Green Bay (Lake Michigan)

Green Bay is an arm of Lake Michigan, located along the south coast of Michigan's Upper Peninsula and the east coast of Wisconsin. It is separated from the rest of the lake by the Door Peninsula in Wisconsin, the Garden Peninsula in Michigan, and the chain of islands between them, all formed by the Niagara Escarpment. Green Bay is some 120 miles (193 km) long, with a width ranging from about 10 miles (16 km) to 20 mi (32 km). It is 1,626 square miles (4,210 km2) in area.[2][3]

20040723 Tall Ships Boating 08 Small Web view
A Tall ship sailing into the mouth of the Fox River

At the southern end of the bay is the city of Green Bay, Wisconsin, where the Fox River enters the bay. The Leo Frigo Memorial Bridge (formerly known as the Tower Drive bridge) spans the point where the bay begins and the Fox River ends, as the river flows south to north into the bay. Locally, the bay is often called the Bay of Green Bay to distinguish the bay from the city. The bay is navigable by large ships.

The bay is located in parts of five counties in Wisconsin (Brown, Door, Kewaunee, Marinette, Oconto), and two in Michigan (Delta, Menominee).

Green Bay
Green Bay
LocationBrown County, Wisconsin Door County, Wisconsin Kewaunee County, Wisconsin Marinette County, Wisconsin Oconto County, Wisconsin Delta County, Michigan Menominee County, Michigan[1]
Coordinates45°01′47″N 87°27′39″W / 45.02972°N 87.46083°WCoordinates: 45°01′47″N 87°27′39″W / 45.02972°N 87.46083°W
Surface elevation581 feet (177 m)[1]


Oconto, Green Bay is home to Copper Culture State Park, which has remains dated to around 5000-6000 BC. It is a burial ground of the Copper Culture Indians. This burial ground is considered to be the oldest cemetery in Wisconsin and one of the oldest in the nation. The Ho-Chunk believe that they were created on the shores of Green Bay at a place called Red Banks.[4]

The French Jesuit, Roman Catholic priest, and missionary, Father Claude-Jean Allouez said the first Mass in Oconto on December 3, 1669.[5]

The bay was named la baie des Puants (literally, "the bay of the Stinks") by the French explorer Jean Nicolet as shown on many French maps of the 17th and 18th centuries. According to George R. Stewart, the French received the name from their Indian guides, who called the natives living near Green Bay by a derogatory word meaning "Stinkers", thus the bay was the "Bay of the Stinkers", but this name perplexed the French, and Jacques Marquette thought the name might relate to the smell of the swamps, when he explored the area in May 1673. His fellow explorer Louis Joliet, with two canoes and five voyageurs of French-Indian ancestry (Métis) were on their way to find the Mississippi river. They travelled up the Fox River, nearly to its headwaters. The French also called the bay Baie Verte, and the English kept this name as Green Bay.[6] The name of the bay in the Menominee language is Pūcīhkit, or "bay that smells like something rotting".[7]

See also

  • Peshtigo Fire: a firestorm that affected land on both sides of Green Bay, and the deadliest fire in the history of the United States


  1. ^ a b c U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: Green Bay (Lake Michigan)
  2. ^ Fox River and Green Bay Statistics Archived 2008-05-09 at the Wayback Machine, Fox River Watch
  3. ^ "Green Bay (body of water)". Retrieved 2012-05-22.
  4. ^ "Ho-Chunk Oral Tradition - Indian Country Wisconsin". Retrieved 2018-10-05.
  5. ^ Hall, George E. 2009. A History of Oconto. 2nd ed., edited by Duane Ebert and Pamela Ann Loberger. Oconto, WI: Oconto County Historical Society, p. 33.
  6. ^ Stewart, George R. (1945). Names on the land. Random House. p. 88. |access-date= requires |url= (help)
  7. ^ Hoffman, Mike. "Menominee Place Names in Wisconsin". The Menominee Clans Story. Retrieved 2018-10-05.

The 1630s decade ran from January 1, 1630, to December 31, 1639.

== Events ==

=== 1630 ===

==== January–June ====

February 19 – Born of The Great Maratha King Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaja at Shivneri Fort in Pune, Maharshtra

February 22 – Native American Quadequine introduces popcorn to English colonists.

