Greenwich

Greenwich[note 1] is an area of south east London, England, located 5.5 miles (8.9 km) east-southeast of Charing Cross. It is located within the Royal Borough of Greenwich, to which it lends its name.

Greenwich is notable for its maritime history and for giving its name to the Greenwich Meridian (0° longitude) and Greenwich Mean Time. The town had also become a locale of historic buildings, such as being the site of a royal palace, the Palace of Placentia from the 15th century, and was the birthplace of many Tudors, including Henry VIII and Elizabeth I. The palace fell into disrepair during the English Civil War and was rebuilt as the Royal Naval Hospital for Sailors by Sir Christopher Wren and his assistant Nicholas Hawksmoor. These buildings became the Royal Naval College in 1873, and they remained an establishment for military education until 1998 when they passed into the hands of the Greenwich Foundation. The historic rooms within these buildings remain open to the public; other buildings are used by University of Greenwich and Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance.

The town became a popular resort in the 18th century and many grand houses were built there, such as Vanbrugh Castle (1717) established on Maze Hill, next to the park. From the Georgian period estates of houses were constructed above the town centre. The maritime connections of Greenwich were celebrated in the 20th century, with the siting of the Cutty Sark and Gipsy Moth IV next to the river front, and the National Maritime Museum in the former buildings of the Royal Hospital School in 1934. Greenwich formed part of Kent until 1889 when the County of London was created.

Since the 1990s, a part of Greenwich called Greenwich Peninsula has undergone a massive redevelopment which includes The O2 Arena, built under the former Millennium Dome, Greenwich Millennium Village and access to the London Underground at North Greenwich since 1999.[3]

Greenwich
312SFEC LONDON-20070917

Royal Observatory, Greenwich
Greenwich arms

One-time Coat of arms of Greenwich
Greenwich is located in Greater London
Greenwich
Greenwich
Greenwich shown within Greater London
Population30,578 (Peninsula and Greenwich West wards 2011)
OS grid referenceTQ395775
• Charing Cross5.5 mi (8.9 km) WNW
London borough
Ceremonial countyGreater London
Region
CountryEngland
Sovereign stateUnited Kingdom
Post townLONDON
Postcode districtSE10
Dialling code020
PoliceMetropolitan
FireLondon
AmbulanceLondon
EU ParliamentLondon
UK Parliament
London Assembly

History

Toponymy

The place-name 'Greenwich' is first attested in a Saxon charter of 918, where it appears as Gronewic. It is recorded as Grenewic in 964, and as Grenawic in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for 1013. It is Grenviz in the Domesday Book of 1086, and Grenewych in the Taxatio Ecclesiastica of 1291. The name means 'green wic or settlement' (from the Latin 'vicus').[4]

The settlement later became known as East Greenwich to distinguish it from West Greenwich or Deptford Strond, the part of Deptford adjacent to the Thames,[5] but the use of East Greenwich to mean the whole of the town of Greenwich died out in the 19th century. However, Greenwich was divided into the registration subdistricts of Greenwich East and Greenwich West from the beginning of civil registration in 1837, the boundary running down what is now Greenwich Church Street and Crooms Hill, although more modern references to "East" and "West" Greenwich probably refer to the areas east and west of the Royal Naval College and National Maritime Museum corresponding with the West Greenwich council ward. An article in The Times of 13 October 1967 stated:

East Greenwich, gateway to the Blackwall Tunnel, remains solidly working class, the manpower for one eighth of London's heavy industry. West Greenwich is a hybrid: the spirit of Nelson, the Cutty Sark, the Maritime Museum, an industrial waterfront and a number of elegant houses, ripe for development.[6]

Manor of East Greenwich

Royal charters granted to English colonists in North America,[7] often used the name of the manor of East Greenwich for describing the tenure (from the Latin verb teneo, hold) as that of free socage.[8] New England charters provided that the grantees should hold their lands "as of his Majesty's manor of East Greenwich." This was in relation to the principle of land tenure under English law, that the ruling monarch (king or queen) was paramount lord of all the soil in the terra regis,[9] while all others held their lands, directly or indirectly, under the monarch. Land outside the physical boundaries of England, as in America, was treated as belonging constructively to one of the existing royal manors, and from Tudor times grants frequently used the name of the manor of East Greenwich,[10] but some 17c. grants named the castle of Windsor.[11][12][13] Places in North America that have taken the name "East Greenwich" include a township in Gloucester County, New Jersey, a hamlet in Washington County, New York, and a town in Kent County, Rhode Island. Greenwich, Connecticut was also named after Greenwich.

Early settlement

Tumuli to the south-west of Flamsteed House,[14] in Greenwich Park, are thought to be early Bronze Age barrows re-used by the Saxons in the 6th century as burial grounds. To the east between the Vanbrugh and Maze Hill Gates is the site of a Roman villa or temple. A small area of red paving tesserae protected by railings marks the spot. It was excavated in 1902 and 300 coins were found dating from the emperors Claudius and Honorius to the 5th century. This was excavated by the Channel 4 television programme Time Team in 1999, broadcast in 2000,[15] and further investigations were made by the same group in 2003.[16]

The Roman road from London to Dover, Watling Street crossed the high ground to the south of Greenwich, through Blackheath. This followed the line of an earlier Celtic route from Canterbury to St Albans.[17] As late as Henry V, Greenwich was only a fishing town, with a safe anchorage in the river.[5]

Viking

During the reign of Ethelred the Unready, the Danish fleet anchored in the River Thames off Greenwich for over three years, with the army being encamped on the hill above. From here they attacked Kent and, in the year 1012, took the city of Canterbury, making Archbishop Alphege their prisoner for seven months in their camp at Greenwich, at that time within the county of Kent. They stoned him to death for his refusal to allow his ransom (3,000 pieces of silver) to be paid; and kept his body, until the blossoming of a stick that had been immersed in his blood. For this miracle his body was released to his followers, he achieved sainthood for his martyrdom and, in the 12th century, the parish church was dedicated to him. The present church on the site west of the town centre is St Alfege's Church, designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor in 1714 and completed in 1718. Some vestiges of the Danish camps may be traced in the names of Eastcombe and Westcombe, on the borders of nearby Blackheath.[18]

