Greenwich /ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ/ is an affluent town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171. It is the 10th largest municipality in Connecticut, and the largest that functions as a town (the remaining largest municipalities in the state function as cities).
The largest town on Connecticut's Gold Coast, Greenwich is home to many hedge funds and other financial service firms. Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as in the six-state region of New England. It is roughly 40–50 minutes by train from Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Greenwich 12th on its list of the "100 Best Places to Live in the United States" in 2005. The town is named after Greenwich, a Royal borough of London in the United Kingdom.
Location in Fairfield County and the state of Connecticut.
Location in Connecticut
Greenwich (the US)
|• Type||Representative town meeting|
|• First selectman||Peter Tesei (R)|
|• Town administrator||Benjamin Branyan|
|• Town meeting moderator||Thomas J. Byrne|
|• Total||67.2 sq mi (174.0 km2)|
|• Land||47.8 sq mi (123.8 km2)|
|• Water||19.4 sq mi (50.3 km2)|
|Elevation||131 ft (40 m)|
|• Density||928.5/sq mi (358.5/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC–5 (Eastern)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC–4 (Eastern)|
|ZIP Codes||06807, 06830, 06831, 06870, 06878, 06836|
|GNIS feature ID||213435|
The town of Greenwich was settled in 1640. One of the founders was Elizabeth Fones Winthrop, daughter-in-law of John Winthrop, founder and Governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. What is now called Greenwich Point was known for much of the area's early history as "Elizabeth's Neck" in recognition of Elizabeth Fones and their 1640 purchase of the Point and much of the area now known as Old Greenwich. Greenwich was declared a township by the General Assembly in Hartford on May 11, 1665.
For many years, Greenwich Point (locally termed "Tod's Point"), was open only to town residents and their guests. However, a lawyer sued, saying his rights to freedom of assembly were threatened because he was not allowed to go there. The lower courts disagreed, but the Supreme Court of Connecticut agreed, and Greenwich was forced to amend its beach access policy to all four beaches.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 67.2 square miles (174 km2), of which 47.8 square miles (124 km2) is land and 19.4 square miles (50 km2), or 28.88%, is water. In terms of area, Greenwich is twice the size of Manhattan. The town is bordered to the west and north by Westchester County, New York, to the east by the city of Stamford, and faces the Village of Bayville to the south across the Long Island Sound. If you travel far enough east from Greenwich, you eventually hit Long Island at its extremity. Therefore, Greenwich is in a geographically exceptional position, being in a sense surrounded by New York.
The Census Bureau recognizes seven CDPs within the town: Byram, Cos Cob, Glenville, Old Greenwich, Pemberwick, Riverside, and a "Greenwich" CDP covering a portion of town. The USPS lists separate zip codes for Greenwich, Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, and Riverside. Additionally, Greenwich is often further divided into several smaller, unofficial neighborhoods. Longtime residents have a fierce loyalty and superior opinion of their particular neighborhood.
The Hispanic population is concentrated in the southwestern corner of the town. In 2011, numerous neighborhoods were voted by the Business Insider as being the richest neighborhoods in America.
Calf Island, a 29-acre (120,000 m2) island about 3,000 feet (910 m) from the Byram shore in Greenwich, is open for visitors, although as of the summer of 2006 it was getting relatively few of them.
More than half of the island (on the west side) is a bird sanctuary off-limits to members of the public without permission to visit. The island is available for overnight stays for those with permits, otherwise the east side is open from dawn till dusk.
Great Captain Island is also off the coast of Greenwich, and is the southernmost point in Connecticut. There is a Coast Guard lighthouse on this island, as well as a designed area as a bird sanctuary. The lighthouse is a Skeletal Tower.
Island Beach or "Little Captain Island" once was the venue for the town's annual Island Beach Day. Ventriloquist Paul Winchell and his dummy, Jerry Mahoney, once came for a show, and on another occasion the National Guard let adults and children fire machine guns into the water, according to an article in the Greenwich Time.
