Greenhouse gas emissions by the United States

According to the U.S. Energy Information Industry (EIA), the United States produced 5.14 billion metric tons of carbon-dioxide equivalent greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in 2017, the lowest since the early 1990s.[1] From year to year, emissions rise and fall due to changes in the economy, the price of fuel and other factors. The US Environmental Protection Agency attributed recent decreases to a reduction in emissions from fossil fuel combustion, which was a result of multiple factors including switching from coal to natural gas consumption in the electric power sector; warmer winter conditions that reduced demand for heating fuel in the residential and commercial sectors; and a slight decrease in electricity demand.[2]

While the Bush administration opted against Kyoto-type policies to reduce emissions, the Obama administration and various state, local, and regional governments have attempted to adopt some Kyoto Protocol goals on a local basis. For example, the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) founded in January 2007 is a state-level emissions capping and trading program by nine northeastern U.S. states. In December 2009 President Obama set a target for reducing U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the range of 17% below 2005 levels by 2020.[3]

The U.S. State Department offered a nation-level perspective in the Fourth US Climate Action Report (USCAR) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, including measures to address climate change. The report showed that the country was on track to achieve President Bush's goal of reducing greenhouse gas emissions (per unit of gross domestic product) by 18% from 2002 to 2012. Over that same period, actual GHG emissions were projected to increase by 11%. The report estimated that in 2006, U.S. GHG emissions decreased 1.5% from 2005 to 7,075.6 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. This was an increase of 15.1% from the 1990 levels of 6,146.7 million tonnes (or 0.9% annual increase), and an increase of 1.4% from the 2000 levels of 6,978.4 million tonnes. By 2012 GHG emissions were projected to increase to more than 7,709 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent, which would be 26% above 1990 levels.

US CO2 Emissions 1980-2012
US energy-related carbon dioxide emissions in 2012 were 12% below the peak levels of 2007.
Gases-overview
US greenhouse gas emissions by gas
Sources-overview
US greenhouse gas emissions by source
CO2 emissions by the elctricity sector.jpeg
CO2 emissions from the US electric power sector
Mauna Loa CO2 monthly mean concentration
Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide versus Time
CO2 emission pie chart
Global carbon dioxide emissions by country.

General

According to a 2016 study U.S. methane emissions were underestimated by the EPA since at least a decade, on the order of 30 to 50 percent.[4]

2007

U.S. carbon dioxide emissions from energy use rose by 1.6% in 2007, according to preliminary estimates by the United States Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA). Electricity generation increased by 2.5%, and carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector increased even more, at 3%, indicating that U.S. utilities shifted towards energy sources that emitted more carbon. That shift was partially caused by a 40 billion kilowatt-hour decrease in hydropower production causing a greater reliance on fossil fuels like natural gas and coal. Carbon dioxide emissions from power plants fueled with natural gas increased by 10.5%, while coal-burning power plants increased their emissions by 1.8%.[5] Paper is the fourth largest contributor to greenhouse gas emissions in the United States and one of the largest consumers of industrial water among all Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries.[6][7][8]

In 2007 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration stated that the "U.S. and global annual temperatures are now approximately 1.0°F warmer than at the start of the 20th century, and the rate of warming has accelerated over the past 30 years, increasing globally since the mid-1970s at a rate approximately three times faster than the century-scale trend. The past nine years have all been among the 25 warmest years on record for the contiguous U.S., a streak which is unprecedented in the historical record."[9]

Carbon emissions by categories

A study completed in 2015[10] provides a breakdown of how much CO
2
emissions are created by certain parts of the United States economy. The largest group being electricity production accounting for 37% of carbon emissions, followed by personal ground travel at 22%, natural gas not used towards power at 11%, movement of goods by boat, truck, or air at 9%, oil refining at 6%, other uses of petroleum at 6%, jet fuel, specifically for air travel, at 4%, and the last 5% spread among other miscellaneous uses. A large portion of carbon emissions created by the United States is from personal use. The University of Michigan created a detailed list of steps that can be taken to lower personal carbon emissions.[11]

Reporting requirement

Since January 1, 2010 the USEPA's Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases rule, requires thousands of companies in the US to monitor their greenhouse gas emissions and begin reporting them in 2011.[12] A detailed inventory of fossil fuel CO
2
emissions is provided by the Project Vulcan.[13]