Norman

The Domesday Book records the manor of Grenviz in the hundred of Grenviz as held by Bishop Odo of Bayeux;[19] his lands were seized by the crown in 1082. The name of the hundred was changed to Blackheath when the site of the hundred court was moved there in the 12th century. A royal palace, or hunting lodge, has existed here since before 1300, when Edward I is known to have made offerings at the chapel of the Virgin Mary.[18]

Plantagenet

Subsequent monarchs were regular visitors, with Henry IV making his will here, and Henry V granting the manor (for life) to Thomas Beaufort, Duke of Exeter, who died at Greenwich in 1426. The palace was created by Humphrey, Duke of Gloucester, Henry V's half-brother and the regent to Henry VI in 1447; he enclosed the park and erected a tower on the hill now occupied by the Royal Observatory. It was renamed the Palace of Placentia or Pleasaunce by Henry VI's consort Margaret of Anjou after Humphrey's death. The palace was completed and further enlarged by Edward IV, and in 1466 it was granted to his queen, Elizabeth.[18]

Ultimately it was because the palace and its grounds were a royal possession that it was chosen as the site for Charles II's Royal Observatory, from which stemmed Greenwich's subsequent global role as originator of the modern Prime Meridian.

Tudor

The palace was the principal residence of Henry VII whose sons Henry (later Henry VIII) and Edmund Tudor were born here, and baptised in St Alphege's. Henry favoured Greenwich over nearby Eltham Palace, the former principal royal palace. He extended Greenwich Palace and it became his principal London seat until Whitehall Palace was built in the 1530s. Henry VIII married Catherine of Aragon and Anne of Cleves at Greenwich, and both Mary (18 February 1516) and Elizabeth (7 September 1533) were born at Greenwich. His son Edward VI also died there at age 15.

The palace of Placentia, in turn, became Elizabeth's favourite summer residence.[18] Both she and her sister Mary I used the palace extensively, and Elizabeth's Council planned the Spanish Armada campaign there in 1588.

Stuart

Adriaen van Stalbemt - A View of Greenwich
Adriaen van Stalbemt's A View of Greenwich, c. 1632. Royal Collection, London.

James I carried out the final remodelling work on Greenwich Palace, granting the manor to his wife Queen Anne of Denmark. In 1616 Anne commissioned Inigo Jones to design and build the surviving Queen's House as the final addition to the palace.

Charles I granted the manor to his wife Queen Henrietta Maria, for whom Inigo Jones completed the Queen's House. During the English Civil War, the palace was used as a biscuit factory and prisoner-of-war camp. Then, in the Interregnum, the palace and park were seized to become a 'mansion' for the Lord Protector.

By the time of the Restoration, the Palace of Placentia had fallen into disuse and was pulled down. New buildings began to be established as a grand palace for Charles II, but only the King Charles block was completed. Charles II also redesigned and replanted Greenwich Park and founded and built the Royal Observatory.

Prince James (later King James II & VII), as Duke of York and Lord Admiral until 1673, was often at Greenwich with his brother Charles and, according to Samuel Pepys, he proposed the idea of creating a Royal Naval Hospital. This was eventually established at Greenwich by his daughter Mary II, who in 1692–1693 commissioned Christopher Wren to design the Royal Hospital for Seamen (now the Old Royal Naval College). The work was begun under her widower William III in 1696 and completed by Hawksmoor. Queen Anne and Prince George of Denmark continued to patronise the project.

Hanoverian

George I landed at Greenwich from Hanover on his accession in 1714. His successor George II granted the Royal Hospital for Seamen the forfeited estates of the Jacobite Earl of Derwentwater, which allowed the building to be completed by 1751.

In 1805, George III granted the Queen's House to the Royal Naval Asylum (an orphanage school), which amalgamated in 1821–1825 with the Greenwich Hospital School. Extended with the buildings that now house the National Maritime Museum, it was renamed the Royal Hospital School by Queen Victoria in 1892.

George IV donated nearly 40 paintings to the hospital in 1824, at a stroke creating a gallery in the Painted Hall. These now form the Greenwich Hospital Collection at the National Maritime Museum. Subsequently, William IV and Queen Adelaide were both regular donors and visitors to the gallery.

Victorian and Edwardian

Queen Victoria rarely visited Greenwich but in 1845 her husband Prince Albert personally bought Nelson's Trafalgar coat for the Naval Gallery.

In 1838 the London and Greenwich Railway (L&GR) completed the very first steam railway in London. It started at London Bridge and had its terminus at London Street (now Greenwich High Road). It was also the first to be built specifically for passengers, and the first ever elevated railway, having 878 arches over its almost four mile stretch. In 1853 the local Scottish Presbyterian community built a church close by. The church was extended twice in the 1860s during the ministry of the increasingly well known Dr Adolph Saphir, eventually accommodating a thousand worshippers.[20][21]

In 1864 opposite the railway terminus, theatrical entrepreneur Sefton Parry built the thousand seater New Greenwich Theatre.[22] William Morton was one of its more successful managers. The theatre was demolished in 1937 to make way for a new Town Hall, now a listed building under new ownership and renamed Meridian House.

Greenwich Station is at the northern apex of the Ashburnham Triangle, a residential estate developed by the Ashburnham family, mainly between 1830 and 1870, on land previously developed as market gardens. It is now a designated conservation area.[23] The present Greenwich Theatre, further to the east, was constructed inside the shell of a Victorian music hall. Beginning life in 1855 as an annexe to the Rose and Crown, the music hall was rebuilt in 1871 by Charles Crowder and subsequently operated under many names.

Modern and the present

George V and Queen Mary both supported the creation of the National Maritime Museum, and Mary presented the museum with many items.

The Prince Albert, Duke of York (later George VI), laid the foundation stone of the new Royal Hospital School when it moved out to Holbrook, Suffolk. In 1937 his first public act as king (three weeks before coronation) was to open the National Maritime Museum in the buildings vacated by the school. The king was accompanied by his mother Queen Mary, his wife Queen Elizabeth (later Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother) and the Princess Elizabeth (now Elizabeth II.)

Princess Elizabeth and her consort Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (who was ennobled Baron Greenwich on marriage in 1947) made their first public and official visit to Greenwich in 1948 to receive the Freedom of the Borough for Philip. In the same year, he became a trustee of the National Maritime Museum. Philip, now the Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, was a trustee for 52 years until 2000, when he became its first patron. The Duke of Edinburgh has also been a patron of the Cutty Sark (which was opened by the Queen in 1957) since 1952.

