Green Monster

The Green Monster is a popular nickname for the 37.2 feet (11.3 m) high left field wall at Fenway Park, home to the Boston Red Sox baseball team. The wall is 310 feet (94.5 meters) from home plate and is a popular target for right-handed hitters.

Green Monster
The Green Monster as seen from the grandstand section on September 5, 2006. The ladder is visible to the right of the Red Sox Foundation logo.


Green Monster 1914
The original ad-covered Green Monster in 1914, with "overflow" fan seating in front of the wall's base, atop "Duffy's Cliff" (seen in the distance, nearest the flagpole).
Holy Cross vs Boston College (Fenway Park 1916)
The center-field end of the wall (and Duffy's Cliff) in 1916, during a college football game at Fenway
Fenway Park 1996
The Green Monster in 1996, seven seasons before seats were added on top.

The wall was part of the original ballpark construction of 1912, along Fenway's north side facing Lansdowne Street. It is made of wood and was covered in tin and concrete in 1934. It was then covered with hard plastic in 1976. A manual scoreboard is set into the wall, which has been there, in one form or another, at least as far back as 1914 (see photo at right). Despite the name, the Green Monster was not painted green until 1947; before that, it was covered with advertisements. The Monster designation is relatively new. For most of its history it was simply called "The Wall."

The Green Monster is the highest among the walls in current Major League Baseball fields, and is the second highest among all professional baseball fields (including minor leagues), falling approximately 6 inches short of the left field wall at the PeoplesBank Park in York, Pennsylvania.

Ballparks occupied by professional baseball teams have often featured high fences to hide the field from external viewers, particularly behind open areas of the outfield where bleacher seating is low-lying or non-existent. The wall might also reduce the number of "cheap" home runs due to the barrier's relatively close distance to home plate. Fenway's wall serves both purposes. Past ballparks of Fenway's era or even later which featured high fences in-play included Baker Bowl, Washington Park, Ebbets Field, League Park, Griffith Stadium, Shibe Park, and more recently, Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. Fenway is the last of the exceptionally high-walled major league ballparks. Relatively high walls in modern ballparks have been constructed for their novelty rather than by necessity, as Fenway's wall had been.

The Green Monster is famous for preventing home runs on many line drives that would clear the walls of other ballparks. A side effect of this is to increase the prevalence of doubles, since this is the most common result when the ball is hit off the wall (often referred to as a "wallball double"). Some left fielders, predominantly those with vast Fenway experience, have become adept at fielding caroms off the wall to throw runners out at second base or hold the batter to a single. Compared with other current major league parks, the wall's placement creates a comparatively shallow left field; the wall falls approximately 304–310 feet (93–94 m) from the plate along the left-field foul line. With this short distance, many deep fly balls that could be caught by the fielder in a deeper park rebound off the wall for base hits. And while the wall turns many would-be line-drive homers into doubles it also allows some high yet shallow fly balls to clear the field of play for a home run.

During 2001 and 2002, the Green Monster's height record was temporarily beaten by the center field wall at Riverfront Stadium in Cincinnati, Ohio. During the construction of Great American Ball Park, located right next to Riverfront Stadium, a large section of seats was removed from the center field area to make room and a 40-foot (12 m) black wall was erected as a temporary batter's eye. The entire wall was in play. This new wall was often called "The Black Monster." When Riverfront Stadium was demolished in 2002, the Green Monster reclaimed the record. In honor of the famed wall, the Red Sox mascot is a furry green monster named Wally the Green Monster, joined in 2016 by his younger sister Tessie.[1]


Duffy's Cliff

Duffy Lewis Baseball
Duffy Lewis was famous for his ability to handle the Fenway outfield

From 1912 to 1933, a 10-foot-high (3.0 m) mound formed an incline in front of the Green Monster,[2] extending from the left-field foul pole to the center field flag pole. This earthwork formed a "terrace", a common feature of ballparks of the day (where a dirt-surfaced warning track would normally be today), whose purpose was to make up the difference in grade between street level and field level, as with Cincinnati's Crosley Field. It also served to double as a seating area to handle overflow crowds, another common practice of that era.