Reduction target

The White House announced on 25 November 2009 that President Barack Obama is offering a U.S. target for reducing greenhouse gas emissions in the range of 17% below 2005 levels by 2020. The proposed target agrees with the limit set by climate legislation that has passed the U.S. House of Representatives, but the U.S. Senate is currently considering a bill that cuts GHG emissions to 20% below 2005 levels by 2020. The White House noted that the final U.S. emissions target will ultimately fall in line with the climate legislation, once that legislation passes both houses of Congress and is approved by the President. In light of the president's goal for an 83% reduction in GHG emissions by 2050, the pending legislation also includes a reduction in GHG emissions to 30% below 2005 levels by 2025 and to 42% below 2005 levels by 2030.[3] The Waste Prevention Rule which was enacted by the Obama Administration in November 2016 to regulate limits on the amount of methane released while drilling for oil and natural gas on federal land was repealed on September 18, 2018.[14][15]

Strategy and measures to address climate change

U.S. electric power carbon dioxide emissions (2000-2017) (43797645490)
Sources of reduction in US electric power CO2 emissions, 2005–2017

The U.S. strategy integrates actions to address climate change including actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions into a broader agenda that promotes energy security, pollution reduction, and sustainable economic development.

Near-term measures

Energy: residential and commercial sectors

As of 2010, buildings in the United States consume roughly 48% of the country's electricity and contribute a similar percentage of GHG.[20] Engineers Matthias Hollwich and Marc Kushner won the IBM Engineering Innovation award in 2008 with their innovative urban "biogrid" concept called: "MEtreePOLIS–Atlanta in 2018–"the city of the future." By prompting scientists, engineers, and architects in creating new designs and technologies, there is a hope that positive futures will be attainable without causing environmental damages.[21]

Energy: industrial sector

Energy: supply

Transportation

As of 2011, 71% of petroleum consumed in the USA was used for transportation.[34]

Programs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from the transportation sector:

  • CAFE:
The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) program requires automobile manufacturers to meet average fuel economy standards for the light-duty vehicle fleet sold in the United States. The passenger car standard has been set by statute at 11.7 kilometers per liter (kpl or km/l) (27.5 miles per gallon (mpg)), but can be amended through rulemaking. In 2003, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) raised the standard for minivans, pickup trucks, sport utility vehicles (SUVs), and other light trucks from 8.8 kpl (20.7 mpg) to 8.9 kpl (21.0 mpg) for 2005, 9.2 kpl (21.6 mpg) for 2006, and 9.4 kpl (22.2 mpg) for 2007. The action more than doubles the increase in the standard that occurred between 1986 and 2001, a period of more than 15 years. It is predicted that this activity might save approximately 412 trillion Btus (3.6 billion US gallons (14,000,000 m3)) of gasoline over the life of model year 2005–07 light-truck fleets and is projected to result in emission reductions of 42 Tg of CO 2 Eq. in 2012 for all light trucks after model year 2005.
In March 2006, NHTSA issued a new rule for light trucks covering model years 2008–11. The new rule raises required light-truck fuel economy to 24 mpg by model year 2011 and will save nearly 1,259 trillion BTUs (11 billion US gallons (42,000,000 m3)) of gasoline (73 Tg of CO 2 Eq.) over the life of the affected vehicles. The new rule includes an innovative reform that varies fuel economy standards according to the size of the vehicle. The regulation has also been extended for the first time to large passenger vans and SUVs.
Under the Energy Policy Act of 2005, United States Environmental Protection Agency is responsible for promulgating regulations to ensure that gasoline sold in the United States contains a specific volume of renewable fuel. This national Renewable Fuel Standard will increase the volume of renewable fuel that is blended into gasoline, starting with calendar year 2006. The standard is intended to double the amount of renewable fuel usage by 2012. As of 2011, 4% of the energy consumed by transportation was supplied by renewable fuels.[34]
The program[35] works jointly with DOE's hydrogen, fuel cell, and infrastructure R&D efforts and the efforts to develop improved technology for hybrid electric vehicle, which include the hybrid electric components (such as batteries and electric motors).
The U.S. government uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality: ozone, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxides, particulate matter, and lead and does not include carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases.
  • Clean Cities[36]
  • Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement (CMAQ) Program.[37]
  • Aircraft Fuel Efficiency:
Aviation yields GHG emissions that have the potential to influence global climate. In the United States, aviation makes up about 3% of the national GHG inventory and about 12% of transportation emissions. Currently, measuring and tracking fuel efficiency from aircraft operations provide the data for assessing the improvements in aircraft and engine technology, operational procedures, and the airspace transportation system that reduce aviation's contribution to CO 2 emissions. DOT has a goal to improve aviation fuel efficiency per revenue plane-mile by 1% per year through 2009. In the near term, new technologies to improve air traffic management will help reduce fuel burn and, thus, emissions. In the long term, new engines and aircraft will feature more efficient components and aircraft aerodynamics, enhanced engine cycles, and reduced weight, thereby improving fuel efficiency.
  • Biomass and Biorefinery Systems Program[38]