During the Silver Jubilee of 1977, the Queen embarked at Greenwich for the Jubilee River Pageant. In 1987, Her Majesty was aboard the P&O ship Pacific Princess when it moored alongside the Old Royal Naval College for the company's 150th anniversary celebrations.

To mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, it was announced on 5 January 2010 that on 3 February 2012 the London Borough of Greenwich would become the fourth to have Royal Borough status, the others being the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and the Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead.[24] The status was granted in recognition of the borough's historic links with the Royal Family, the location of the Prime Meridian and its being a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[25]

Governance

Greenwich Met. B Ward Map 1916
A map showing the wards of Greenwich Metropolitan Borough as they appeared in 1916.

Greenwich is covered by the Greenwich West and Peninsula wards of the London Borough of Greenwich, which was formed in 1965 by merging the former Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich with that part of the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich which lay south of The Thames. Along with Blackheath Westcombe, Charlton, Glyndon, Woolwich Riverside, and Woolwich Common, it elects a Member of Parliament (MP) for Greenwich and Woolwich; currently the MP is Matthew Pennycook.[26]

Geography

Topography

The town of Greenwich is built on a broad platform to the south of the outside of a broad meander in the River Thames, with a safe deep water anchorage lying in the river. To the south, the land rises steeply, 100 feet (30 m) through Greenwich Park to the town of Blackheath. The higher areas consist of a sedimentary layer of gravelly soils, known as the Blackheath Beds, that spread through much of the south-east over a chalk outcrop—with sands, loam and seams of clay at the lower levels by the river.

Greenwich is bordered by Deptford Creek and Deptford to the west; the residential area of Westcombe Park to the east; the River Thames to the north; and the A2 and Blackheath to the south. The Greenwich Peninsula, also known as North Greenwich, is situated to the northeast of the town centre.

Nearby areas

The view from Greenwich Park, with the Queen's House and the wings of the National Maritime Museum in the foreground
The view from Greenwich Park, with the Queen's House and the wings of the National Maritime Museum in the foreground

Climate

This data was collected between 1971 and 2000 at the weather station situated in Greenwich:

Climate data for Greenwich Park, elevation: 47 m or 154 ft, 1981–2010 normals
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 14.4
(57.9)
19.7
(67.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.6
(78.1)
30.0
(86.0)
32.8
(91.0)
35.3
(95.5)
37.5
(99.5)
30.0
(86.0)
25.6
(78.1)
18.9
(66.0)
15.0
(59.0)
37.5
(99.5)
Average high °C (°F) 8.1
(46.6)
8.6
(47.5)
11.6
(52.9)
14.6
(58.3)
18.1
(64.6)
21.0
(69.8)
23.4
(74.1)
23.1
(73.6)
20.0
(68.0)
15.5
(59.9)
11.3
(52.3)
8.4
(47.1)
15.3
(59.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 5.6
(42.1)
5.7
(42.3)
8.1
(46.6)
10.3
(50.5)
13.5
(56.3)
16.4
(61.5)
18.6
(65.5)
18.5
(65.3)
15.7
(60.3)
12.2
(54.0)
8.6
(47.5)
5.9
(42.6)
11.6
(52.9)
Average low °C (°F) 3.1
(37.6)
2.7
(36.9)
4.6
(40.3)
5.9
(42.6)
8.9
(48.0)
11.8
(53.2)
13.7
(56.7)
13.8
(56.8)
11.4
(52.5)
8.8
(47.8)
5.8
(42.4)
3.4
(38.1)
7.8
(46.0)
Record low °C (°F) −9.4
(15.1)
−9.4
(15.1)
−7.8
(18.0)
−2.2
(28.0)
−1.1
(30.0)
5.0
(41.0)
7.2
(45.0)
6.1
(43.0)
2.8
(37.0)
−3.3
(26.1)
−5.0
(23.0)
−7.2
(19.0)
−9.4
(15.1)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 41.6
(1.64)
36.3
(1.43)
40.3
(1.59)
40.1
(1.58)
44.9
(1.77)
47.4
(1.87)
34.6
(1.36)
54.3
(2.14)
51.0
(2.01)
61.1
(2.41)
57.5
(2.26)
48.4
(1.91)
557.4
(21.94)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 11.4 8.5 9.8 9.0 9.2 7.4 6.3 8.1 8.6 10.9 10.9 9.5 109.4
Mean monthly sunshine hours 44.7 65.4 101.7 148.3 170.9 171.4 176.7 186.1 133.9 105.4 59.6 45.8 1,410
Source #1: Met Office[27][28][29]
Source #2: BBC Weather[30]

Maritime Greenwich (UNESCO)

Maritime Greenwich
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Royal Naval College 2008
LocationUnited Kingdom
CriteriaCultural: i, ii, iv, vi
Reference795
Inscription1997 (21st Session)
Extensions2008
Area109.5 hectares (271 acres)
Buffer zone174.85 hectares (432.1 acres)
Websitewhc.unesco.org/en/list/795
Coordinates51°29′1″N 0°0′21″W / 51.48361°N 0.00583°W

In 1997 Maritime Greenwich was added to the list of World Heritage Sites, for the concentration and quality of buildings of historic and architectural interest. These can be divided into the group of buildings along the riverfront, Greenwich Park and the Georgian and Victorian town centre.

Greenwich Heritage Centre is a museum and local history resource run by the Royal Borough of Greenwich,[31] and is based in Artillery Square, in the Royal Arsenal, Woolwich, south-east London.[32]

Samuel pepys building greenwich
Pepys Building

The Discover Greenwich Visitor Centre provides an introduction to the history and attractions in the Greenwich World Heritage Site.[33] It is located in the Pepys Building near to the Cutty Sark within the grounds of the Old Royal Naval College (formerly Greenwich Hospital); the building began life as an engineering laboratory for the College. The centre opened in March 2010, and admission is free.

The Centre explains the history of Greenwich as a royal residence and a maritime centre. Exhibits include:

  • The history of the Palace of Placentia.
  • Models of Christopher Wren's original designs for Greenwich Hospital.
  • Six of the carved heads originally intended to decorate the exterior of the College's Painted Hall.
  • Exhibition displays about Maritime Greenwich and its connections with the sea and exploration.
  • "By Wisdom as much as War" – an exhibition about the history of the Royal Naval College during the years it occupied Greenwich Hospital (1873–1998).
RFA Argus being towed to Greenwich in June 2017

The Cutty Sark (a clipper ship) has been preserved in a dry dock by the river. A major fire in May 2007 destroyed a part of the ship, although much had already been removed for restoration. Nearby for many years was also displayed Gipsy Moth IV, the 54 feet (16.5 m) yacht sailed by Sir Francis Chichester in his single-handed, 226-day circumnavigation of the globe during 1966–67. In 2004, Gipsy Moth IV was removed from Greenwich, and after restoration work completed a second circumnavigation in May 2007. On the riverside in front of the north-west corner of the Hospital is an obelisk erected in memory of Arctic explorer Joseph René Bellot.