As a result of the terrace, when overflow crowds weren't seated atop it, a left fielder in Fenway Park had to play the territory running uphill. Boston's first star left fielder, Duffy Lewis, mastered the skill so well that the area became known as "Duffy's Cliff".[2] In contrast, rotund outfielder Bob Fothergill, known by the indelicate nicknames of "Fats" or "Fatty", reportedly once chased a ball up the terrace, slipped and fell, and rolled downhill.

In 1934, Red Sox owner Tom Yawkey arranged to flatten the ground in left field so that Duffy's Cliff no longer existed, and it became part of the lore of Fenway Park.


Long after the much-higher location manual scoreboard from c.1914 existed (as seen in the 1914 photo), the placement of the modern "ground-level" manual scoreboard occurred in 1934. It forms the lower half of the Green Monster and is still updated by hand from behind the wall throughout the game. The American League scores are also updated from behind the wall. The National League scores need to be updated from the front of the wall between innings.[3] There is also a board which shows the current American League East standings. There are 127 slots in the wall and a team of three score keepers move around two-pound, 13-by-16-inch plates to represent the score. Yellow numbers are used to represent in-inning scores and white numbers are used to represent final inning tallies. The numbers of the current pitchers weigh three pounds and measure 16 by 16 inches.[4]

Carlton Fisk's "body English" when he hit his game-winning home run in Game 6 of the 1975 World Series, "waving" the ball fair, was captured on a TV camera stationed in the scoreboard.

Morse Code

The Morse Code that appears from top to bottom in the white lines of the American League scoreboard are the initials of former owners Thomas A. Yawkey and Jean R. Yawkey.[5]

Right field

Fenway's left-field distortion is offset by the odd shape and generous size of right field, which is 302 feet (92 m) (although its actual distance has been disputed over the years) along the line (almost the same as in left), but 380 feet (120 m) at its deepest. The bullpen was added along the right field wall in 1940 to shorten the distance for left-handed slugger Ted Williams' home runs to clear the fence. For years afterward, the bullpens were known as "Williamsburg".

Green Monster seating

Fenway Park05
Seats atop the Green Monster

In 1936, the Red Sox installed a 23-foot (7.0 m) net above the Monster in order to protect the storefronts on adjoining Lansdowne Street from home run balls. The net remained until the 2002–03 offseason, when the team's new ownership constructed a new seating section atop the wall to accommodate 274 fans. Wildly popular, these "Monster seats" were part of a larger expansion plan for Fenway Park seating. The Red Sox later added a smaller seating section in 2005, dubbed the "Nation's Nest," located between the main seating section and the center field scoreboard.

The ladder

Comprising yet another quirk, a ladder is attached to the Green Monster, extending from near the upper-left portion of the scoreboard, 13 feet (4.0 m) above ground, to the top of the wall. Previously, members of the grounds crew would use the ladder to retrieve home run balls from the netting hung above the wall. After the net was removed for the addition of the Monster seats, the ladder ceased to have any real function, yet it still remains in place as a historic relic.

The placement of the ladder is noteworthy given the fact that it is in fair territory; it is the only such ladder in the major leagues. On many occasions, a batted ball has struck the ladder during game play, at least twice leading to an inside-the-park home run.[6] During a 1950s game, Red Sox outfielders Ted Williams and Jimmy Piersall both tracked a fly ball in left center, but the ball struck the ladder and caromed into center field, giving batter Jim Lemon enough time to round the bases. Later, in 1963, the slow-footed Dick Stuart hit a high fly that ricocheted first off the ladder, and then the head of outfielder Vic Davalillo, before rolling far enough away to allow Stuart to score.