March – Fedorovych Uprising: Zaporozhian Cossacks rebel against the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and occupy a large part of present day Ukraine. After a number of indecisive skirmishes with a Polish army sent to pacify the region, the Treaty of Pereyaslav is signed, ending the uprising.

March 3 – A fleet sent by the Dutch West India Company captures Recife from the Portuguese, establishing Dutch Brazil.

March 9 – The 1630 Crete earthquake occurs.

April 8 – Puritan migration to New England (1620-1640) – Winthrop Fleet: The ship Arbella and three others set sail from the Solent in England, with 400 passengers under the leadership of John Winthrop, headed for the Massachusetts Bay Colony in America; seven more, with another 300 aboard, follow in the next few weeks.

June – Scottish-born Presbyterian (and former physician) Alexander Leighton is brought before Archbishop William Laud's Star Chamber court in London for publishing the seditious pamphlet An Appeale to the Parliament, or, Sions Plea Against the Prelacy, an attack on Anglican bishops (printed in the Netherlands, 1628). He is sentenced to be pilloried and whipped, have his ears cropped, one side of his nose slit, and his face branded with "SS" (for "sower of sedition"), to be imprisoned, and be degraded from holy orders.

June 6 – Swedish warships depart from Stockholm, Sweden for Central Europe.

June 14 – Passengers of the Arbella, including Anne Bradstreet, America's first poet of significance, finally set foot in the New World at Salem, Massachusetts.

==== July–December ====

July – The Italian plague of 1629–31 reaches Venice.

July 6

The Success, last ship of the Winthrop Fleet, lands safely at Salem harbor, Massachusetts Bay Colony.

Swedish intervention in the Thirty Years' War begins when King Gustav Adolf of Sweden, leading an army of 13,000 on the Protestant side, makes landfall at Peenemünde, Pomerania.

July 9 – Thirty Years' War: Stettin is taken by Swedish forces.

July 18 – War of the Mantuan Succession: Mantua is sacked by an army of the Holy Roman Empire, led by Count Johann von Aldringen.

July 30 – John Winthrop helps in founding a church in Massachusetts, which will later become known as First Church in Boston.

August – Thirty Years' War: As a result of heavy pressure from the Prince-electors, Ferdinand II, Holy Roman Emperor, dismisses general Albrecht von Wallenstein from command of the Imperial Army.

September 4 – Thirty Years' War: the Treaty of Stettin is signed by Sweden and the Duchy of Pomerania, forming a close alliance between them, as well as giving Sweden full military control over Pomerania.

September 17 (September 7 Old Style) – The settlement of Boston, Massachusetts Bay Colony is founded.

September 24 – The first ship of de Sauce's emigrants arrive at Southampton Hundred, on the James River in Virginia.

October 13 – War of the Mantuan Succession: the Peace of Regensburg is signed. Charles Gonzaga is confirmed as Duke of Mantua.

November 10–11 – Day of the Dupes: Marie de' Medici unsuccessfully attempts to oust Cardinal Richelieu from the French Court.

==== Date unknown ====

Paramaribo (now in Suriname) is first settled by the English.

The Deccan Famine of 1630–32 in India begins; it will kill some two million.

In the Mughal Empire, Shah Jahan's Pearl Mosque at Lahore Fort is consecrated (completed 1635).

The central square of Covent Garden in London is laid out, and a market begins to develop there.

Johann Heinrich Alsted's Encyclopaedia septem tomis distincta is published.Settlers leave Pannaway Plantation and began to settle in Strawbery Banke which in 1653, was renamed Portsmouth, New Hampshire.

=== 1631 ===

==== January–June ====

January 23 – Thirty Years' War: Sweden and France sign the Treaty of Bärwalde, a military alliance in which France provides funds for the Swedish army invading northern Germany.

February 5 – Roger Williams emigrates to Boston.

February 16 – The Reval Gymnasium is founded in Tallinn, Estonia, by Swedish king Gustavus II Adolphus.

February 20 – A fire breaks out in Westminster Hall, but is put out before it can cause serious destruction.

April 13 – Thirty Years' War: Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden defeats an imperial garrison at the city of Frankfurt an der Oder.

May 18 – In Dorchester, Massachusetts, John Winthrop takes the oath of office, and becomes the first Governor of Massachusetts.

