socioeconomic hypothesis." Paul authored a paper in 2005 wherein, he states in the introduction that the paper is "not an attempt to present a definitive study that establishes cause versus effect between religiosity, secularism and societal health". He concludes that less religious first world societies generally have low social dysfunction. However, many important and unresolved problems were noted by other researchers on his methodology such as lack of clarity in his definitions and concepts of "religion" and "secular", too much reliance on scatter plots instead of multivariate and multiple regression analysis which single out variables from complex phenomena to better source the probable causes of any correlations, and not indicating the limits of his sources of data in such as the diverse linguistical understanding of "religion" in all cultures in the data used.
In a follow-up paper in 2009  he notes "high religiosity is not universal to human populations, and it is actually inversely related to a wide range of socio-economic indicators representing the health of modern democracies." Paul holds that, "once a nation's population becomes prosperous and secure, for example through economic security and universal health care, much of the population loses interest in seeking the aid and protection of supernatural entities. This effect appears to be so consistent that it may prevent nations from being highly religious while enjoying good internal socioeconomic conditions."
These conclusions are in line with other sociological research such as Pippa Norris and Ronald Ingelhart's Sacred and Secular (2004) and Phil Zuckerman's Society Without God (2009). His research is not in line with works from John Micklethwait and Adrian Woodbridge, or research from Peter L. Berger (2009) and Philip Jenkins. These latter works argue that the resurgence of religion in diverse and previously secular nations such as India, Singapore, China and Turkey, which has primarily been among the more educated, economic upper-class, when viewed alongside the continued religious adherence in the United States, seems to paint Europe (the primary center of Paul and Zuckerman's arguments) as the exception instead of the norm.
Paul's paper goes on to conclude that religion is not universal, that there is no well developed God gene, and that humans are much more adapted to be materialists than spiritual. The study was covered by the senior science editor at Newsweek who observed that the "brain may indeed be predisposed to supernatural beliefs. But that predisposition may need environmental input to be fully realized." An article in USA Today presents contrasting views on Paul's conclusions.
In Philosophy and Theology Paul published a paper that cites the large scale deaths of children as evidence against the existence of a good God. The paper concludes that the widely held free will and best of all possible worlds theological hypotheses are not correct. The absence of a moral creator is cited in the Evolutionary Psychology paper as one reason why religiosity would not lead to superior societal conditions.
In a discussion in Science, Paul observes that "Prosperous modernity is proving to be the nemesis of religion". The same piece also claims that the lack of religion in some hunter-gatherers refutes the God gene hypothesis, in which a propensity to religion is genetically hard wired into the human brain.
Amazonsaurus ( AM-ə-zən-SAWR-əs, "Amazon lizard") is a genus of diplodocoid sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous Period of what is now South America. It would have been a large-bodied quadrupedal herbivore with a long neck and whiplash tail. Although more derived diplodocoids were some of the longest animals ever to exist, Amazonsaurus was probably not more than 12 meters (40 ft) long. Gregory S. Paul estimated in 2010 its weight at 5000 kg.Despite the fact that other dinosaurs have been found in Brazil, this is the first named genus from territory in the Amazon Basin. The generic name is derived from the Brazilian Legal Amazon region and the Greek word sauros ("lizard"). There is one named species, (A. maranhensis), which is named after the Brazilian state of Maranhão. Both genus and species were named in 2003 by Brazilian paleontologists Ismar de Souza Carvalho and Leonardo dos Santos Avilla, and their Argentine colleague, Leonardo Salgado.
Fossils of Amazonsaurus, including some back and tail vertebrae, ribs, and fragments of the pelvis, are the only dinosaur remains identifiable at the generic level from the Itapecuru Formation of Maranhão. This geologic formation dates back to the Aptian through Albian epochs of the Early Cretaceous Period, or about 125 to 100 million years ago. Amazonsaurus was recovered in sediments which are interpreted by geologists as floodplain deposits near a river delta.