Industry: non-CO2 GHGs

  • Methane Programs[39]
  • High-GWP Programs :
The United States is one of the first nations to develop and implement a national strategy to control emissions of high-GWP gases. The strategy is a combination of industry partnerships and regulatory mechanisms to minimize atmospheric releases of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6)—which are potent GHGs that contribute to global warming—while ensuring a safe, rapid, and cost-effective transition away from chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), halons, and other ozone-depleting substances across multiple industry sectors.
    • Environmental Stewardship —The objective of this initiative is to limit emissions of HFCs, PFCs, and SF6 in three industrial applications: semiconductor production,49 electric power distribution,50 and magnesium production.
    • HFC-23 —To reduce HFC-23 emissions from the manufacture of the ozone-depleting substance HCFC-22.
    • Voluntary Aluminum Industry Partnership —To reduce CF4 and C2F6.
    • Significant New Alternatives Program (SNAP)- To phase down the use of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs), such as CFCs and HCFCs. SNAP has initiated programs with different industry sectors to monitor and minimize emissions of global-warming gases, such as HFCs and PFCs used as substitutes for ozone-depleting chemicals.
    • Mobile Air Conditioning Climate Protection Partnership —

Agriculture

Forestry

Waste management

Promulgated under the Clean Air Act in March 1996, the New Source Performance Standards and Emissions Guidelines ("Landfill Rule") require large landfills to capture and combust their landfill gas emissions. The implementation of the rule began at the state level in 1998. Recent data on the rule's impact indicate that increasing its stringency has significantly increased the number of landfills that must collect and combust their landfill gas. EPA estimates that methane reductions in 2002 were 9 Tg CO2 Eq., and reductions for 2012 may remain about the same.
  • WasteWise to encourage recycling and source reduction.
  • Federal Woody Biomass Working Group

Cross-sectoral

Authorized under Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, this voluntary program provides a means for utilities, industries, and other entities to establish a public record of their emissions and the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester GHG emissions

Nonfederal policies and measures

California:

  • Vehicle Air Pollution (SR 27)- States and implies that California Senate does not have to adhere to cutbacks in emissions standards further allowing stricter emissions standards than the federal government for the state of California.[40] Under this senate resolution the current administration or other federal powers will be opposed by California in any reduction or cutback of the Clean Air Act policies that are currently in place; allowing California to have higher emissions and air quality standards. This policy is because of the threat by the current administration's efforts to reverse environmental policies, in this case vehicle emissions standards.[41] This opposition of federal policy changes is allowed through California's Clean Air Act preemption waiver granted to the state by the EPA on July 8, 2009.[42]  California's waiver applies to vehicles made in 2009 and later.[42] The current standard being followed by the state is a goal of all vehicles reaching an average of 35 miles per gallon.[Environmental protection Agency Federal Register / Vol. 74, No. 129 / 1][42] California saw a large decline in vehicle emissions from 2007 to 2013 as well as a rise in emissions following 2013 which can be attributed to different circumstances some of which include increased population, increased employment, increase in overall state GDP meaning more productivity in the state.[43]
  • Vehicle Registration: Environmental Rebates (SB 745)- Establishes a rebate for any transportation improvement fee on a vehicle. This Senate Bill allots funds from the Greenhouse Gas Reduction Fund to the Climate Policy Special rebate fund and which are then transferred to the department of motor vehicles to pay for newly registered vehicles or renewed vehicles. According to the policy the cost per vehicle is to be displayed in the registration paperwork.[40]
NGA has announced plans to expand statewide regulations on GHG emissions and clean energy initiatives. In a news conference on September 12, Governors Tim Pawlenty of Minnesota and Kathleen Sebelius of Kansas unveiled a task force they will lead along with six other governors to promote renewable energy, conservation, and a reduction in GHG emissions through statewide policies. The US Department of Energy will provide $610,000 in support for this initiative.
As chairman of NGA, Governor Tim Pawlenty (R-MN) said that on energy issues, "We have a federal government that doesn't seem to want to move as fast or as bold as many would like." With states creating their own emissions standards, Pawlenty said, there will be a push for the federal government to come up with a nationwide energy policy to address global warming. If enough states act to reduce GHG emissions, it would "become a de facto national policy".[48]
  • Greenhouse gas emissions by California Issued April 2006.
  • Connecticut: Issued February 2005
  • Massachusetts: Issued May 2004
  • New Mexico : Issued December 2006
  • Oregon : Issued December 2004[49]
  • New Hampshire's Building Energy Conservation Initiative
  • New Jersey's Green Power Purchasing Program
  • Atlanta's Virginia Highland - 1st Carbon Neutral Zone in the United States[50][51]
  • Climate Savers
  • Ceres' Investor Network On Climate Risk
  • Green Power Market Development Group
  • Chicago Climate Exchange
  • Business Environmental Leadership Council
  • PowerSwitch!
  • Climate RESOLVE

Long-term measures

  • Carbon Sequestration Regional Partnerships[46]
  • Nuclear:
    • Generation IV Nuclear Energy Systems Initiative
    • Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative
    • Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative
    • Global Nuclear Energy Partnership
  • Clean Automotive Technology
  • Hydrogen Technology[52]
  • and High-temperature superconductivity

International measures

Criticism

The British climate envoy in the 2007 meeting of the world's top 16 polluters, John Ashton, said the United States seemed isolated on the issue of fighting climate change: "The argument that we can do this through voluntary approaches is now pretty much discredited internationally".[53]

Nuclear power in the USA is a vanishing climate stabilization wedge.[54]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2009-07-08/pdf/E9-15943.pdf

