The Green Mountain Club is a non-profit membership organization dedicated to preserving and protecting Vermont's Long Trail. The Long Trail is the oldest long-distance hiking trail in America and stretches from the Massachusetts state line to the Canada–United States border, along the main ridge of the Green Mountains.
Conceived on March 11, 1910 by James P. Taylor who was at the time the Assistant Headmaster of the Vermont Academy in Windsor, Vermont. Taylor lobbied other Vermont residents who shared his dream of a mission to "make the Vermont mountains play a larger part in the life of the people by protecting and maintaining the Long Trail system and fostering, through education, the stewardship of Vermont's hiking trails and mountains". In 1912, work began on the construction of America's first long-distance hiking path known as The Long Trail. The club completed the Long Trail in 1930.
In addition to being the steward of the Long Trail, the Club's advocacy and education efforts also protect Vermont's many other hiking trails. Through its land protection program in northern Vermont, the Club has protected almost 80 miles of the Long Trail System, conserved 25,099acres, and completed 89 land and easement acquisitions since 1986. Moreover, The GMC publishes guidebooks, newsletters, and other printed media that serve hikers who wish to walk the Long Trail.
The Green Mountain Club maintains the 272 mile Long Trail in cooperation with the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks and Recreation, U.S. Forest Service, National Park Service, Appalachian Trail Conservancy, and private landowners.
The Green Mountain Club also manages the section of the Appalachian Trail that passes through Vermont. The Appalachian Trail follows the Long Trail from the Vermont/Massachusetts state line to Route 4, at which point the Long Trail continues north and the Appalachian Trail heads eastward towards the White Mountains in New Hampshire. The GMC also manages other hiking trails in Vermont's Northeast Kingdom region.
The Green Mountain Club separates out into chapters, called "sections" — since they maintain sections of the Long Trail and its side trails — are located throughout the state. Below are a complete list of the GMC chapters:
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae is a family of mostly aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or simply as umbellifers. It is the 16th-largest family of flowering plants, with more than 3,700 species in 434 genera including such well-known and economically important plants such as ajwain, angelica, anise, asafoetida, caraway, carrot, celery, chervil, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, poison hemlock, lovage, cow parsley, parsley, parsnip and sea holly, as well as silphium, a plant whose identity is unclear and which may be extinct.The family Apiaceae includes a significant number of phototoxic species and a smaller number of poisonous species. Some species in the family Apiaceae are cytotoxic.Appalachian Trail by state
The Appalachian National Scenic Trail spans fourteen U.S. states during its roughly 2,200 miles (3,500 km)-long journey: Georgia, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, West Virginia, Maryland, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine. It begins at Springer Mountain, Georgia, and follows the ridgeline of the Appalachian Mountains, crossing many of its highest peaks and running with only a few exceptions almost continuously through wilderness before ending at Mount Katahdin, Maine.
The trail is currently protected along more than 99% of its course by federal or state land ownership or right-of-way. Annually, more than 4,000 volunteers contribute over 175,000 hours to maintain the trail, an effort coordinated largely by the Appalachian Trail Conservancy (ATC), assisted by some thirty trail clubs and multiple partnerships.Aurelia Harwood
Aurelia Squire Harwood (September 1865 – June 1928), daughter of the wealthy Harwood family of Ontario, California, was a conservationist, educator, and first female President of the Sierra Club in 1927 and 1928. In addition to her terms as President, she simultaneously sat on the Angeles Chapter's Executive Committee, and the club's Board of Directors, from 1921 to 1928.
Harwood had a great love of the outdoors that began during her childhood in Springfield, Missouri, where she moved with her family at an early age. Over the years, she became a member of the Green Mountain Club, the Mazamas, and the Mountaineers. When she settled in her final home of Ontario, California, she joined the Sierra Club, and led local outings there for fourteen years.
Another love of Harwood's was education. She attained a liberal arts undergraduate degree at Drury University, which her father Charles helped endow. Later, she completed graduate studies at Wellesley College. After her father's example, Aurelia too donated to help fund universities, contributing to Pomona College, and scholarships for Chinese students at Mills College.