The tall neural spines on the tail vertebrae identify Amazonsaurus as a diplodocoid sauropod, but the fragmentary nature of the only known specimen makes it difficult to place A. maranhensis more specifically within the superfamily Diplodocoidea. However, some features of these vertebrae suggest it may be a late-surviving member of a line of basal diplodocoids. At least one published cladistic analysis shows Amazonsaurus to be more derived than rebbachisaurids, but basal to dicraeosaurids and diplodocids within Diplodocoidea (Salgado et al., 2004).Amurosaurus
Amurosaurus (; "Amur lizard") is a genus of lambeosaurine hadrosaurid dinosaur found in the latest Cretaceous period (66 million years ago) of eastern Asia. Like most lambeosaurs, it would have been a primarily bipedal herbivore with a "duckbill" shaped snout and a hollow crest on top of its head, although such a crest has not been found. Fossil bones of adults are rare, but an adult would most likely have been at least 6 metres (20 ft) long. According to Gregory S. Paul, it was about 8 metres (26 ft) long and weighed about 3,000 kilograms (6,600 lb).Asylosaurus
Asylosaurus (meaning "unharmed or sanctuary lizard") is a genus of basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Late Triassic of England. It is based on partial remains, described in 1836 by Henry Riley and Samuel Stutchbury as pertaining to Thecodontosaurus, that Othniel Charles Marsh brought to Yale University between 1888 and 1890. These remains thus escaped destruction by a bombardment in 1940 during World War II, unlike the original holotype of Thecodontosaurus. Asylosaurus was described in 2007 by Peter Galton. The type species is A. yalensis, referring to Yale. The bones originally came from a Rhaetian-age cave fill at Durdham Down, Clifton, Bristol.Asylosaurus is based on YPM 2195, a partial skeleton of the torso region, including back vertebrae, ribs, gastralia, a shoulder girdle, humeri, a partial forearm, and a hand; additional bones from the neck, tail, pelvis, arm and leg that may represent the same individual were also referred to Asylosaurus. It differs from Thecodontosaurus and Pantydraco, contemporaneous basal sauropodomorphs of similar builds, in the structure of its humerus (upper arm). It may have had a separate ecological niche from these other related animals based on how omnivorous or herbivorous it was. According to Gregory S. Paul, it was 2 metres (6 ft 7 in) long and its weight was about 25 kilograms (55 lb).Avebrevicauda
Avebrevicauda (meaning "birds with short tails") is a group which includes all avialan species with ten or fewer free vertebrae in the tail. The group was named in 2002 by Gregory S. Paul to distinguish short-tailed avialans from their ancestors, such as Archaeopteryx, which had long, reptilian tails.The cladogram below follows the results of a phylogenetic study by Wang et al., 2016.Dakotadon
Dakotadon is a genus of iguanodont dinosaur from the Barremian-age Lower Cretaceous Lakota Formation of South Dakota, USA, known from a partial skull. It was first described in 1989 as Iguanodon lakotaensis, by David B. Weishampel and Philip R. Bjork. Its assignment has been controversial. Some researchers suggest that "I." lakotaensis was more basal than I. bernissartensis, and related to Theiophytalia, but David Norman has suggested that it was a synonym of I. bernissartensis. Gregory S. Paul, working on a revision of iguanodont species, gave "I." lakotaensis its own genus (Dakotadon) in 2008.Darwinsaurus
Darwinsaurus (meaning "Darwin's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.
In the early nineteenth century dinosaur remains were discovered in the Shornden Quarry at Shorden near Hastings in East Sussex. These were first reported by Richard Owen in 1842. In 1889 they were referred to Iguanodon fittoni by Richard Lydekker. They were then assigned to Hypselospinus fittoni by David Bruce Norman in 2010.
In 2012 Gregory S. Paul named them as a separate genus and species. The type species is Darwinsaurus evolutionis. The generic name honours Charles Darwin for his theory of evolution. The specific name refers to evolution in general and specifically to the strong evolutionary radiation that iguanodonts, according to Paul, are a prime example of. The holotype, as indicated by Paul, is an associated skeleton that includes material catalogued under the numbers NHMUK R1831, R1833, and R1835 (Paul mistakenly included NHMUK R1836 in the genus, unaware that it came from the younger Wessex Formation). Included by Lydekker and Norman was also specimen NHMUK R1832, lower arm elements.