May 20 – Thirty Years' War: After a two-month siege, an Imperial army under the command of Tilly storms the German city of Magdeburg, and brutally sacks it, massacring over 20,000 inhabitants. Shocked by the massacre, many Protestant states in the Holy Roman Empire decide to ally with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, and support his ongoing invasion.

May 28 – William Claiborne sails from England to establish a trading post on Kent Island, the first English settlement in Maryland.

May 30

Thirty Years' War: Bavaria and France sign the Treaty of Fontainebleau, forming a secret alliance; however, this does not last long.

La Gazette, the first French newspaper, is founded.

June 17 – The death in childbirth of Mumtaz Mahal at Burhanpur causes her husband Shah Jahan to commission the Taj Mahal at Agra, as a mausoleum for her. Construction is started in 1632, and finished in 1653.

June 19 – War of the Mantuan Succession: The Treaty of Cherasco is signed, ending the War of the Mantuan Succession.

June 20 – Algerian pirates sack Baltimore, County Cork in Ireland.

==== July–December ====

July 16 – The city of Würzburg is taken by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, putting an end to the Würzburg witch trials, but not before an estimated 900 people from the city and its environs have been burned at the stake for witchcraft.

July 22 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Werben: Tilly defeats Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, but not decisively.

August – Thirty Years' War: Running out of supplies, Tilly is forced to send his army into the Electorate of Saxony in order to secure supplies, as well as to force a reaction from John George, Elector of Saxony and Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden.

September 11 – Thirty Years' War: As a result of Tilly's invasion, John George, Elector of Saxony, who has until now stayed neutral, allies with Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, in order to drive the Imperial army out of Saxony.

September 12–13 – Eighty Years' War – Battle of the Slaak: A Spanish fleet carrying an invasion force is intercepted and almost completely destroyed by a Dutch fleet.

September 12 – Eighty Years' War – Battle of Albrolhos: A Spanish fleet, under the command of Admiral Antonio de Oquendo, defeats a Dutch fleet off the coast of Brazil.

September 17 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Breitenfeld: Tilly's imperial army is decisively defeated by Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden, shattering the imperial army of the Holy Roman Empire, and marking the first significant victory for the Protestants in the war.

October 10 – Thirty Years' War: A Saxon army takes over Prague.

December 16 – A volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius at Pompeii occurs, for the only time this century.

December 23 – Thirty Years' War: Gustavus II Adolphus of Sweden takes the city of Mainz, without any resistance.

==== Date unknown ====

Publication of

Moses Amyraut's Traite des Religions.

Antonio Colmenero de Ledesma's Chocolate: or, An Indian Drinke.

=== 1632 ===

==== January–June ====

January – The Holland's Leguer, a brothel in London, is closed after having been besieged for a month.

February 22 – Galileo's Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published.

March 29 – The Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye is signed, returning Quebec to French control, after the English had seized it in 1629.

March – Thirty Years' War – Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden invades Bavaria with his army.

April 15 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Rain: Gustavus Adolphus defeats Johann Tserclaes, Count of Tilly, commander of the Catholic League (German) armies, for the second time within a year; Tilly is severely wounded during the battle and dies on April 30.

May – Thirty Years' War – Munich, capital of Bavaria, is captured by the Swedish army.

June 15 – Sir Francis Windebank is made chief Secretary of State in England.

June 20 – Charles I of England issues a charter for the colony of Maryland (named in honor of Henrietta Maria), under the control of Lord Baltimore.

June 20 – Two ships, the Saint Jean (250 tons) and the L'Esperance-En-Dieu, set sail from La Rochelle, bound for Acadia.

June 25 – Fasilides, Emperor of Ethiopia in succession to his father Susenyos, declares the state religion of the country to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and confiscates the lands of the Jesuit missionaries, relegating them to Fremona.

June – Eighty Years' War – Leading a Dutch army, Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange captures in short succession the cities of Venlo, Roermond and Sittard, before besieging the city of Maastricht.

==== July–December ====

July 23 – Three hundred colonists for New France depart Dieppe.

August 22 – Eighty Years' War: A Dutch army, led by Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange, captures the city of Maastricht after a two-month siege.

September 1 – Battle of Castelnaudary: A rebellion against French king Louis XIII is crushed. The leader of the rebellion, Gaston, Duke of Orléans, the brother of Louis XIII, surrenders.

September 9 – Thirty Years' War: Battle of the Alte Veste – Besieged by Wallenstein at Nuremberg, Swedish king Gustavus Adolphus attempts to break the siege, but is defeated.