Harwood died in 1928 and was buried at Bellevue Memorial Park in Ontario, California. The Angeles Chapter of the Sierra Club named their new lodge after her in 1930. The peak east of Mount San Antonio, Mount Harwood, was also named in her honor, and recognized by the USGS in 1965. Harwood Court at Pomona College, and her namesake scholarship at Mills College, still bear her family name.Camel's Hump
Camel's Hump (alternatively Camels Hump) is Vermont's third-highest mountain and, at 4085 feet (1245 meters), the highest undeveloped peak. Because of its distinctive profile, it is perhaps the state's most recognized mountain, featured on the state quarter. It is part of the Green Mountain range. With its neighbor to the north, Mount Mansfield, it borders the notch that the Winooski River has carved through the ridgeline of the Green Mountains over eons. The hiking trails on Camel's Hump were among the first cut in the Long Trail system, and Camel's Hump remains a popular summit for through- and day-hiking. The mountain is part of Camel's Hump State Park.Composting toilet
A composting toilet is a type of dry toilet that treats human excreta by a biological process called composting. This process leads to the decomposition of organic matter and turns human excreta into compost-like material but does not destroy all pathogens. Composting is carried out by microorganisms (mainly bacteria and fungi) under controlled aerobic conditions. Most composting toilets use no water for flushing and are therefore called "dry toilets".
In many composting toilet designs, carbon additives such as sawdust, coconut coir, or peat moss is added after each use. This practice creates air pockets in the human excreta to promote aerobic decomposition. This also improves the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio and reduces potential odor. Most composting toilet systems rely on mesophilic composting. Longer retention time in the composting chamber also facilitates pathogen die-off. The end product can also be moved to a secondary system – usually another composting step – to allow more time for mesophilic composting to further reduce pathogens.
Composting toilets, together with the secondary composting step, produce a humus-like endproduct that can be used to enrich soil if local regulations allow this. Some composting toilets have urine diversion systems in the toilet bowl to collect the urine separately and control excess moisture. A "vermifilter toilet" is a composting toilet with flushing water where earthworms are used to promote decomposition to compost.
Composting toilets do not require a connection to septic tanks or sewer systems unlike flush toilets. Common applications include national parks, remote holiday cottages, ecotourism resorts, off-grid homes and rural areas in developing countries.Green Mountains
The Green Mountains are a mountain range in the U.S. state of Vermont. The range runs primarily south to north and extends approximately 250 miles (400 km) from the border with Massachusetts to the border with Quebec, Canada. The part of the same range that is in Massachusetts and Connecticut is known as The Berkshires or the Berkshire Hills (with the Connecticut portion, mostly in Litchfield County, locally called the Northwest Hills or Litchfield Hills) and the Quebec portion is called the Sutton Mountains, or Monts Sutton in French.All mountains in Vermont are often referred to as the "Green Mountains". However, other ranges within Vermont, including the Taconics—in southwestern Vermont's extremity—and the Northeastern Highlands, are not geologically part of the Green Mountains.Griffith Lake
Griffith Lake is a small lake and campsite located in the towns of Peru and Mount Tabor, Vermont, in the Green Mountain National Forest. The site lies on the Long Trail/Appalachian Trail. The area is maintained by the Green Mountain Club and has an on-site caretaker to maintain the tent sites, outhouse, composting toilets, and trails during the peak season. During that time, there is a $5 charge for the overnight use of the tent platforms and nearby lean-to shelter. As there are no 'safe' water sources, hikers should be prepared to use a camping-grade water purification system, or to boil their water.