After the wall was painted green in 1947, advertisements did not appear on the wall until 1999, when the All-Star Game at Fenway was being promoted. Various ads have appeared above the scoreboard since then, such as the Jimmy Fund, W.B. Mason, and Granite City Electric. The Coke Bottles on the left light tower were a target for power-hitters when they were placed in 1997. These 3D advertisements were taken down before the 2008 season, when an LED sign was built above the new left-field upper deck seats. As a lead up to his 500th career home run, Manny Ramirez's home run count was tallied on the bottom of the light tower. Ads beside the manual scoreboard were added when the scoreboard was expanded. Above the manual scoreboard, where a Jimmy Fund advertisement had remained for many years, the logo for Foxwoods Resort Casino is now a prominent aspect of Fenway Park. Outside of Fenway in Kenmore Square, but able to be seen in the view above the left-field wall, is the Boston Citgo sign.

Similar and related places


  1. ^ "Wally The Green Monster's Sister Tessie Is Coming To Boston". CBS Boston. January 5, 2016. Retrieved March 30, 2017. There’s a never before seen member of the Red Sox family that has perimeter and diehard Red Sox fans alike asking, “wait, who?” Her name is Tessie, and apparently, she’s Wally the Green Monster’s sister. In a video posted by the team, Wally is seen heading home to visit his parents at JetBlue park in Fort Myers when Tessie runs out onto the field. Together — to a special Dropkick Murphys track — the pair enjoy some sibling time at the park. But when Wally gets ready to head back to Boston, it’s decided that Tessie’s coming too.
  2. ^ a b Dickson, Paul (1989). The Dickson Baseball Dictionary. New York, United States of America: Facts On File. p. 140. ISBN 0816017417.
  3. ^ "What makes Fenway Fenway". Red Sox die hard.
  4. ^ "Technology". Popular Mechanics. Archived from the original on 2009-06-04.
  5. ^ "Fenway Park – Questions, Answers, Fun Facts, Information". Fun trivia. Retrieved 2009-06-26.
  6. ^ "Features of Fenway Park". Graphics. Boston. Retrieved 2008-07-18.
  7. ^ Navarro, Manny (9 April 2010). "Teal Monster put to rest at Sun Life Stadium". Miami Herald. Retrieved 18 August 2017.
  8. ^

External links

1997 Boston Red Sox season

The 1997 Boston Red Sox season was the 97th season in the franchise's Major League Baseball history. The Red Sox finished fourth in the American League East with a record of 78 wins and 84 losses, 20 games behind the Baltimore Orioles. It was the last time the Red Sox had a losing record until 2012. The Red Sox had 5,781 at bats, a single season major league record.

38 Studios

38 Studios, LLC, formerly Green Monster Games, LLC, was an American entertainment and IP development company founded in 2006 by Major League Baseball pitcher Curt Schilling and named for his jersey number. Originally based in Massachusetts, the company moved to Rhode Island as part of securing a $75 million loan guarantee from that state's quasi-public Economic Development Corporation (EDC). In February 2012, the company released its only title, Kingdoms of Amalur: Reckoning, a single-player action role-playing video game for several platforms. The game received positive reviews and sold an estimated 330,000 copies in its first month, rising to 1.2m copies in the first 90 days. 38 Studios shut down a few months later. The failure of the controversial Rhode Island loan spurred investigations by the news media and the government.

Art Arfons

Arthur Eugene "Art" Arfons (February 3, 1926 – December 3, 2007) was the world land speed record holder three times from 1964 to 1965 with his Green Monster series of jet-powered cars, after a series of Green Monster piston-engine and jet-engined dragsters. He subsequently went on to field a succession of Green Monster turbine-engined pulling tractors, before returning to land speed record racing. He was announced as a 2008 inductee in the International Motorsports Hall of Fame three days after his death.