References

  1. ^ "U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions fell slightly in 2017 - Today in Energy - U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)". www.eia.gov. Retrieved 2018-12-15.
  2. ^ EPA,OA, US. "Sources of Greenhouse Gas Emissions - US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  3. ^ a b http://apps1.eere.energy.gov/news/news_detail.cfm/news_id=15650 December 02, 2009 President Obama Sets a Target for Cutting U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions
  4. ^ "US methane emissions are drastically underestimated, a new study shows". PRI. 2016.
  5. ^ "EIA - Emissions of Greenhouse Gases in the U.S. 2006-Carbon Dioxide Emissions". doe.gov. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  6. ^ Benson, Eric; Napier, Pamela (2012). "Connecting Values: Teaching Sustainability to Communication Designers". Design and Culture. 4 (2).
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  8. ^ Mortenson, L. (2001). "Environment". OECD Environmental Outlook.
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  13. ^ Gurney, Kevin. "The Vulcan Project - Index". vulcan.project.asu.edu. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  14. ^ "Bloomberg - Are you a robot?". www.bloomberg.com.
  15. ^ "US Interior finalizes changes to federal lands methane rule - S&P Global Platts". www.spglobal.com. 18 September 2018.
  16. ^ "DOE: High Performance Buildings". Archived from the original on 2007-09-03. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  17. ^ "Building Technologies Program: Building America". Archived from the original on 2006-03-05. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  18. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-08-29. Retrieved 2008-09-24.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  19. ^ "EERE: State Energy Program Home Page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  20. ^ Mazria, Ed. "2030 Challenge". Archived from the original on 2009-12-24.
  21. ^ Cogdell, Christina (2011). "Tearing Down the Grid". Design and Culture. 3 (1).
  22. ^ "Industrial Technologies Program BestPractices". Archived from the original on 2010-08-27. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  23. ^ "Wind and Hydropower Technologies Program: Wind Energy Research". Archived from the original on 2007-08-27. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  24. ^ "Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy | Department of Energy". Eere.energy.gov. Retrieved 2018-07-11.
  25. ^ "EERE: Geothermal Technologies Program Home Page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  26. ^ "EERE: Biomass Program Home Page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  27. ^ "OE: Distributed Energy Program Home Page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  28. ^ "Green Power Partnership". www.epa.gov. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  29. ^ "Combined Heat and Power Partnership". www.epa.gov. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  30. ^ "Carbon Capture and Storage Research". Energy.gov. U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Fossil Energy. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  31. ^ "Advanced Energy Systems Program". NETL website. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  32. ^ "Carbon Capture". NETL website. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  33. ^ "Carbon Storage Technology". NETL website. National Energy Technology Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
  34. ^ a b US Energy Information Administration, Primary energy by source and sector, 2011, PDF.
  35. ^ "EERE: Vehicle Technologies Program Home Page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-25. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  36. ^ EERE: Clean Cities Home Page Archived 2007-04-27 at the Wayback Machine
  37. ^ "CMAQ - Air Quality - Environment - FHWA". www.fhwa.dot.gov. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
  38. ^ "EERE: Biomass Program Home Page". Archived from the original on 2007-09-13. Retrieved 2007-09-11.
  39. ^ "US EPA - Methane". epa.gov. Retrieved 19 April 2018.
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  42. ^ a b c EPA,OAR,OTAQ, US. "California Greenhouse Gas Waiver Request | US EPA". US EPA. Retrieved 2018-09-07.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  43. ^ "California's Greenhouse Gas Emission Inventory". www.arb.ca.gov. Retrieved 2018-09-07.
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  47. ^ National Governors Association Archived 2007-10-27 at the Wayback Machine
  48. ^ [1] "NGA Officially Launches Chair's Initiative: Securing a Clean Energy Future". 09/12/2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-27. Retrieved 2007-09-17. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  49. ^ The Governor's Advisory Group on Global Warming (2004-12-17). "Climate Change in Oregon - Oregon Strategy". Oregon Department of Energy. Archived from the original on 2010-04-04. Retrieved 2010-03-04.
  50. ^ Jay, Kate (November 14, 2008). "First Carbon Neutral Zone Created in the United States". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 7, 2009.
  51. ^ Auchmutey, Jim (January 26, 2009). "Trying on carbon-neutral trend". Atlanta Journal-Constitution.
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  53. ^ "Bush climate plans spark debate". BBC News. 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2010-05-04.
  54. ^ "US nuclear power: The vanishing low-carbon wedge". Retrieved 7 March 2019.

External links

Air pollution in the United States

Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or damages the natural environment into the atmosphere. Ever since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution in the United States, America has had much trouble with environmental issues, air pollution in particular. According to a 2009 report, around "60 percent of Americans live in areas where air pollution has reached unhealthy levels that can make people sick". Pollution in the United States has plummeted in the last decade, with pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide decreasing, despite the fact the number of vehicles on the road has not. This change is due to better regulations, economic shifts, and technological innovations. With respect to nitrogen dioxide, NASA reported a 32% decrease in New York City and a 42% decrease in Atlanta between the periods of 2005-2007 and 2009-2011.

Air pollution can cause a variety of health problems including, but not limited to infections, behavioral changes, cancer, organ failure, and even premature death. These health effects are not equally distributed in terms of race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, education, and more in the United States. California has the worst air quality of any state, and in most surveys the cities in California rank in the top 5 or top 10 of most polluted air in the United States.

Biofuel in the United States

The United States produces mainly biodiesel and ethanol fuel, which uses corn as the main feedstock. In 2005 the US overtook Brazil as the world's largest ethanol producer. In 2006 the US produced 4.855 billion US gallons (18.38×10^6 m3) of ethanol. The United States, together with Brazil accounted for 70 percent of all ethanol production, with total world production of 13.5 billion US gallons (51×10^6 m3) (40 million metric tons). When accounting just for fuel ethanol production in 2007, the U.S. and Brazil are responsible for 88% of the 13.1 billion US gallons (50×10^6 m3) total world production. Biodiesel is commercially available in most oilseed-producing states. As of 2005, it was somewhat more expensive than fossil diesel, though it is still commonly produced in relatively small quantities (in comparison to petroleum products and ethanol fuel). Due to increasing pollution control and climate change requirements and tax relief, the U.S. market is expected to grow to 1 to 2 billion US gallons (3.8×10^6 to 7.6×10^6 m3) by 2010.