Island Beach has changed over the decades. The bathhouse once on the island's eastern shore is gone, and erosion is slowly eating away at the beaches themselves.
Greenwich experiences a humid continental climate. However, it is quite close to a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cfa). During winter storms, it is common for the area north of the Merritt Parkway to receive significantly heavier snowfall than the area closer to the coast, due to the moderating influence of Long Island Sound.
|Climate data for Greenwich, Connecticut|
|Average high °F (°C)||35
|Average low °F (°C)||21
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||4.32
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||7.7
|Source #1: Weather Channel|
|Source #2: WeatherDB|
As of the census of 2000, there were 61,101 people, 23,230 households, and 16,237 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,277.6 people per square mile (493.2/km²). There were 24,511 housing units at an average density of 512.5 per square mile (197.9/km²). As of the census of 2013, the racial makeup of the town was 80.90% White, 4.90% African American, 0.10% Native American, 7.80% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, and 2.50% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 13.90% of the population.
There were 23,230 households out of which 33.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.4% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.1% were non-families. 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.12.
In the town the population was spread out with 25.4% under the age of 18, 4.1% from 18 to 24, 28.8% from 25 to 44, 25.7% from 45 to 64, and 15.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.2 males.
The median income for a household in the town was $124,958, and the median income for a family was $167,825. Males had a median income of $95,085 versus $47,806 for females. The per capita income for the town was $92,759 per 2010 census. About 2.5% of families and 4.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.1% of those under age 18 and 3.2% of those age 65 or over.
Greenwich is the wealthiest town in Connecticut with an Adjusted Equalized Net Grand List per Capita (AENGLC) of $679,857.09. The AENGLC is a combination of both the property tax base per person and income per person. This is a measure of the personal wealth of individual residents, considering their real estate and income. Darien is second with $567,716.62, and New Canaan third at $563,919.93.
The median price for a single-family home in town was $1.7 million in 2006, when about 140 properties sold for $5 million or more, according to Prudential Connecticut Realty. In 2007, the highest asking prices for residential property in town were $39.5 million for the 76-acre (310,000 m2) estate of actor Mel Gibson on Old Mill Road, $19.7 million for a 13,000-square-foot (1,200 m2) mansion on 8.7 acres (35,000 m2) with a private lake, and $38 million for an estate with formal gardens and a greenhouse the size of a cottage.
Companies in Greenwich include:
According to Greenwich's 2011 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, the top employers in the town are:
|#||Employer||No. of employees|
|1||Town of Greenwich||2,366|
|3||Orograin Bakeries (division of Bimbo Bakeries USA)||500|
|4||Blue Sky Studios||400|
|5||Hyatt Regency - Greenwich||650|
|6||Greenwich Woods Rehabilitation & Health Care Center||235|
|7||Tudor Investment Corporation||227|
A single-visit beach pass for non-residents to Greenwich Point (locally termed "Tod's Point" after the previous private owners), which is on a peninsula and so includes picnic areas, a beach and small marina, is $7 per person and $25 per car. Tickets must be purchased at the town hall, the Eastern Greenwich Civic Center, or Western Greenwich Civic Center. However, anyone can go to the point for free between November and April. The point has views of Manhattan, bridges connecting the Bronx and Queens, and Brooklyn and Staten Island, and newly built hi-rises in New Rochelle, New York.
There is also a community sailing center and rental area located in the park. Bicycling and roller-blading are popular sports on the trails and paths in the summer.
The town owns the Griffith E. Harris golf course. The 18-link course is named after "Griff" Harris, first selectman from 1952 to 1958. There are also eight country clubs in town with golf courses, and the Dorothy Hamill Rink is also in town.
Arch Street, The Greenwich Teen Center has age-specific programs and events on weekdays and weekends. It is the longest-running privately funded teen center in the nation. Arch Street is located at Roger Sherman Baldwin park. Every year in May, there is a Greenwich Town Party. The party has had performances from musicians such as Earth, Wind, and Fire and The Doobie Brothers (2015), the Temptations (2011), James Taylor (2012) (he sang Fire and Rain during a torrential rain shower), Paul Simon (2013), Santana and Buddy Guy (2014), John Fogerty and Hall and Oates (2016), as well as Steely Dan (2017).