Fenway Park

Fenway Park is a baseball park located in Boston, Massachusetts near Kenmore Square. Since 1912, it has been the home for the Boston Red Sox, the city's American League baseball team, and since 1953, its only Major League Baseball (MLB) franchise. It is the oldest ballpark in MLB. Because of its age and constrained location in Boston's dense Fenway–Kenmore neighborhood, the park has been renovated or expanded many times, resulting in quirky heterogeneous features including "The Triangle" (below), Pesky's Pole, and the Green Monster in left field. It is the fourth-smallest among MLB ballparks by seating capacity, second-smallest by total capacity, and one of eight that cannot accommodate at least 40,000 spectators.

Fenway has hosted the World Series 11 times, with the Red Sox winning six of them and the Boston Braves winning one. Besides baseball games it has been the site of many other sporting and cultural events including professional football games for the Boston Redskins, Boston Yanks, and the New England Patriots; concerts; soccer and hockey games (such as the 2010 NHL Winter Classic); and political and religious campaigns.

April 20, 2012 marked Fenway Park's centennial. On March 7 of that year, the park was added to the National Register of Historic Places. Former pitcher Bill Lee has called Fenway Park "a shrine". It is a pending Boston Landmark which will regulate any further changes to the park. Today, the park is considered to be one of the most well-known sports venues in the world.

Flatwoods monster

The Flatwoods monster (also known as the Braxton County Monster or Phantom of Flatwoods) in West Virginia folklore, is an entity reported to have been sighted in the town of Flatwoods in Braxton County, West Virginia, United States, on September 12, 1952, following the appearance of a bright object crossing the night sky. Nearly fifty years later, investigators concluded that the light was a meteor and the creature was a barn owl perched in a tree, with shadows making it appear to be a large humanoid.

Green Monster (automobile)

The Green Monster was the name of several vehicles built by Art Arfons and his half brother Walt Arfons. These ranged from dragsters to a turbojet-powered car which briefly held the land speed record three times during 1964 and 1965.

The land speed record Green Monster set the absolute record three times during the close competition of 1964 and 1965. It was powered by a General Electric J79 taken from a F-104 Starfighter. The jet engine had a four-stage afterburner.

Green Monster (disambiguation)

The Green Monster is the left field wall at Fenway Park in Boston, Massachusetts.

Green Monster may also refer to:

Boston Red Sox

Wally the Green Monster, mascot

Green Monster (novel), featuring the Red SoxInfrastructure nicknames

Hart Bridge in Jacksonville, Florida

Central Artery, an elevated section of I-93 freeway in downtown Boston, Massachusetts, before it was rebuilt underground as part of the Big Dig projectOther

Green Monster (car), series of dragsters and land speed record cars built by Art Arfons between 1952 and 1991.

Green Monster (EP), 2008 release by Suicide Silence

Green Monster Games, later 38 Studios, now defunct, video game developers

Green Monster of Braxton County, or Flatwoods monster, 1952 cryptid

Green Monster (novel)

Green Monster is a 2008 novel by American author Rick Shefchik. It was published August 1 by Poisoned Pen Press.

A mystery/thriller set initially in Boston, Massachusetts, it follows the former Minneapolis police detective, now private investigator, Sam Skarda, as he is called in by the owner of the Boston Red Sox to investigate an anonymous note that claims the 2004 World Series was fixed. It is the second in a series about Skarda and his adventures investigating crime in the sports world. The first, Amen Corner came out in March 2007.

Hawkins Field

Hawkins Field is a baseball stadium in Nashville, Tennessee. It is the home field of the Vanderbilt Commodores college baseball team. The stadium opened in 2002 adjacent to Vanderbilt Stadium and Memorial Gymnasium and holds 3,700 people. In 2010, the Nashville Outlaws, a collegiate summer baseball team of the Prospect League, used Hawkins Field as their home ballpark.The venue is named for the family of Charles Hawkins III, a benefactor of the university and baseball program.

In flight

In baseball, the rules state that a batted ball is considered in flight when it has not yet touched any object other than a fielder or his equipment.