Biofuels are mainly used mixed with fossil fuels. They are also used as additives. The largest biodiesel consumer is the U.S. Army. Most light vehicles on the road today in the US can run on blends of up to 10% ethanol, and motor vehicle manufacturers already produce vehicles designed to run on much higher ethanol blends. The demand for bioethanol fuel in the United States was stimulated by the discovery in the late 90s that methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), an oxygenate additive in gasoline, was contaminating groundwater. Cellulosic biofuels are under development, to avoid upward pressure on food prices and land use changes that would be expected to result from a major increase in use of food biofuels.Biofuels are not just limited to liquid fuels. One of the often overlooked uses of biomass in the United States is in the gasification of biomass. There is a small, but growing number of people using woodgas to fuel cars and trucks all across America.The challenge is to expand the market for biofuels beyond the farm states where they have been most popular to date. Flex-fuel vehicles are assisting in this transition because they allow drivers to choose different fuels based on price and availability.

It should also be noted that the growing ethanol and biodiesel industries are providing jobs in plant construction, operations, and maintenance, mostly in rural communities. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, the ethanol industry created almost 154,000 U.S. jobs in 2005 alone, boosting household income by $5.7 billion. It also contributed about $3.5 billion in tax revenues at the local, state, and federal levels. On the other hand, in 2010, the industry received $6.646 billion in federal support (not counting state and local support).Based upon average U.S. corn yields for the years 2007 through 2012, conversion of the entire US corn crop would yield 34.4 billion gallons of ethanol which is approximately 25% of 2012 finished motor fuel demand.

Boulder Climate Action Plan

The Climate Action Plan (CAP) is a set of strategies intended to guide community efforts for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Those strategies have focused on improving energy efficiency and conservation in our homes and businesses—the source of nearly three-fourths of local emissions. The plan also promotes strategies to reduce emissions from transportation, which account for over 20 percent of our local greenhouse gas sources.

California Air Resources Board

The California Air Resources Board (CARB or ARB) is the "clean air agency" in the government of California. Established in 1967 when then-governor Ronald Reagan signed the Mulford-Carrell Act, combining the Bureau of Air Sanitation and the Motor Vehicle Pollution Control Board, CARB is a department within the cabinet-level California Environmental Protection Agency.

The stated goals of CARB include attaining and maintaining healthy air quality; protecting the public from exposure to toxic air contaminants; and providing innovative approaches for complying with air pollution rules and regulations. CARB has also been instrumental in driving innovation throughout the global automotive industry through programs such as its ZEV mandate.

One of CARB's responsibilities is to define vehicle emissions standards. California is the only state permitted to issue emissions standards under the federal Clean Air Act, subject to a waiver from the United States Environmental Protection Agency. Other states may choose to follow CARB or federal standards but may not set their own.

Clean Cities

Clean Cities is a government-industry partnership in the United States that provides regional coalitions with information and incentives from the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), a large collection of technical data and resources, and coordinated strategies and resources they can leverage to obtain maximum petroleum reduction. The Clean Cities partnership consists of 87 coalitions that work with 5,700 local stakeholder programs that have helped avoid the usage of over 2 billion US gallons (7,600,000 m3) of petroleum, put more than 500,000 AFVs on the road, and played a role in the construction of over 3,000 alternative refueling stations since 1993.