Access to Griffith lake is through a combination walking/snowmobile trail. Horses, motorized vehicles, and mountain bikes are not permitted on the access trail.Long Trail
The Long Trail is a hiking trail located in Vermont, running the length of the state. It is the oldest long-distance trail in the United States, constructed between 1910 and 1930 by the Green Mountain Club. The club remains the primary organization responsible for the trail, and is recognized by the state legislature as "the founder, sponsor, defender, and protector" of the Long Trail System.Long Trail State Forest
Long Trail State Forest protects 9,529 acres (38.56 km2) around a portion of the Long Trail, a 271 mi (436 km) hiking trail in Vermont. The forest runs through Belvidere, Eden, Lowell, Johnson, Montgomery, Waterville and Westfield in Franklin, Lamoille and Orleans counties. The forest is managed by the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation in partnership with the Green Mountain Club.Metacomet Ridge
The Metacomet Ridge, Metacomet Ridge Mountains, or Metacomet Range of southern New England is a narrow and steep fault-block mountain ridge known for its extensive cliff faces, scenic vistas, microclimate ecosystems, and rare or endangered plants. The ridge is an important recreation resource located within 10 miles (16 km) of more than 1.5 million people, offering four long-distance hiking trails and over a dozen parks and recreation areas, including several historic sites. It has been the focus of ongoing conservation efforts because of its natural, historic, and recreational value, involving municipal, state, and national agencies and nearly two dozen non-profit organizations.The Metacomet Ridge extends from New Haven and Branford, Connecticut on Long Island Sound, through the Connecticut River Valley region of Massachusetts, to northern Franklin County, Massachusetts, 2 miles (3 km) short of the Vermont and New Hampshire borders for a distance of 100 miles (160 km). It is geologically distinct from the nearby Appalachian Mountains and surrounding uplands, and is composed of volcanic basalt (also known as trap rock) and sedimentary rock in faulted and tilted layers many hundreds of feet thick. In most cases, the basalt layers are dominant, prevalent, and exposed. The ridge rises dramatically from much lower valley elevations, although only 1,200 feet (370 m) above sea level at its highest, with an average summit elevation of 725 feet (221 m).Metacomet Trail
The Metacomet Trail is a 62.7-mile (100.9 km) Blue-Blazed hiking trail that traverses the Metacomet Ridge of central Connecticut and is a part of the newly designated 'New England National Scenic Trail'. Despite being easily accessible and close to large population centers, the trail is considered remarkably rugged and scenic. The route includes many areas of unique ecologic, historic, and geologic interest. Notable features include waterfalls, dramatic cliff faces, woodlands, swamps, lakes, river flood plain, farmland, significant historic sites, and the summits of Talcott Mountain and the Hanging Hills. The Metacomet Trail is maintained largely through the efforts of the Connecticut Forest and Park Association.
On March 30, 2009 President Barack Obama signed the 'Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009' establishing the New England National Scenic Trail (and two other national scenic trails).The combination of the Metacomet, Monadnock and Mattabesett trails is also often referred to as the '3-M', 'MMM' or Metacomet-Monadnock-Mattabesett trail. The New England National Scenic Trail includes all or almost all of the 'MMM' trails as well as the new extension trail from the southernmost point on the Mattabesett Trail through Guilford, Connecticut to the northern shore of Long Island Sound.Mount Carmel State Forest
Mount Carmel State Forest covers 263 acres (1.06 km2) in Chittenden, Vermont in Rutland County. Located in the Green Mountains, the forest's elevation ranges from 2380 to 3365 feet at the summit of Mount Carmel.
There is no road access to the forest, which can only be accessed by the New Boston Trail, a side trail to the Long Trail. The Long Trail bisects the forest from north to south, and the New Boston Trail accesses the Long Trail from adjacent U.S. Forest Service land in Green Mountain National Forest. The Green Mountain Club maintains the trail. A snowmobile corridor trail is maintained by the Vermont Association of Snow Travelers.
The forest was a gift to the State of Vermont in 1956 from Governor Redfield Proctor. It is managed by the Vermont Department of Forests, Parks, and Recreation.Mount Greylock
Mount Greylock is a 3489-foot (1069 meter) mountain located in the northwest corner of Massachusetts, the highest point in the state. Its summit is in the western part of the town of Adams (near its border with Williamstown) in Berkshire County. Although technically it is geologically part of the Taconic Mountains, Mount Greylock is commonly associated with the abutting Berkshire Mountains to the east. The mountain is known for its expansive views encompassing five states and the only taiga-boreal forest in the state. A seasonal automobile road (open annually from late May through November 1) climbs to the summit, topped by a 93-foot-high (28 m) lighthouse-like Massachusetts Veterans War Memorial Tower. A network of hiking trails traverse the mountain, including the Appalachian Trail. Mount Greylock State Reservation was created in 1898 as Massachusetts' first public land for the purpose of forest preservation.New York–New Jersey Trail Conference
The New York–New Jersey Trail Conference (NYNJTC) is a volunteer-based federation of approximately 10,000 individual members and about 100 member organizations (mostly hiking clubs and environmental organizations). The conference coordinates the maintenance of 2,000 miles of foot trails around the New York metropolitan area, from the Delaware Water Gap, north to beyond the Catskill Mountains, including the Appalachian Trail through New York and New Jersey. It also works to protect open space and publishes books and trail maps. The organization's headquarters are at 600 Ramapo Valley Road, Mahwah, New Jersey.Seneca Haselton
Seneca Haselton (February 26, 1848 – July 21, 1921) was a Vermont educator, attorney and politician. He is notable for his service as mayor of Burlington, Vermont (1891-1894), U.S. Minister to Venezuela (1894-1895), and an Associate Justice of the Vermont Supreme Court (1902-1906, 1908-1919).