Once a batted ball touches the ground, a fence or wall, a foul pole, a base, the pitcher's rubber, an umpire, or a baserunner, it is no longer in flight. A batted ball that passes entirely out of the playing field ceases to be in flight when that occurs.

A special rule exists in covered baseball facilities (retractable or fixed roofed), where a batted ball striking the roof, roof supporting structure, or objects suspended from the roof (e.g., speakers) while in fair territory is still considered to be in flight. Rules for batted balls striking any of those objects in foul territory differ between ballparks, with most considering such a ball to still be in flight, and some considering it to be a foul ball and dead from the time it strikes.

If a batted ball (other than a foul tip, with less than 2 strikes) is caught in flight, the batter is out—called a fly out—and all runners must tag up. A batted ball cannot be ruled foul or fair while in flight; a batted ball that is past first or third base will be called foul or fair based on where it ceases to be in flight, or where it is first touched by a fielder, whichever occurs first. A fly out on a ball in foul territory is also called a foul out. A foul tip, which by definition is always caught in flight, is a strike by special rule, and not an out, unless caught as a 3rd strike.

If a batted ball passes out of the playing field in flight and is fair, it is an automatic home run, entitling the batter and all runners to score without liability to be put out. However, if the fence or other barrier is less than 250 feet from home plate, a ball hit past that fence in flight and fair shall be ruled an automatic double. In the United States, such short fences are very rare even in the lowest-level amateur ballfields. Fields with short fences can be commonplace in some countries where baseball is less popular; often, soccer fields have to be used, resulting in a very short left or right field.

The shortest fair fences in Major League Baseball are both in Boston's Fenway Park; the shortest fence that is nearly perpendicular to the foul line is the Green Monster. The left foul pole, renamed "Fisk's Pole" in honor of Carlton Fisk's famous home run in the 1975 World Series, stands 310 feet away from home plate. The right field foul pole, known as Pesky's Pole, is 302 feet down the right field line, although the wall there is nearly parallel to the foul line as it curves back to the distant right field wall at 380 feet. From 1958 through 1961, the Los Angeles Dodgers played home games in Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum, a stadium built for track and field; without the ability to move any of the permanent stadium structure, the Dodgers configured the field to result in a 251-foot left field foul line distance.

Jerry Remy

Gerald Peter Remy, commonly known as Jerry Remy, (born November 8, 1952) is an American Major League Baseball broadcaster and former Major League Baseball second baseman. Remy grew up in Somerset, Massachusetts. An all-star second baseman originally drafted by the California Angels in 1971, he was traded to his hometown Boston Red Sox in 1977. He retired from the sport in 1985 after a series of injuries and ventured into a career in broadcasting. He has served as a color commentator for NESN's Red Sox broadcasts since 1988, only taking some occasional time off for health problems.

JetBlue Park at Fenway South

JetBlue Park at Fenway South (or informally JetBlue Park) is a baseball park in Fort Myers, Florida, part of the Fenway South training and development facility.

Opened in March 2012, it is primarily the spring training home of the Boston Red Sox, replacing earlier separated facilities at City of Palms Park and Boston's former (1993–2011) minor league complex, also located in downtown Fort Myers. The naming rights were purchased by JetBlue, an airline with major operations at Boston's Logan International Airport since 2004.

List of Major League Baseball mascots

This is a list of current and former Major League Baseball mascots, sorted alphabetically.

The tradition in the Major League Baseball mascot began with Mr. Met, introduced for the New York Mets when Shea Stadium opened in 1964. Although some mascots came and went over time, the popularity of mascots increased when The San Diego Chicken started independently making appearances at San Diego Padres games in 1977. Philadelphia Phillies management felt they needed a mascot similar to the Chicken, so they debuted the Phillie Phanatic in 1978.

Today, all but three major-league teams have "official" mascots (Dodgers, Yankees, and Angels). Five team mascots – Sluggerrr (Kansas City Royals), the San Diego Chicken, the Phillie Phanatic, Mr. Met, and Slider (Cleveland Indians) – have been inducted into the Mascot Hall of Fame. Several others have been nominated since the Hall's creation in 2005.