Paul in 2012 provided a short diagnosis of Darwinsaurus. The dentary, the front bone of the lower jaw, is straight. An elongated diastema is present between the beak and the row of teeth. The dentary is shallow below the diastema and deeper below the teeth. The foremost dentary teeth are smaller. The arm is very robust. The olecranon of the ulna is well-developed. Some carpalia are very large. The metacarpals are rather elongated. The thumb spike, the claw of the first finger, is massive.Paul and Norman are in disagreement about the form of the diastema. According to Paul, an illustration in Lydekker (1889) shows that the fossil originally possessed a long and low gap between the tooth battery and the beak; subsequent damage would have removed three or four very small teeth in front of the main row. Norman, however, disputes this and thinks damage has considerably lowered the jaw, the front teeth originally having been large, resulting in a narrow diastema.Paul considered Darwinsaurus a basal member of the Iguanodontia.Norman (2013) considered Paul's description of Darwinsaurus to be inadequate, treating D. evolutionis as a junior synonym of Hypselospinus fittoni, and noting that NHMUK 1836, an associated partial skeleton from the late Barremian of the Isle of Wight, can referred to the species Mantellisaurus atherfieldensis. In a recent SVP abstract, Karen Poole considered Darwinsaurus a possible junior synonym of Huxleysaurus based on unpublished cladistic results.Dysalotosaurus
Dysalotosaurus (meaning 'uncatchable lizard') is a genus of herbivorous iguanodontian dinosaur. It was a dryosaurid iguanodontian, and its fossils have been found in late Kimmeridgian age-rocks (Late Jurassic) of the Tendaguru Formation, Tanzania. The type and only species of the genus is D. lettowvorbecki. This species was named by Hans Virchow in 1919 in honour of the Imperial German Army Officer, Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. For much of the 20th century the species was referred to related and approximately contemporary genus Dryosaurus, but newer studies reject this synonymy. In 2016, Gregory S. Paul estimated its length at 2.5 metres (8.2 ft), its weight at 80 kilograms (180 lb).Epanterias
Epanterias is a dubious genus of theropod dinosaur from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian-age Upper Jurassic upper Morrison Formation of Garden Park, Colorado. It was described by Edward Drinker Cope in 1878. The type species is Epanterias amplexus. This genus is based on what is now AMNH 5767, parts of three vertebrae, a coracoid, and a metatarsal. Although Cope thought it was a sauropod, it was later shown to be a theropod. Gregory S. Paul reassessed the material as pertaining to a large species of Allosaurus in 1988 (which he classified as Allosaurus amplexus). Other authors have gone further and considered E. amplexus as simply a large individual of Allosaurus fragilis. In 2010, Gregory S. Paul and Kenneth Carpenter noted that the E. amplexus specimen comes from higher in the Morrison Formation than the type specimen of Allosaurus fragilis, and is therefore "probably a different taxon". They also considered its holotype specimen not diagnostic and classified it as a nomen dubium.Fukuisaurus
Fukuisaurus (meaning "Fukui lizard") is a genus of herbivorous dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous. It was an ornithopod which lived in what is now Japan.
Remains of Fukuisaurus were discovered in 1989, in the Kitadani formation in Katsuyama, Fukui Prefecture, in rocks from the Kitadani Formation, dating to the Barremian. The type species, Fukuisaurus tetoriensis, was described in 2003 by Yoshitsugu Kobayashi and Yoichi Azuma. The genus name refers to Fukui; the specific name to the geological Tetori Group. The type specimens or cotypes are FPDM-V-40-1, a right maxilla, and FPDM-V-40-2, a right jugal. Further elements of a skull and a right sternal plate had been recovered. Since 2003 much more extensive finds have been made and much of the skeleton is now known.
Fukuisaurus is a relatively small species. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length at 4.5 meters, the weight at four hundred kilograms. Being a bipedal, optionally quadrupedal, animal, it was similar in general build to Iguanodon, Ouranosaurus and Altirhinus. According to the describers Fukuisaurus was exceptional in that its skull was not kinetic: the tooth-bearing maxilla would be so strongly fused to the vomer that a sideways chewing motion would have been impossible.