GreatRiverRace08
Boats at Greenwich at the end of the Great River Race

Near the Cutty Sark site, a circular building contains the entrance to the Greenwich foot tunnel, opened on 4 August 1902. This connects Greenwich to the Isle of Dogs on the northern side of the River Thames. The north exit of the tunnel is at Island Gardens,[34] from where the famous view of Greenwich Hospital painted by Canaletto can be seen.

Rowing has been part of life on the river at Greenwich for hundreds of years and the first Greenwich Regatta was held in 1785. The annual Great River Race along the Thames Tideway finishes at the Cutty Sark. The nearby Trafalgar Rowing Centre in Crane Street is home to Curlew Rowing Club and Globe Rowing Club.

The Old Royal Naval College is Sir Christopher Wren's domed masterpiece at the centre of the heritage site. The site is administered by the Greenwich Foundation and several of the buildings are let to the University of Greenwich and one, the King Charles block, to Trinity College of Music. Within the complex is the former college dining room, the Painted Hall, this was painted by James Thornhill, and the Chapel of St Peter and St Paul, with an interior designed by James 'Athenian' Stuart. The Naval College had a training reactor, the JASON reactor, within the King William building that was operational between 1962 and 1996. The reactor was decommissioned and removed in 1999.[35]

To the east of the Naval College is the Trinity Hospital almshouse, founded in 1613, the oldest surviving building in the town centre.[36] This is next to the massive brick walls and the landing stage of Greenwich Power Station. Built between 1902 and 1910 as a coal-fired station to supply power to London's tram system, and later the London underground, it is now oil- and gas-powered and serves as a backup station for London Underground.[37] East Greenwich also has a small park, East Greenwich Pleasaunce, which was formerly the burial ground of Greenwich Hospital.

Greenwich Market interior
Greenwich Market

There has been a market at Greenwich since the 14th century, but the history of the present market dates from 1700 when a charter to run two markets, on Wednesdays and Saturdays, was assigned by Lord Romney (Henry, Earl of Romney[18]) to the Commissioners of Greenwich Hospital for 1000 years.[38]

The market is part of "the Island site", bounded by College Approach, Greenwich Church Street, King William Walk and Nelson Road, near the National Maritime Museum and the Royal Observatory. The buildings surrounding the market are Grade 2 listed and were established in 1827–1833 under the direction of Joseph Kay.[39][40] A market roof was added in 1902–08 (and replaced in 2016). Later significant development occurred in 1958–60 and during the 1980s. The landowner, Greenwich Hospital, has been enhancing the Market since 2014 and due to complete in Spring 2016.

Behind the former Naval College is the National Maritime Museum housed in buildings forming another symmetrical group and grand arcade around the Queen's House, designed by Inigo Jones. Continuing to the south, Greenwich Park is a Royal Park of 183 acres (0.7 km2), laid out in the 17th century and formed from the hunting grounds of the Royal Palace of Placentia.[41]

TulipStair QueensHouse Greenwich
Spiral staircase and lantern at the Queen's House in Greenwich

The park rises towards Blackheath and at the top of this hill is a statue of James Wolfe, commander of the British expedition to capture Quebec.[42] Nearby a major group of buildings within the park includes the former Royal Observatory, Greenwich; the Prime Meridian passes through this building.

Greenwich Mean Time was at one time based on the time observations made at the Royal Greenwich Observatory, before being superseded by Coordinated Universal Time. While there is no longer a working astronomical observatory at Greenwich, a ball still drops daily to mark the exact moment of 1 p.m., and there is a museum of astronomical and navigational tools, particularly John Harrison's marine chronometers.[43]

The Ranger's House lies at the Blackheath end of the park and houses the Wernher Collection of art,[44] and many fine houses, including Vanbrugh's house lie on Maze Hill, on the western edge of the park.

Downtown Greenwich, England 2
Town centre

Georgian and Victorian architecture dominates in the town centre which spreads to the west of the park and Royal Naval College. Much of this forms a one-way system around a covered market, Greenwich Market and the arthouse Greenwich Cinema. Up the hill from the centre, there are many streets of Georgian houses, including the Fan Museum, on Croom's Hill. Nearby at the junction of Croom's Hill with Nevada Street, is Greenwich Theatre. The Greenwich Playhouse closed in 2012.

Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich-Royal Observatory-016
Royal Observatory with the time ball atop the Octagon Room

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in Greenwich. It is commonly used in practice to refer to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) when this is viewed as a time zone, especially by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service,[45] the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others, although strictly UTC is an atomic time scale which only approximates GMT with a tolerance of 0.9 second. It is also used to refer to Universal Time (UT), which is a standard astronomical concept used in many technical fields and is referred to by the phrase Zulu time.

As the United Kingdom grew into an advanced maritime nation, British mariners kept at least one chronometer on GMT in order to calculate their longitude from the Greenwich meridian, which was by convention considered to have longitude zero degrees (this convention was internationally adopted in the International Meridian Conference of 1884).[note 2] Note that the synchronization of the chronometer on GMT did not affect shipboard time itself, which was still solar time. But this practice, combined with mariners from other nations drawing from Nevil Maskelyne's method of lunar distances based on observations at Greenwich, eventually led to GMT being used worldwide as a reference time independent of location. Most time zones were based upon this reference as a number of hours and half-hours "ahead of GMT" or "behind GMT".

In recognition of the suburb's astronomical links, Asteroid 2830 has been named 'Greenwich'.[47]

Amenities

The O2 Arena, entrance
Entrance to The O2 Arena.

The O2 (formerly the Millennium Dome) was built on part of the site of East Greenwich Gas Works, a disused British Gas site on the Greenwich Peninsula.[48] It is next to North Greenwich Underground station, about 3 miles (4.8 km) east from the Greenwich town centre.