Other Sports Clubs:
|2016||39.1% 12,215||56.5% 17,630|
|2012||55.2% 16,456||43.9% 13,078|
The town of Greenwich is one political and taxing body, but consists of several distinct sections or neighborhoods, such as Banksville, Byram, Cos Cob, Glenville, Mianus, Old Greenwich, Riverside and Greenwich (sometimes referred to as central, or downtown, Greenwich). Of these neighborhoods, three (Cos Cob, Old Greenwich, and Riverside) have separate postal names and ZIP codes.
The town has three Selectmen and a Representative Town Meeting (RTM). The RTM must approve all budgets, and consists of 230 elected representatives. RTM members are not paid. The three selectmen are elected on a town-wide basis, although each person can only vote for two members. This assures that there will almost always be one Democrat and two Republicans or two Democrats and one Republican. While voter registration is skewed in the Republicans' favor, they do not have a lock on the First Selectman's chair, and Democrats have held the seat recently. Many of the other town committees have equal representation between Democrats and Republicans, regardless of the vote breakdown, since each individual can only vote for half as many seats as are available.
|Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 31, 2012|
|Party||Active voters||Inactive voters||Total voters||Percentage|
Greenwich Public Schools operates the public schools. Greenwich High School is the district's sole high school. As of 2012 elementary schools had the same pattern of racial segregation as the town as a whole with Hispanic students concentrated in the two elementary schools in the southwestern corner of the district, New Lebanon and Hamilton Avenue. The 3 middle schools have balanced enrollment. There is a Connecticut racial diversity law which requires that the percentage of students in an ethnic group in a school may not deviate by more than 25% from the average for the district. Thus, as of 2013, the district was out of compliance and was searching for solutions.
High Schools: Greenwich High School
List is in reverse chronological order of movies filmed (or partially filmed) in Greenwich:
The town is served by the Metro-North Railroad's New Haven Line (the four stations, from west to east, are Greenwich, Cos Cob, Riverside, and Old Greenwich) and is approximately a 50-minute train ride to Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan on the express train and a 60-minute ride on the local. The Amtrak Acela, Northeast Regional, and Vermonter trains stop in the adjacent city of Stamford.
Interstate 95 goes through the southern end of town, and there are four exits from I-95 in Greenwich, exits 2 through 5. The Boston Post Road (also known as East or West Putnam Avenue or simply Route 1) also goes through town, as does the Merritt Parkway, although the Merritt Parkway is a considerable distance from the downtown area. Interstate 684 passes through Greenwich, but cannot be entered or exited there, and the nearest interchange is at the Westchester County Airport in New York State.
Westchester County Airport is the closest commercial airport to Greenwich. It takes approximately 15 minutes to drive from the town's center. This is followed by LaGuardia Airport in Queens, New York, a 35-minute drive approximately. John F. Kennedy International Airport in Queens, New York, is the closest international airport, a one-hour drive approximately. Newark Liberty International Airport in New Jersey is also easily accessible from Greenwich, taking approximately one hour to drive to.
Two bridges in Greenwich were among 12 in the state listed in "critical" condition by state safety inspectors as of August 2007. The Riversville Road bridge, built in the 1950s, now has a weight limit of 3 tons, but as of August 5, 2007, the bridge had not been inspected in over two years (in March 2005), according to state records obtained by the Hartford Courant, although a state official said the bridge was inspected in August 2005 and would be inspected again in August 2007. In the March 2005 inspection, the bridge's above-ground structure was deemed to be in critical condition, with other components in poor condition. The Bailiwick Road bridge in town was closed in April 2007 and remained closed as of August 2007 due to storm damage. The ratings for the two bridges were worse than the Interstate 35W bridge in Minneapolis, which collapsed during rush hour on August 1, 2007.