A graduate of the University of Vermont and University of Michigan Law School, Haselton practiced law in Burlington beginning in 1875. A Democrat in an era when the Republicans controlled all facets of Vermont's statewide politics, Haselton found success at the local level, including terms as city court judge (1878-1886), member of the Vermont House of Representatives (1886-1887), and Burlington mayor (1891 to 1894). In 1894, Haselton was appointed U.S. Minister to Venezuela, and he served until 1895, when President Grover Cleveland requested his resignation as part of resolving a dispute between Haselton and the commander of the U.S. Navy's North Atlantic Squadron.
After serving as Reporter of Decisions for the Vermont Supreme Court (1900-1902), in 1902 he was appointed to the court as an Associate Justice. Haselton served until 1906, when the size of the Supreme Court was reduced. From 1906 to 1908, he served as Chief Judge of the newly-created Vermont Superior Court. In what came to be a custom that lasted until the 1970s, the chief judge was chosen by seniority from the Superior Court judges, and advanced to the Supreme Court when a vacancy arose. In 1908, Haselton was reappointed to the Vermont Supreme Court. In December 1914, he was one of the justices who were not reappointed as part of a court reorganization plan; public outcry led to the plan being revoked in January 1915, and Haselton maintained his place as an Associate Justice until retiring in 1919.
Haselton never married or had children. He died in Burlington in 1921, and was buried at Lakeview Cemetery in Burlington.Stratton Mountain (Vermont)
Stratton Mountain is a mountain located in Windham County, Vermont, in the Green Mountain National Forest. The mountain is the highest point of Windham County, and of the southern Green Mountains generally. A fire tower located on the summit is generally open for climbing by the public. There is also a small caretaker cabin (not open to the public) at the summit that is inhabited in season by a caretaker from the Green Mountain Club.Taconic Mountains
The Taconic Mountains or Taconic Range () are a physiographic section of the larger New England province and part of the Appalachian Mountains, running along the eastern border of New York State and adjacent New England from northwest Connecticut to western Massachusetts, north to central western Vermont. The range includes notable summits such as Mount Equinox and Mount Greylock, the highest point in Massachusetts. Currently local residents, consistent with the prominent 19th century geologist, T. Nelson Dale, consider the Mount Greylock Massif as a subsidiary of the main Taconic Range to the west.The Taconic Range is known for its ecological value, conservation land, scenic landscapes, natural environment, and recreational facilities. It contains several hundred miles of trails including sections of the 2,175-mile (3,500 km) Appalachian Trail and over sixty designated areas of land protected by federal, state, county, and municipal, government agencies and non-profit organizations. The range has been targeted for conservation by government agencies in four states, the federal government, and over a dozen non-profit organizations. Multiple government and non-profit conservation partnerships have been formed with the intention of conserving the Taconic landscape and ecosystem.White Rock (Taconic Mountains)
White Rock, 2,550 feet (780 m), is the high point on a 7 mi (11 km) ridgeline in the Taconic Mountains. The ridge is located in the tri-state corner of New York, Massachusetts, and Vermont in the towns of Petersburgh, Williamstown, and Pownal. The ridge has several distinct knobs; those with names are, from south to north: White Rocks, 2,365 feet (721 m); Smith Hill, 2,330 feet (710 m); White Rock, the high point 2,550 feet (780 m); and Bald Mountain 2,485 feet (757 m). The Snow Hole, located along the ridgeline between Bald Mountain and the White Rock, is a crevasse in which snow can be found well into the summer.