Pear Tree Wharf was associated with the gas works, being used to unload coal for the manufacturing of town gas, and is now home to the Greenwich Yacht Club. [49] An urban village called the Greenwich Millennium Village is a new urban regeneration development to the south of the Dome[50] The Enderby's Wharf is a site associated with submarine cable manufacture for over 150 years.[51]

Education

The University of Greenwich main campus is located in the distinctive buildings of the former Royal Naval College. The university has other campuses at Avery Hill in Eltham and at Medway. The Greenwich campus also houses the Trinity College of Music.

Secondary schools in the area include John Roan School and St Ursula's Convent School.

Transport

Rail

Greenwich is served by three National Rail stations all on the Greenwich line and Thameslink. With the oldest being Greenwich, which opened 1838 on the London and Greenwich Railway and was promoted by entrepreneur George Walter and was designed by army engineer George Landmann. Difficulties in extending the railway from Greenwich over land owned by the Greenwich Hospital caused the station remaining a terminus until the line was extended via a cut-and-cover tunnel to a new station called Maze Hill, opening on 1 February 1878.[52][53] The third station, Westcombe Park was opened by the South Eastern Railway in 1879 that was a year after the through line from Greenwich to Maze Hill was finally completed.[54] All of these stations have Southeastern services to London Cannon Street, Crayford and Dartford. Thameslink services to Kentish Town via Blackfriars and Rainham also operate from these stations as of 2018.

The Docklands Light Railway (DLR) also calls at a separate but interlinked station next to Greenwich NR as well as at Cutty Sark. During the 1990s Lewisham London Borough Council, who had advocate an extension via Greenwich and Deptford and then to Lewisham railway station, had commissioned a feasibility study into extending the DLR under the River Thames from the Isle of Dogs,[55] with the construction of the extension from Island Gardens to Lewisham beginning in 1996.[56][57][58] and opening on 3 December 1999.[59]

North Greenwich stn entrance
North Greenwich station entrance.

Greenwich is also connected to the London Underground at North Greenwich, it is not in the town centre but instead situated at the northern edge on what is known as Greenwich Peninsula. The station is on the Jubilee line and has westward services through central London to Stanmore, and eastward services to Stratford. It was first proposed in a government report on the redevelopment of the London Docklands in 1973,[60] on a new tube called the Fleet line with stations on each side at Millwall and Custom House that was approved in 1980, however financial constraints meant that the route was not proceeded with.[61]

Buses

Greenwich is served by several Transport for London bus services which links it with areas including Catford, Central London, Elephant and Castle, Eltham, Lewisham, Peckham, New Cross, Sidcup, Thamesmead, Waterloo and Woolwich.

Boat

Greenwich Pier, William Ranwell, c 1840
Greenwich Pier in 1840.

There are a number of river buses services running from Greenwich and North Greenwich Pier, managed by London River Services. The main services include the Thames commuter catamaran service run by Thames Clippers from Embankment, via Tower Millennium Pier, Canary Wharf and on to the O2 on the Greenwich Peninsula and beyond to Woolwich Arsenal Pier;[62] the Westminster-Greenwich cruise service by Thames River Services; and the City Cruises tourist cruise via Westminster, Waterloo and Tower piers.[63] The Greenwich Pier was built in 1836, to serve the paddle steamers that brought visitors on day trips to Greenwich from London.[64]

Thoroughfares

Greenwich foot tunnel, London (29689589166)
Southern entrance to the Greenwich foot tunnel.

Greenwich is connected to the National Road Network via the A206 and A203 Blackwall Lane to the A102 (East Cross Route)[65], this connects to the A2 trunk route to Kent.

The Thames Path National Trail runs along the riverside.[66] The Greenwich foot tunnel provides pedestrian access to the southern end of the Isle of Dogs, across the river Thames.

The National Cycle Network Route 1 includes the foot tunnel, though cycling is not permitted in the tunnel itself.[67]

Sports

Rowing

Greenwich is home to a variety of amateur sports clubs. Its location on the tidal Thames makes it a good location for rowing; the Trafalgar Rowing Centre in Crane Street is the clubhouse of the Curlew and Globe rowing clubs.[68][69] The Globe has senior and junior squads, the latter renowned for its achievements at national and international level.[70]

Literature

Edward Lear makes reference to Greenwich in More Nonsense Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, etc:[71]

There was a young lady of Greenwich,
Whose garments were bordered with Spinach;
But a large spotty calf
Bit her shawl quite in half,
Which alarmed that young lady of Greenwich.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ /ˈɡrɛnɪtʃ/ (listen) GREN-itch, /ˈɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-ij, /ˈɡrɪnɪtʃ/ GRIN-itch, or /ˈɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-ij[1][2]
  2. ^ Voting took place on 13 October and the resolutions were adopted on 22 October 1884.[46]