Climate change in the United States

Because of global warming, there has been concern in the United States and internationally, that the country should reduce total greenhouse gas which is relatively high per capita and is the second largest in the world after China, as of 2014.In 2012, the United States experienced its warmest year on record. As of 2012, the thirteen warmest years for the entire planet have all occurred since 1998, transcending those from 1880.From 1950 to 2009, the American government's surface temperature record shows an increase by 1 °F (0.56 °C), approximately. Global warming has caused many changes in the U.S. According to a 2009 statement by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), trends include lake and river ice melting earlier in the spring, plants blooming earlier, multiple animal species shifting their habitat ranges northward, and reductions in the size of glaciers.Some research has warned against possible problems due to American climate changes such as the spread of invasive species and possibilities of floods as well as droughts. Changes in climate in the regions of the United States appear significant. Drought conditions appear to be worsening in the southwest while improving in the northeast for example.President Barack Obama committed in the December 2009 Copenhagen Climate Change Summit to reduce carbon dioxide emissions in the range of 17% below 2005 levels by 2020, 42% below 2005 levels by 2030, and 83% below 2005 levels by 2050. In an address towards the U.S. Congress in June 2013, Obama detailed a specific action plan to achieve the 17% carbon emissions cut from 2005 by 2020. He included such measures as shifting from coal-based power generation to solar and natural gas production.Climate change is seen as a national security threat to the United States.In 2015, according to The New York Times and others, oil companies knew that burning oil and gas could cause global warming since the 1970s but, nonetheless, funded deniers for years. 2016 was a historic year for billion-dollar weather and climate disasters in U.S.

Climate change mitigation

Climate change mitigation consists of actions to limit the magnitude or rate of long-term global warming and its related effects. Climate change mitigation generally involves reductions in human (anthropogenic) emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Mitigation may also be achieved by increasing the capacity of carbon sinks, e.g., through reforestation. Mitigation policies can substantially reduce the risks associated with human-induced global warming.According to the IPCC's 2014 assessment report, "Mitigation is a public good; climate change is a case of the 'tragedy of the commons'. Effective climate change mitigation will not be achieved if each agent (individual, institution or country) acts independently in its own selfish interest (see International cooperation and Emissions trading), suggesting the need for collective action. Some adaptation actions, on the other hand, have characteristics of a private good as benefits of actions may accrue more directly to the individuals, regions, or countries that undertake them, at least in the short term. Nevertheless, financing such adaptive activities remains an issue, particularly for poor individuals and countries."Examples of mitigation include reducing energy demand by increasing energy efficiency, phasing out fossil fuels by switching to low-carbon energy sources, and removing carbon dioxide from Earth's atmosphere. for example, through improved building insulation. Another approach to climate change mitigation is climate engineering.Most countries are parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). The ultimate objective of the UNFCCC is to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of GHGs at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference of the climate system. Scientific analysis can provide information on the impacts of climate change, but deciding which impacts are dangerous requires value judgments.In 2010, Parties to the UNFCCC agreed that future global warming should be limited to below 2.0 °C (3.6 °F) relative to the pre-industrial level. With the Paris Agreement of 2015 this was confirmed, but was revised with a new target laying down "parties will do the best" to achieve warming below 1.5 °C. The current trajectory of global greenhouse gas emissions does not appear to be consistent with limiting global warming to below 1.5 or 2 °C. Other mitigation policies have been proposed, some of which are more stringent or modest than the 2 °C limit. In 2019, after 2 years of research, scientists from Australia, and Germany presented the "One Earth Climate Model" that shows how exactly we can stay below 1.5 degrees in price of 1.7 trillion dollars per year.

Climate change policy of the United States

Global climate change was first addressed in United States policy beginning in the early 1950s. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines climate change as "any significant change in the measures of climate lasting for an extended period of time." Essentially, climate change includes major changes in temperature, precipitation, or wind patterns, as well as other effects, that occur over several decades or longer. Climate change policy in the U.S. has transformed rapidly over the past twenty years and is being developed at both the state and federal level. The politics of global warming and climate change have polarized certain political parties and other organizations. This article focuses on climate change policy within the United States, as well as exploring the positions of various parties and the influences on policy making and environmental justice repercussions.