According to the DataHaven Community Wellbeing Survey, a statewide program funded by various agencies and philanthropies, 4% of adults in Greenwich are "transportation insecure," meaning that they have had to stay at home during the past year due to a lack of adequate transportation. The comparable rate for all adults statewide is 13%.
Greenwich Emergency Medical Service, Inc. (or "GEMS", as it is often referred to) is contracted as the primary service area responder (PSAR) for the Town of Greenwich. GEMS was founded on July 15, 1986 which took the place of an old and antiquated system that was serviced by the volunteer fire departments. GEMS operates out of four strategically located stations throughout the town, and has mutual aid agreements with Stamford and Port Chester/Rye/Rye Brook. Current staffing has 4 advanced life support ambulances (ALS) and 1 ALS supervisor on 24 hours a day. Each GEMS unit is operated at the highest level of advanced prehospital care, utilizing highly trained and experienced paramedics. GEMS was the first service in New England to make use of 12-lead EKGs in the prehospital setting, and continues to lead the region with advanced life support tools and equipment. Greenwich was the first town in the state to be awarded the Heartsafe Community designation. GEMS responds to, on average, approximately 6,000 emergency medical calls annually. GEMS offers a wide range of education including school education from 6-12 grade. EMT classes and community CPR classes are regularly scheduled.
The town of Greenwich is protected by the paid Greenwich Fire Department (GFD) and eight all-volunteer fire companies, in addition to a Fire Police Patrol. The paid GFD is made up of 100 paid firefighters, who staff 6 Engine Companies and 1 Truck Company, as well as several special units, in 6 Fire Stations (shared with volunteer companies), under the command of a Deputy Chief (Tour Commander) per shift, who in-turn reports to the Chief of Department. The eight all-volunteer fire companies are made up of a total of approximately 100 volunteer firefighters, who man 9 volunteer Engines, 2 volunteer Ladders, 4 Tankers, 6 Squads, 3 Utility Units, 3 Marine Units (Fireboats), 1 Dive Rescue Unit, 1 Special Operations Unit, 1 Heavy Rescue and several other support units. The eight all-volunteer fire companies are quartered in all 8 Fire Stations, located throughout the town, and respond to emergency calls with the paid GFD Units. The all-volunteer fire companies are each commanded by a District Chief, who in-turn reports to a Deputy Chief of the GFD, who reports to the Chief of Department. There is also the Cos Cob Fire Police Patrol, one of the only remaining Fire Police Patrols in Fairfield County, Connecticut. The Patrol operates 2 Units, Patrol 2 (P2) and Utility 2 (U2). The paid Greenwich Fire Department and the 7 all-volunteer Greenwich Fire Companies respond to, on average, approximately 5,000 emergency calls annually.
By 2012, the town was planning to replace the current Central Fire Station (Fire Headquarters) with a new Fire Headquarters and merge the Greenwich EMS into the new facility. The town was also planning on adding a 9th Fire Station with a paid Engine in the Back Country on King Street in town. As of early Summer 2012, Engine 1 and the Deputy Chief are moving to a temporary facility in the commuter parking lot at Horseneck Lane and Shore Road. Truck 1 has been temporarily relocated to the Cos Cob Firehouse.
Located at 11 Bruce Place, GPD has 87 Police Officers, 22 Detectives, 19 Sergeants, 10 Lieutenants, 3 Captains, and one Deputy Chief with 20+ civilian dispatchers and administrative personnel. and includes a K-9 unit. The current Chief of Police is Jim Heavey while the First Selectman is Police Commissioner.
Byram Shubert Library
Greenwich originally had only three sister cities, but in recent years has added two more. In 2013 the Town also become sister city to Rose, Cosenza, Italy and Morra de Sanctis, Avellino, Italy. An interesting fact to note is that today there are more descendants of Rosetani immigrants living in Greenwich, Connecticut than there are people living in the Town of Rose. :
At least two tractor-trailer trucks and two passenger cars went into the Mianus River early this morning when a Connecticut Turnpike bridge over it collapsed, the Connecticut state police said.