References

  1. ^ "Greenwich". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  2. ^ Roach, Peter; Setter, Jane; Esling, John, eds. (2011). Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary (David Jones) (18th ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  3. ^ https://www.greenwichpeninsula.co.uk/
  4. ^ Eilert Ekwall, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Place-names, p.204.
  5. ^ a b "Parishes: Greenwich". british-history.ac.uk.
  6. ^ "Greenwich-the instant village", Brandon Green, The Times, 13 October 1967; pg. 11
  7. ^ Colonial Charters, Grants and Related Documents
  8. ^ Manor of East Greenwich
  9. ^ National Archives, Great Domesday
  10. ^ Words used in The First Charter of Virginia; 10 April 1606 "...To BE HOLDEN of Us, {King James I] our heirs and Successors, as of our Manor at East-Greenwich, in the County of Kent, in free and common Soccage only, and not in Capite."[1]
  11. ^ Words used in Charter for the Province of Pennsylvania-1681 "...to bee holden of Us [King Charles II], Our heires and Successors, Kings of England, as of Our Castle of Windsor in Our County of Berks, in free and comon Socage, by fealty only for all Services, and not in Capite or by Knights Service."[2]
  12. ^ "N.N." On the Tenure of the Manor of East Greenwich
  13. ^ Edward P. Cheyney, The Manor of East Greenwich, American Historical Review, Volume 11, 1 October 1905 .
  14. ^ Flamsteed House – designed and built by Sir Christopher Wren in 1675–76, was the home of the first Astronomer Royal, John Flamsteed, and the heart of Charles II's new Royal Observatory.
  15. ^ "Roman remains". Royal Parks. Retrieved 24 July 2015.
  16. ^ "Greenwich London". Time Team. Channel 4. 2 February 2003. Retrieved 13 June 2011.
  17. ^ The Roman Watling Street: from London to High Cross O. Roucoux, (Dunstable Museum Trust, 1984) ISBN 0-9508406-2-9
  18. ^ a b c d e 'Greenwich', The Environs of London: volume 4: Counties of Herts, Essex & Kent (1796), pp. 426–93 accessed: 26 May 2007
  19. ^ Open Domesday Online: Greenwich
  20. ^ "Dictionary of National Biography 1850-1900 Adolph Saphir".
  21. ^ Carlyle, Edward Irving. Saphir, Adolph (DNB00).
  22. ^ The Era, 29 May 1864, p.10 New Greenwich Theatre
  23. ^ Report on Ashburnham triangle by Conservation Team, Development Town Planning First Floor, Peggy Middleton House 50 Woolwich New Road, London SE18 6HQ: .
  24. ^ See also Royal Borough.
  25. ^ "Greenwich to become Royal Borough". Greenwich London Borough Council. 5 January 2010. Archived from the original on 5 January 2010. Retrieved 5 January 2010.
  26. ^ "ukpollingreport.co.uk » Greenwich and Woolwich". ukpollingreport.co.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  27. ^ "Greenwich 1981–2010 averages". Met Office. Retrieved 20 November 2018.
  28. ^ "Hot Spell - August 2003". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  29. ^ "Record Breaking Heat and Sunshine - July 2006". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  30. ^ "London Forecast". Met Office. Retrieved 17 December 2018.
  31. ^ "Greenwich Council – Heritage Centre – Greenwich Heritage Centre". www.greenwich.gov.uk. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  32. ^ "Greenwich Heritage Centre – How To Find Us". www.greenwichheritage.org. Retrieved 18 September 2009.
  33. ^ "Discover Greenwich Visitor Centre". Old Royal Naval College. Retrieved 25 March 2015.
  34. ^ The Foot Tunnel (Greenwich Guide) accessed 10 December 2007
  35. ^ Just another source of neutrons? R.J.S. Lockwood and Prof. P.A. Beeley (Nuclear Dept., HMS Sultan, Gosport, 2001) accessed 29 December 2007
  36. ^ Trinity Hospital (LB Greenwich) accessed 10 December 2007
  37. ^ Greenwich Power Station (Powering the City) accessed 10 December 2007
  38. ^ History of Greenwich Market at Greenwich Hospital
  39. ^ "Maritime Greenwich: World Heritage Site – Management plan" (PDF). Visit Greenwich. Royal Borough of Greenwich. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  40. ^ "Historic Regeneration Schemes". The Greenwich Phantom. Retrieved 26 September 2016.
  41. ^ Greenwich and Blackheath Past Felix Barker (Historical Publications Ltd., 1999) ISBN 0-948667-55-9
  42. ^ General Wolfe Statue (Greenwich Guide) accessed 10 December 2007
  43. ^ Howse 1997
  44. ^ The Wernher Collection (Ranger's House) (English Heritage) accessed 10 December 2007
  45. ^ "BBC – iPlayer Radio". bbc.co.uk.
  46. ^ Howse 1997, pp. 12, 137
  47. ^ Dictionary of Minor Planet Names Lutz D. Schmadel (Springer 2003) ISBN 3-540-00238-3
  48. ^ East Greenwich Gasworks (Powering the City) accessed 10 December 2007. The Greenwich Peninsula gas works, being themselves notable, as being the subject of an IRA bomb attack in the 1970s, in which one gasometer – and its contents – were spectacularly destroyed.
  49. ^ "Greenwich Yacht Club - Sport and fitness in Greenwich Peninsula, London". Time Out London.
  50. ^ http://www.bbc.co.uk/london/content/articles/2008/02/06/greenwich_millennium_video_feature.shtml
  51. ^ "List of Buildings of Special Architectural or Historical Interest Index for the Borough of Greenwich" (PDF). Retrieved 14 April 2011.
  52. ^ SER Lines and Stations
  53. ^ Greenwich Guide
  54. ^ http://rail.felgall.com/ser.htm SER Lines and Stations
  55. ^ Wolmar, Christian (25 January 1995). "Crucial links hold key to the future: Docklands, a special report". The Independent. London. Archived from the original on 26 January 2012. Retrieved 24 June 2009.
  56. ^ Cite error: The named reference history one was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  57. ^ "Prescott backs DLR airport extension". New Civil Engineer. Archived from the original on 2 October 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  58. ^ "DLR: Take off for airport link" (Press release). M2 Presswire. 18 February 1999. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  59. ^ De Haan, Judy (29 August 2000). "Getting Back on the Right Track (letter to the editor)". The Bolton News. Archived from the original on 20 June 2012. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
  60. ^ Horne, Mike (2000). The Jubilee Line. Capital Transport. pp. 50–52. ISBN 1-85414-220-8.
  61. ^ Horne, Mike (2000). The Jubilee Line. Capital Transport. pp. 50–52. ISBN 1-85414-220-8.
  62. ^ "Greenwich Council – Local travel services – Thames Clippers". www.greenwich.gov.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  63. ^ "Greenwich Council – Local travel services – River boat cruises". www.greenwich.gov.uk. Archived from the original on 14 April 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  64. ^ "A paddle steamer at Greenwich Pier". PortCities London. PortCities UK. Retrieved 18 January 2018.
  65. ^ http://www.legislation.gov.uk/uksi/1995/3058/made/data.xht?wrap=true
  66. ^ "The Thames Path – Greenwich to the London Eye". www.thames-path.org.uk. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  67. ^ "National Cycle Network in London". Sustrans. Retrieved 24 September 2009.
  68. ^ "Trafalgar Rowing Centre". Curlew Rowing Club. Retrieved 21 March 2018.
  69. ^ "Globe Rowing Club". www.globerowingclub.co.uk. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  70. ^ "Team announced for 2017 J16 GB v France Match - British Rowing". British Rowing. 10 July 2017. Retrieved 20 March 2018.
  71. ^ Lear, Edward (1872). More Nonsense. Pictures, Rhymes, Botany, Etc. London: Robert J. Bush.

External links

2002 Greenwich London Borough Council election

Elections to Greenwich Council were held in May 2002. The whole council was up for election for the first time since the 1998 election.

Greenwich local elections are held every four years, with the next due in 2006.