October 15 – The University of Tartu officially opens, in Swedish Livonia.

October 30 – Henri II de Montmorency, is executed for his participation in the rebellion of Gaston, Duke of Orléans, against French king Louis XIII.

November 8 – Wladyslaw IV Waza is elected king of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, after Sigismund III Vasa's death.

November 16 (November 6 Old Style) – Thirty Years' War: Battle of Lützen – Swedish king Gustavus II Adolphus leads an assault on Wallenstein's army, but is killed early in the battle. Despite the king's death, the Swedish commanders manage to rally the army and eventually defeat Wallenstein's army. As a result, Wallenstein withdraws from Saxony. Following the death of Gustavus Adolphus, king of Sweden, he is succeeded by his six-year-old daughter Christina, while five regents (headed by Axel Oxenstierna) govern the country.

November 17 – Thirty Years' War – Gottfried zu Pappenheim, Field Marshal of the Holy Roman Empire, dies from wounds sustained in the Battle of Lützen.

==== Date unknown ====

Antigua and Barbuda is first colonized by England.

The Portuguese are driven out of Bengal.

Yakutsk, Russia is founded.

King Władysław IV Vasa of Poland forbids anti-Semitic books and printings.

Construction of the Taj Mahal begins.

Catharina Stopia succeeds her spouse, as Sweden's ambassador to Russia, becoming perhaps the first female diplomat in Europe.

Approximate date – Last inhabitants leave the original city of Reimerswaal in Zeeland.

=== 1633 ===

==== January–June ====

February 13 – Galileo Galilei arrives in Rome, for his trial before the Inquisition.

February 13 – Fire engines are used for the first time in England in order to control and extinguish a fire that breaks out at London Bridge, but not before 43 houses are destroyed.

March 1 – Samuel de Champlain reclaims his role as commander of New France, on behalf of Cardinal Richelieu.

April 12 – Galileo Galilei is convicted of heresy by the Roman Catholic Church.

June 18 – Charles I is crowned King of Scots, at St Giles' Cathedral, Edinburgh.

June 22 – The Roman Catholic Church forces Galileo Galilei to recant his heliocentric view of the Solar System: Eppur si muove (Italian) (which, in fact, he did not say).

==== July–December ====

July 7 – The Dutch East India Company fleet, led by Hans Putmans, attacks by surprise its ally Zheng Zhilong's base, near Xiamen.

July 8 – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Oldendorf: The Swedish Empire defeat the Holy Roman Empire near Hessisch Oldendorf.

September 26 – A group from the Plymouth Colony settles in Windsor, Connecticut, making it the first settlement in the state.

October 22 – Battle of Liaoluo Bay: A large Ming dynasty fleet, under Zheng Zhilong, defeats a Dutch East India Company fleet, at the island of Quemoy.

==== Date unknown ====

The Jews of Poznań are granted the privilege of forbidding Christians to enter into their city quarter.

In Ethiopia, Emperor Fasilides expels the Jesuit missionaries.

Shōgun Tokugawa Iemitsu of Japan begins issuing the Sakoku Edicts outlawing Christianity, beginning a policy of extreme isolationism until 1853.

St Columb's Cathedral, Derry, Ireland, the first post-Reformation Anglican cathedral built in the British Isles and the first Protestant cathedral built in Europe, is completed.

Mission San Luis de Apalachee is built in the New World by two Spanish friars.

A professorship in Arabic studies is founded at Cambridge University.

=== 1634 ===

==== January–June ====

February 24–25 – Rebel Scots and Irish soldiers kill Bohemian military leader Albrecht von Wallenstein at Cheb.

March 1 – The Russians vacate their camp, ending the Siege of Smolensk.

March 25 – Leonard Calvert arrives in Maryland, with Jesuit missionaries Andrew White, John Altham Gravenor, and Thomas Gervase, establishing St. Mary's as the fourth permanent settlement in British North America. In this year they also establish an institution of higher learning here, which later becomes Georgetown University, North America's oldest university.

June 14 – The Treaty of Polyanovka is signed between the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Tsardom of Russia, concluding the Smolensk War.

==== July–December ====

July 4 – The city of Trois-Rivières is founded in New France (the modern-day Canadian province of Quebec).