A cladistic analysis showed that Fukuisaurus was a basal member of the Hadrosauroidea, less derived than Altirhinus.Giraffatitan
Giraffatitan (name meaning "titanic giraffe") is a genus of sauropod dinosaur that lived during the late Jurassic Period (Kimmeridgian–Tithonian stages). It was originally named as an African species of Brachiosaurus (B. brancai), but this has since been changed. Giraffatitan was for many decades known as the largest dinosaur but recent discoveries of several larger dinosaurs prove otherwise; giant titanosaurians appear to have surpassed Giraffatitan in terms of sheer mass. Also, the sauropod dinosaur Sauroposeidon is estimated to be taller and possibly heavier than Giraffatitan.
All size estimates for Giraffatitan are based on the specimen HMN SII, a subadult individual between 21.8–22.5 metres (72–74 ft) in length and about 12 meters (39 ft) tall. Mass estimates are varied and range from as little as 15 tonnes (17 short tons) to as much as 78.3 tonnes (86.3 short tons) but there is evidence supporting that these animals could grow larger; specimen HMN XV2, represented by a fibula 13% larger than the corresponding material on HMN SII, might have attained 26 metres (85 ft) in length or longer.Huxleysaurus
Huxleysaurus (meaning "Huxley's lizard") is a genus of herbivorous styracosternan ornithopod dinosaur.Mantellisaurus
Mantellisaurus is a genus of iguanodontian dinosaur that lived in the Barremian and early Aptian ages of the Early Cretaceous Period of Europe. Its remains are known from Belgium (Bernissart), England and Germany. The type and only species is M. atherfieldensis. Formerly known as Iguanodon atherfieldensis, the new genus Mantellisaurus was erected for the species by Gregory Paul in 2007. According to Paul, Mantellisaurus was more lightly built than Iguanodon and more closely related to Ouranosaurus, making Iguanodon in its traditional sense paraphyletic. It is known from many complete and almost complete skeletons. The genus name honours Gideon Mantell, the discoverer of Iguanodon.Mantellodon
Mantellodon (meaning "Gideon Mantell's tooth") is a genus of styracosternan ornithopod. The type species is Mantellodon carpenteri. The holotype specimen is NHMUK R3741 consisting of a partial associated postcranial skeleton. It was formerly referred to Iguanodon.Nanningosaurus
Nanningosaurus is a genus of hadrosaurid dinosaur from the upper Late Cretaceous of the Nalong Basin, Guangxi, China.
The type and only species is Nanningosaurus dashiensis, named and described by Mo Jinyou, Zhao Zhongru, Wamg Wei and Xu Xing in 2007. The generic name refers to the city of Nanning, located close to the excavation site. The specific name is derived from the Pinyin da-shi, "great stone", the name of the village where the discovery was made.Nanningosaurus is based on holotype NHMG8142, an incomplete skeleton including skull, arm, leg and pelvis remains found in 1991, together with the holotype of Qingxiusaurus. The discoveries were in 1998 reported in the scientific literature. The paratype is NHJM8143, a right maxilla.In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated the body length of Nanningosaurus at 7.5 metres, its weight at 2.5 tonnes. No autapomorphies were given but a unique combination of diagnostic characteristics includes a high and sharp ascending branch of the maxilla, a short rear branch of the maxilla, relatively few tooth positions (twenty-seven in the maxilla), a transversely wide lower quadrate with a weak paraquadratic notch, a gracile upper arm, and an ischium that at the lower end of its rear edge curves towards its expanded tip.Mo et al. (2007), who described the specimen, performed a phylogenetic analysis that suggests Nanningosaurus was a basal lambeosaurine, although they stressed the support for this was tentative. This animal was the first hadrosaurid named from southern China.Palpebral (bone)
The palpebral bone is a small dermal bone found in the region of the eye socket in a variety of animals, including crocodilians and ornithischian dinosaurs. It is also known as the adlacrimal or supraorbital, although the latter term may not be confused with the supraorbital in osteichthyan fishes. In ornithischians, the palpebral can form a prong that projects from the front upper corner of the orbit. It is large in heterodontosaurids, basal ornithopods such as Thescelosaurus (as Bugenasaura) and Dryosaurus, and basal ceratopsians such as Archaeoceratops; in these animals, the prong is elongate and would have stuck out and over the eye like a bony eyebrow. As paleoartist Gregory S. Paul has noted, elongate palpebrals would have given their owners fierce-looking "eagle eyes". In such cases, the expanded palpebral may have functioned to shade the eye.Potamornis