2014 Greenwich London Borough Council election

The 2014 Greenwich Council election took place on 22 May 2014 to elect members of Greenwich Council in England. This was on the same day as other local elections.

At the 2014 elections, Labour won 43 seats (+3) and the Conservatives won 8 (-3). An Eltham North by-election on 10 November 2016 saw the Conservatives gain a seat off Labour with an 11% swing in their favour. This meant the opposition on the council increased to 9.

Turnout across the borough was 37.25%.

Calf Island (Connecticut)

Calf Island, between 27.5-acre (111,000 m2) and 31.5-acre (127,000 m2) island about 3,000 feet (910 m) from the Byram shore of Greenwich, Connecticut in Long Island Sound. It is connected at low tide to the Greenwich Land Trust's Shell Island. The size of the island is a best estimate as different sources cite different sizes for the island; while the oldest estimates put it at around 20-acre (81,000 m2) the GIS system puts it at 31.5-acre (127,000 m2) The island is open for visitors; although, as of the summer of 2006, it was getting relatively few of them.The island is the largest one in Greenwich waters. More than half of the island (on the west side) is a bird sanctuary off-limits to members of the public without permission to visit. The island is available for overnight stays for those with permits, otherwise the east side is open from dawn till dusk.The island is home to cowbirds, yellow warblers, starlings, catbirds, diamondback terrapins, ospreys, great blue herons and canada geese. great and snowy egrets can also be seen there. sassafras, hickory, maple and beech trees, along with oriental bittersweet and multiflora roses, grow there.

Charlton, London

Charlton is a district of south east London, England, within the Royal Borough of Greenwich. It is located east of Greenwich and west of Woolwich. It is 7.2 miles (11.6 km) east-southeast of Charing Cross. 'Charlton next Woolwich' was an ancient parish in the county of Kent, which became part of the metropolitan area of London in 1855. It is home to Charlton Athletic F.C. and to Charlton House.

East Greenwich, Rhode Island

East Greenwich is an affluent town and the county seat of Kent County, Rhode Island, United States. The population was 13,146 at the 2010 census. East Greenwich is the wealthiest municipality within the state of Rhode Island. It is part of the Providence metropolitan statistical area and the Boston-Worcester-Providence combined statistical area.

Formed as Greenwich in 1677, it was named for Greenwich, England. It was renamed Dedford in 1686 but reverted to its original name in 1689. In 1741 the more rural western three-quarters of the town was set off as West Greenwich, the remaining quarter of it thenceforth being called East Greenwich. Until 1854, it was one of the five state capitals for Rhode Island. The General Assembly, when meeting in East Greenwich, used the local courthouse, which is today the town hall. East Greenwich Village is located in the northeastern part of the town and extends north about 0.93 mi (1.5 km) into the town of Warwick, Rhode Island. The town is now known for its waterfront, renowned school district, and downtown restaurant/shopping district.

Emirates Air Line (cable car)

The Emirates Air Line is a cable car link across the River Thames in London, England, built by Doppelmayr with sponsorship from the airline Emirates. The service opened on 28 June 2012 and is operated by Transport for London. In addition to transport across the river, the service advertises "a unique view of London". The duration of a single crossing is ten minutes (reduced to five minutes in rush hour as the service speed is increased).The service, announced in July 2010 and estimated to cost £60,000,000, comprises a 1-kilometre (0.62 mi) gondola line that crosses the Thames from the Greenwich Peninsula to the Royal Victoria Dock, to the west of ExCeL London. Construction of the cable car began in August 2011. The cable car is based on monocable detachable gondola (MDG) technology, a system which uses a single cable for both propulsion and support, used also on the Metrocable in Medellín, Colombia. The MDG system is reportedly cheaper and quicker to install than a more complex three-cable system which would allow larger-capacity cars.

Greenwich, Connecticut

Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States. As of the 2010 census, the town had a total population of 61,171. It is the 10th largest municipality in Connecticut, and the largest that functions as a town (the remaining largest municipalities in the state function as cities).

The largest town on Connecticut's Gold Coast, Greenwich is home to many hedge funds and other financial service firms. Greenwich is the southernmost and westernmost municipality in Connecticut as well as in the six-state region of New England. It is roughly 40 to 50 minutes by train from Grand Central Terminal in Manhattan. CNN/Money and Money magazine ranked Greenwich 12th on its list of the "100 Best Places to Live in the United States" in 2005. The town is named after Greenwich, a Royal borough of London in the United Kingdom.

Greenwich Mean Time

Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is the mean solar time at the Royal Observatory in Greenwich, London, reckoned from midnight. At different times in the past, it has been calculated in different ways, including being calculated from noon; as a consequence, it cannot be used to specify a precise time unless a context is given.

English speakers often use GMT as a synonym for Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). For navigation, it is considered equivalent to UT1 (the modern form of mean solar time at 0° longitude); but this meaning can differ from UTC by up to 0.9 s. The term GMT should not thus be used for technical purposes.Because of Earth's uneven speed in its elliptical orbit and its axial tilt, noon (12:00:00) GMT is rarely the exact moment the sun crosses the Greenwich meridian and reaches its highest point in the sky there. This event may occur up to 16 minutes before or after noon GMT, a discrepancy calculated by the equation of time. Noon GMT is the annual average (i.e. "mean") moment of this event, which accounts for the word "mean" in "Greenwich Mean Time".

Originally, astronomers considered a GMT day to start at noon while for almost everyone else it started at midnight. To avoid confusion, the name Universal Time was introduced to denote GMT as counted from midnight. Astronomers preferred the old convention to simplify their observational data, so that each night was logged under a single calendar date. Today Universal Time usually refers to UTC or UT1.The term "GMT" is especially used by bodies connected with the United Kingdom, such as the BBC World Service, the Royal Navy, the Met Office and others particularly in Arab countries, such as the Middle East Broadcasting Centre and OSN. It is a term commonly used in the United Kingdom and countries of the Commonwealth, including Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Malaysia; and in many other countries of the eastern hemisphere. In some countries (the United Kingdom for example) Greenwich Mean Time is the legal time in the winter and the population uses the term. See GMT in legislation, below, for further explanation.

Greenwich Park

Greenwich Park is a former hunting park in Greenwich and one of the largest single green spaces in south-east London. One of the Royal Parks of London, and the first to be enclosed (in 1433), it covers 74 hectares (180 acres), and is part of the Greenwich World Heritage Site. It commands fine views over the River Thames, the Isle of Dogs and the City of London (Simon Jenkins rated the view of the Royal Hospital with Canary Wharf in the distance as one of the top ten in England).The park is open year-round. It is listed Grade I on the Register of Historic Parks and Gardens.