August (prob.) – Jean Nicolet becomes the first European to set foot in Wisconsin. He is in search of a water-route to the Pacific, when he lands at Green Bay (Lake Michigan).

August 18 – Urbain Grandier, accused of wizardry, is burned alive in Loudun, France.

September 5–6 – The Battle of Nördlingen results in a decisive victory for the Army of the Holy Roman Empire and Habsburg Spain.

September 12 – A gunpowder factory explodes in Valletta, Malta, killing 22 people and damaging several buildings.

October 11–12 – The Burchardi flood (also known as the second Grote Mandrenke) strikes the North Sea coast of Germany and Denmark, causing 8,000–12,000 deaths.

November 11 – The Irish House of Commons passes an Act for the Punishment of the Vice of Buggery.

==== Date unknown ====

Curaçao is captured by the Dutch.

The English establish a settlement at Cochin (modern-day Kochi) on the Malabar Coast.

Suspecting that Patriarch Afonso Mendes played a part in the Portuguese assault on Mombasa, Emperor Fasilides expels him and several Jesuit missionaries from Ethiopia.

The Académie française is founded by Cardinal Richelieu.

The first performance of the Oberammergau Passion Play is held in Bavaria.

Moses Amyraut's Traité de la predestination is published.

The Paulaner Brewery is established in Munich, by Minim friars.

=== 1635 ===

==== January–June ====

February 22 – The Académie française in Paris is formally constituted, as the national academy for the preservation of the French language.

April 13 – Druze warlord Fakhr-al-Din II is executed in Constantinople.

May – France declares war on Spain.

May 30 – Thirty Years' War – The Peace of Prague is signed, which ends the German civil war aspect of the conflict.

==== July–December ====

July 31 – The Royal Mail service is made available to the public, by Charles I of England.

August 25 – The Great Colonial Hurricane strikes Narragansett Bay as a possible Category 3 hurricane, killing over 46 people.

September 12 – The Treaty of Sztumska Wieś is signed, between Sweden and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.

October 9 – Rhode Island founder Roger Williams is banished from Massachusetts Bay Colony as a religious dissident, after speaking out against punishments for religious offenses, and giving away Native American land.

November 15 – Thomas Parr, dead at the alleged age of 152, is buried in Westminster Abbey.

November 22 – The Dutch pacification campaign on Formosa, against Taiwanese aborigines, begins.

==== Date unknown ====

Guadeloupe and Martinique are colonized by France.

Dominica is claimed by France.

The Ottomans are expelled from Yemen.

In the Mughal Empire, Shah Jahan's Pearl Mosque at Lahore Fort is completed.

Nagyszombat University (predecessor of Budapest University) is established.

Boston Latin School, the oldest school in the United States of America, is founded in Boston, Massachusetts.

Japan forbids merchants to travel abroad, under penalty of death.

A Japanese imperial memorandum decrees: "Hereafter entry by the Portuguese galeota is forbidden. If they insist on coming, the ships must be destroyed and anyone aboard those ships must be beheaded."

Willem and Joan Blaeu publish the first edition of their Atlas Novus, in Amsterdam.

=== 1636 ===

==== January–June ====

March 5 (February 24 Old Style) – King Christian of Denmark gives an order, that all beggars that are able to work must be sent to Brinholmen, to build ships or to work as galley rowers.

March 13 (March 3 Old Style) – A "great charter" to the University of Oxford establishes the Oxford University Press, as the second of the privileged presses in England.

March 26 – Utrecht University is founded in the Dutch Republic.

April 30 – Eighty Years' War: The nine-month Siege of Schenkenschans ends, when forces of the Dutch Republic recapture the strategically important fort from the Spanish.

May 25 (May 15 Old Style) – William Pynchon and his men establish the settlement of Springfield, Massachusetts Bay Colony. They would deed the land later that year on July 15th.

==== July–December ====

August 15

The Spanish besiege Corbie, France.

August 25 (August 15 Old Style) – The covenant of the Town of Dedham, Massachusetts Bay Colony is first signed.

September 18 (September 8 Old Style) – A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes New College (Harvard University), as the first college founded in North America.

October 4 (September 24 Old Style) – Thirty Years' War – Battle of Wittstock: A Swedish-allied army defeats a combined Imperial-Saxon army.

December 23 (December 13 Old Style) – The Massachusetts Bay Colony organizes three militia regiments to defend the colony against the Pequot Indians. This organization is recognized today as the founding of the United States National Guard.