Potamornis is a prehistoric bird genus that dated back to the late Maastrichtian age of the late Cretaceous period. Its scrappy remains were found in the Lance Formation at Buck Creek, USA, and additional possible remains were found in the upper Hell Creek Formation of Montana, dated to the Danian age of the Paleogene period, though these may have been reworked. A single species was named and described in 2001: Potamornis skutchi.This was almost certainly a member of the Hesperornithes, the hefty and toothed flightless diving birds of the Mesozoic seas. Its precise relationships are not all too clear; the quadrate bone is unique in some respects but apparently shares more apomorphies with the family Hesperornithidae - the "typical" Hesperornithes - in cladistic analysis. Consequently, it might be considered a fossil hesperornithid with a different feeding specialization. Though it was heavily built like many (flying and flightless) diving birds, it weighed perhaps 1.5 or 2 kg. This raises the possibility that the Hesperornithes not only included flying members (see also Enaliornis), but that their families might have evolved flightlessness independently.Sellacoxa
Sellacoxa is a genus of iguanodont dinosaur which existed in what is now England during the Early Cretaceous period (lower Valanginian stage, around 140 mya).Identified from a nearly complete right ilium, pubis, ischium, and thirteen articulated posterior dorsals and sacrals (holotype NHMUK R.3788) found in May 1873 by John Hopkinson in the Old Roar Quarry, at Silverhill, near Hastings, from the lower Wadhurst Clay of East Sussex, England, that David Norman (2010) regarded as an individual of Barilium. It was named by Kenneth Carpenter and Yusuke Ishida in 2010 and the type species is Sellacoxa pauli. The generic name means “saddle” (sella in Latin) + “hips” (coxa) in reference to the saddle-shaped ilium, and the specific name honors Gregory S. Paul for recognising that European iguanodont diversity is higher than previously assumed.In a 2013 publication, David Norman did not consider Sellacoxa distinct from Barilium and noted that Carpenter and Ishida overlooked a left ilium, dismissing diagnostic characters of the ilium as a result of distortion.Shuangmiaosaurus
Shuangmiaosaurus is a genus of herbivorous ornithischian dinosaur which lived during the late Albian age of the Early Cretaceous Period, about 100 million years ago. It was an iguanodont euornithopod which lived in China.
The type species, Shuangmiaosaurus gilmorei, was named and described by You Hailu, Ji Qiang Li Jinglu and Li Yinxian in 2003. The generic name refers to the village of Shuangmiao in Beipiao in Liaoning Province, the site of the discovery. The specific name honours the American paleontologist Charles Whitney Gilmore.The holotype, specimen LPM 0165, was found in the Sunjiawan Formation, originally seen as dating to the Late Cretaceous (Cenomanian to Turonian) but today considered to have been somewhat older. It consists of a partial left upper jaw and lower jaw, including the maxilla, part of the praemaxilla, elements of the lacrimal and the dentary.
Shuangmiaosaurus was a rather large euornithopod. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated its length at 7.5 metres, its weight at 2.5 tonnes.Shuangmiaosaurus was originally considered a basal member of the Hadrosauroidea, one closely related to the Hadrosauridae. Subsequent authors, including David B. Norman of Cambridge University, consider it a more basal member of the Iguanodontia outside of the Hadrosauroidea.Tanius
Tanius (meaning "of Tan") is a genus of hadrosauroid dinosaur. It lived in the Late Cretaceous of China. The type species, named and described in 1929 by Carl Wiman, is Tanius sinensis. The generic name honours the Chinese paleontologist Tan Xichou ("H.C. Tan"). The specific epithet refers to China. In 2010 Gregory S. Paul estimated the length of Tanius at seven metres and the weight at two tonnes.