Coal mining in the United States

Coal mining in the United States is an industry in transition. Production in 2017 was down 33% from the peak production of 1,162.7 million tons (about 1054.8 million metric tonnes) in 2006. Employment of 50,000 coal miners is down from a peak of 883,000 in 1923. Generation of electricity is the largest user of coal, being used to produce 50% of electric power in 2005 and 27% in 2018. The U.S. is a net exporter of coal. U.S. coal exports, for which Europe is the largest customer, peaked in 2012. In 2015, the U.S. exported 7.0 percent of mined coal.Coal remains an important factor in the 25 states in which it is mined. According to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), in 2015 Wyoming, West Virginia, Kentucky, Illinois, and Pennsylvania produced about 639 millions of short tons (MST) representing 71% of total U.S. coal production in the United States.In 2015, four publicly-traded US coal companies filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection, including Patriot Coal Corporation, Walter Energy, and the fourth-largest Alpha Natural Resources. By January 2016, more than 25% of coal production was in bankruptcy in the United States including the top two producers Peabody Energy and Arch Coal. When Arch Coal filed for bankruptcy protection, the price of coal had dropped 50% since 2011 and it was $4.5 billion in debt. On October 5, 2016, Arch Coal emerged from Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection. In October 2018, Westmoreland Coal Company filed for bankruptcy protection. On May 10, 2019, the third largest U.S. coal company by production, Cloud Peak Energy, file for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection.

Mike Pompeo

Michael Richard Pompeo (; born December 30, 1963) is an American politician and attorney who, since April 2018, has served as the 70th United States Secretary of State. He is a former United States Army officer and was Director of the Central Intelligence Agency from January 2017 until April 2018.

Pompeo was a member of the United States House of Representatives from 2011 to 2017, representing Kansas's 4th congressional district. He was a Kansas representative on the Republican National Committee and member of the Italian American Congressional Delegation. Pompeo is also a member of the Tea Party movement within the Republican Party.President Donald Trump nominated Pompeo as Secretary of State in March 2018, with Pompeo succeeding Rex Tillerson after his dismissal. Pompeo was confirmed by the Senate on April 26, 2018, in a 57–42 vote and was sworn in the same day.He was a speculated candidate to represent his home state of Kansas in the United States Senate in 2020. Although Pompeo ultimately declined to run in 2020, he implied an openness to seeking statewide office in the future.

National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium

National Alternative Fuels Training Consortium (NAFTC) is a national training organization with its headquarters located in Morgantown, West Virginia. NAFTC is a West Virginia University program founded in 1992. Its objective is to decrease the United States' dependence on foreign oil and improve air quality through the use of advanced technology vehicles and alternative fuels.

State Energy Program (United States)

The United States Department of Energy's State Energy Program (SEP) provides grants to states and directs funding to state energy offices from technology programs in Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. States use grants to address their energy priorities and program funding to adopt emerging renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. The State Energy Program $3 billion funding will be used to provide rebates to consumers for home energy audits or other energy-saving improvements; to develop renewable energy; to promote Energy Star products; to upgrade the energy efficiency of state and local government buildings; and other innovative state efforts to help families save money on their energy bills. The energy efficiency upgrades are to be available for families making up to 200% of the federal poverty level.

United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles (9.8 million km2), the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles (10.1 million km2). With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century. The United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, and the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776. The war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties. The United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, and gradually admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848.During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery. By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, and its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power. The United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U.S. Moon landing. The end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower.The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation. It is a federal republic and a representative democracy. The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States (OAS), and other international organizations. The United States is a highly developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for approximately a quarter of global GDP. The U.S. economy is largely post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U.S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country.Despite income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank very high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, and worker productivity. The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, and is a leading political, cultural, and scientific force internationally.

Vegetable oil fuel

Vegetable oil can be used as an alternative fuel in diesel engines and in heating oil burners. When vegetable oil is used directly as a fuel, in either modified or unmodified equipment, it is referred to as straight vegetable oil (SVO) or pure plant oil (PPO). Conventional diesel engines can be modified to help ensure that the viscosity of the vegetable oil is low enough to allow proper atomization of the fuel. This prevents incomplete combustion, which would damage the engine by causing a build-up of carbon. Straight vegetable oil can also be blended with conventional diesel or processed into biodiesel or bioliquids for use under a wider range of conditions.

Ventura County Air Pollution Control District

The Ventura County Air Pollution Control District (VCAPCD), formed in 1968, is the air pollution agency responsible mainly for regulating stationary sources of air pollution for Ventura County. The District was formed by the Board of Supervisors in response to the county's first air pollution study which identified Ventura County as having a severe air quality problem.

Currently, Ventura County does not meet the federal air quality standard for ozone and exceeds the state standard for ozone and particulate matter.

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