Mascots in the MLB are often used to help market the team and league to young children.

Rimac Automobili

Rimac Automobili (pronounced [ rǐːmats automobǐːli ]) is a Croatian car manufacturer headquartered in Sveta Nedelja, Croatia, that develops and produces electric sports cars, drivetrains and battery systems. The company was founded in 2009 by Mate Rimac with the vision to create the sports car of the 21st century. Rimac Automobili's first model, the Concept One, is known as the world's fastest production electric vehicle. While manufacturing and marketing high-performance vehicles under its own brand, Rimac also develops and produces battery packs, drivetrain systems and full vehicles for other companies. The Applus+ IDIADA Volar-E is an example of the solutions Rimac Automobili is able to deliver. During the 88th Geneva International Motor Show in March 2018, the company unveiled its second and latest model, the C Two.

Suicide Silence

Suicide Silence is an American deathcore band from Riverside, California. The band formed in 2002, and has released five full-length studio albums, one EP, and eleven music videos. They have received a fair amount of praise, being awarded the Revolver Golden God award for "Best New Talent" in 2009. The group currently consists of guitarists Chris Garza and Mark Heylmun, drummer Alex Lopez, bassist Dan Kenny, and vocalist Hernan "Eddie" Hermida.

The Cleansing (album)

The Cleansing is the debut studio album by American deathcore band Suicide Silence. The album was released on September 18, 2007 through Century Media Records. Upon its release it debuted at #94 on the Billboard Top 200, selling 7,250 copies within the first week, and became one of the best-selling debut albums in Century Media history.


Thrust2 is a British designed and built jet propelled car, which held the world land speed record from 4 October 1983 to 25 September 1997.

The car was designed by John Ackroyd and driven by Richard Noble. The project began with a budget of only £175. On 4 October 1983 the car reached a top speed of 650.88 mph (1,047.49 km/h) and broke the record at 633.468 mph (1,019.468 km/h) (average speed of two runs within one hour). This was achieved at the Black Rock Desert in Nevada, US. It is powered by a single Rolls-Royce Avon jet engine sourced from an English Electric Lightning, and has a configuration somewhat resembling that of the mid-1960s-era J79 turbojet-powered land speed record cars of Art Arfons, collectively known as the "Green Monster" cars.

KTVN TV (Reno, Nevada) reporter/photographers Michael Hagerty and Gary Martin covered the record setting attempt in the days leading up to the record. The car was unceremoniously stored under a tarp in the only automotive garage at Black Rock desert when it wasn't being worked on by the team. A propane torch was used to burn the line straight down the hard cracked dirt of the desert for the driver to follow. No other cars were allowed to approach the race track except on the perpendicular lest the driver accidentally follow those car tracks as a different path through the measured mile.

In 1997 Thrust2's record was broken by Richard Noble's follow up car, ThrustSSC, with a top speed of 1,228 km/h.

When the car was offered for sale at £90,000 in 1991, an extensive fundraising campaign was organised without government assistance to keep the car in Britain. The bid was successful, and today Thrust2 and its successor, ThrustSSC, are displayed at the Coventry Transport Museum in Coventry, England.

Wally the Green Monster

Wally the Green Monster is the official mascot for the Boston Red Sox. His name is derived from the Green Monster, the nickname of the 37-foot 2-inch wall in left field at Fenway Park. Wally debuted on April 13, 1997 to the chagrin of many older Red Sox fans. Although he was a big hit with children, older fans did not immediately adopt him as part of the franchise. Eventually, Wally has become more accepted by Red Sox fans of all ages, largely due to broadcaster Jerry Remy creating stories about him and sharing them during televised games. Wally's official birthday is May 15.

World Series
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Pennants (14)
Division championships (10)
Wild card berths (7)
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