Greenwich Village

Greenwich Village ( GREN-itch, GRIN-, -ij) often referred to by locals as simply "the Village", is a neighborhood on the west side of Lower Manhattan, New York City. In the 20th century, Greenwich Village was known as an artists' haven, the Bohemian capital, the cradle of the modern LGBT movement, and the East Coast birthplace of both the Beat and '60s counterculture movements. Groenwijck, one of the Dutch names for the village (meaning "Green District"), was Anglicized to Greenwich. Two of New York's private colleges, New York University (NYU) and the New School, are located in Greenwich Village.Greenwich Village has undergone extensive gentrification and commercialization; the four ZIP codes that constitute the Village – 10011, 10012, 10003, and 10014 – were all ranked among the ten most expensive in the United States by median housing price in 2014, according to Forbes, with residential property sale prices in the West Village neighborhood typically exceeding US$2,100 per square foot ($23,000/m2) in 2017.

Greenwich Village Crew

The Greenwich Village Crew is a crew within the Genovese crime family, active in the Greenwich Village area of Manhattan. It was originally controlled by Don Vito Genovese from the early 1920s until his arrest in the late 1950s. In the early 1980s Capo Vincent Gigante, was made the new boss of the Genovese crime family. He continued to operate from and with the Greenwich Village Crew members. Today the crew is still active, but after the death of Dominick Canterino, it is uncertain who is controlling the crew.

National Maritime Museum

The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in Greenwich, London, is a maritime museum in London. The historic buildings form part of the Maritime Greenwich World Heritage Site, and it also incorporates the Royal Observatory and 17th-century Queen's House. In 2012, Her Majesty the Queen formally approved Royal Museums Greenwich as the new overall title for the National Maritime Museum, Queen’s House, the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, and the Cutty Sark. The museum is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Like other publicly funded national museums in the United Kingdom, the National Maritime Museum does not levy an admission charge, although most temporary exhibitions do incur admission charges.

Prime meridian

A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°. Together, a prime meridian and its anti-meridian (the 180th meridian in a 360°-system) form a great circle. This great circle divides the sphere, e.g., Earth, into two hemispheres. If one uses directions of East and West from a defined prime meridian, then they can be called the Eastern Hemisphere and the Western Hemisphere.

A prime meridian is ultimately arbitrary, unlike an equator, which is determined by the axis of rotation—and various conventions have been used or advocated in different regions and throughout history. The most widely used modern meridian is the IERS Reference Meridian. It is derived but deviates slightly from the Greenwich Meridian, which was selected as an international standard in 1884.

Royal Borough of Greenwich

The Royal Borough of Greenwich ( (listen), , or ) is a London borough in south-east London, England. Taking its name from the historic town of Greenwich, the London Borough of Greenwich was formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of the former area of the Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich with part of the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich to the east. The local council is Greenwich London Borough Council which meets in Woolwich Town Hall. The council's offices are also based in Woolwich, the main urban centre in the borough.

Greenwich is world-famous as the traditional location of the Prime Meridian, on which all Coordinated Universal Time is based. The Prime Meridian running through Greenwich and the Greenwich Observatory is where the designation Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT began, and on which all world times are based. In 2012, Greenwich was listed as a top ten global destination by Frommer's – the only UK destination to be listed.

Greenwich was one of six host boroughs for the 2012 London Olympics and events were held at the Royal Artillery Barracks (shooting), Greenwich Park (equestrianism) and The O2 – the former Millennium Dome (gymnastics and basketball). It is also the home borough of professional football club Charlton Athletic.

To mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Greenwich became a Royal Borough on 3 February 2012, due in part to its historic links with the Royal Family, and to its UNESCO World Heritage Site status as home of the Prime Meridian.

Royal Naval College, Greenwich

The Royal Naval College, Greenwich, was a Royal Navy training establishment between 1873 and 1998, providing courses for naval officers. It was the home of the Royal Navy's staff college, which provided advanced training for officers. The equivalent in the British Army was the Staff College, Camberley and the equivalent in the Royal Air Force was the RAF Staff College, Bracknell.

Royal Observatory, Greenwich

The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a major role in the history of astronomy and navigation, and is best known for the fact that the prime meridian passes through it, and thereby gave its name to Greenwich Mean Time. The ROG has the IAU observatory code of 000, the first in the list. ROG, the National Maritime Museum, the Queen's House and Cutty Sark are collectively designated Royal Museums Greenwich.The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the foundation stone being laid on 10 August. The site was chosen by Sir Christopher Wren. At that time the king also created the position of Astronomer Royal, to serve as the director of the observatory and to "apply himself with the most exact care and diligence to the rectifying of the tables of the motions of the heavens, and the places of the fixed stars, so as to find out the so much desired longitude of places for the perfecting of the art of navigation." He appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal. The building was completed in the summer of 1676. The building was often called "Flamsteed House", in reference to its first occupant.

The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century, and the Greenwich site is now maintained almost exclusively as a museum, although the AMAT telescope became operational for astronomical research in 2018.

The O2 Arena

The O2 Arena is a multi-purpose indoor arena located in the centre of The O2 entertainment complex on the Greenwich Peninsula in south east London.

The arena was built under the former Millennium Dome, a large dome shaped building built to house an exhibition celebrating the turn of the third millennium; as the dome shaped structure still stands over the arena, The Dome remains a name in common usage for the venue. The arena, as well as the total O2 complex, is named after its primary sponsor, the telecommunications company O2.

The O2 Arena has the second highest seating capacity of any indoor venue in the United Kingdom, behind the Manchester Arena, but took the crown of the world's busiest music arena from New York City's Madison Square Garden in 2008. The closest underground station to the venue is the North Greenwich station on the Jubilee line.

University of Greenwich

The University of Greenwich is a public university located in London, in the United Kingdom. It has three campuses in London and Kent, England. These are located at Greenwich, in the grounds of the Old Royal Naval College, and in Avery Hill and Medway. Previous names include Woolwich Polytechnic and Thames Polytechnic.

The university's range of subjects includes architecture, business, computing, mathematics, education, engineering, humanities, maritime studies, natural sciences, pharmacy and social sciences.

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