==== Date unknown ====

Thirty Years' War: French intervention starts.

Manchus occupy the Liaoning region in north China, select Shenyang (Mukden) as their capital, and proclaim the new Qing dynasty (pure).

The shōgun forbids Japanese to travel abroad, and those abroad from returning home.

Emperor Fasilides founds the city of Gondar, which becomes the capital of Ethiopia for the next two centuries.

In the American colonies, Roger Williams (theologian) founds Rhode Island.

The first American ancestor of John Adams, Henry Adams, emigrates to Massachusetts.

The first synagogue of the New World, Kahal Zur Israel Synagogue, is founded in Recife by the Dutch.

=== 1637 ===

==== January–June ====

January – Pierre Corneille's tragicomedy Le Cid is first performed, in Paris, France.

February 3 – Tulip mania collapses in the Dutch Republic.

February 15 – Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor.

February 18 – Eighty Years' War – Battle off Lizard Point: Off the coast of Cornwall, England, a Spanish fleet intercepts an Anglo-Dutch merchant convoy of 44 vessels escorted by six warships, destroying or capturing 20 of them.

April 10 – Plymouth Colony grants the "tenn menn of Saugust" a new settlement on Cape Cod, later named Sandwich, Massachusetts.

April 30 – King Charles I of England issues a proclamation, attempting to stem emigration to the North American colonies.

May 26 – Pequot War – Mystic massacre: A band of English settlers under Captain John Mason, and their Narragansett and Mohegan allies, set fire to a fortified village of the Mashantucket Pequot Tribe near the Mystic River. Between 400 and 700 people, mostly women, children and old men, are killed.

May – Chinese encyclopedist Song Yingxing publishes his Tiangong Kaiwu ("Exploitation of the Works of Nature"), considered one of the most valuable encyclopedias of classical China.

June 27 – The first English venture to China is attempted by Captain John Weddell, who sails into port in Macau and Canton during the late Ming Dynasty, with six ships. The voyages are for trade, which is dominated here by the Portuguese (at this time combined with the power of Spain). He brings 38,421 pairs of eyeglasses, perhaps the first recorded European-made eyeglasses to enter China.

==== July–December ====

July 23 – After a court battle, King Charles I of England hands over title to the North American colony of Massachusetts to Sir Ferdinando Gorges, one of the founders of Plymouth Council for New England.

October 13 – English Royal Navy first-rate ship of the line HMS Sovereign of the Seas is launched at Woolwich Dockyard at a cost of £65,586, adorned from stern to bow with gilded carvings, after a design by Anthony van Dyck.

December 17 – The Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan, when 30,000 peasants in the heavily Catholic area of northern Kyūshū revolt.

==== Date unknown ====

Second Manchu invasion of Korea: The Joseon court reluctantly submits to the Manchu's demands of vassalhood, while continuing to pledge loyalty to the Chinese Ming Dynasty.

Pierre de Fermat makes a notation, in a document margin, claiming to have proof of what will become known as Fermat's Last Theorem.

René Descartes promotes intellectual rigour in his Discourse on the Method, and introduces the Cartesian coordinate system in its appendix La Géométrie (published in Leiden).

France places a few missionaries in the Ivory Coast, a country it will rule more than 200 years later.

The first opera house, Teatro San Cassiano, opens in Venice.

Scottish army officer Robert Monro publishes Monro, His Expedition With the Worthy Scots Regiment Called Mac-Keys in London, the first military history in English.

Elizabeth Poole becomes the first woman to have founded a town (Taunton, Massachusetts) in the Americas.

The Blessed Virgin is proclaimed Queen of Genoa.

=== 1638 ===

==== January–June ====

February 28 – The Scottish National Covenant is signed in Edinburgh, Scotland.

March 3 – Battle of Rheinfelden: A mercenary army under Bernard of Saxe-Weimar, fighting for France, defeats Imperial forces.

March 5 – Thirty Years' War – The Treaty of Hamburg is signed by France and Sweden.

March 22 – Anne Hutchinson is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony for heresy, and goes to Rhode Island.

March 29 – Settlers from Sweden arrive on the ships Kalmar Nyckel and Fogel Grip, to establish the settlement of New Sweden in Delaware, beginning the Swedish colonization of the Americas.

April 3 – John Wheelwright is banished from Boston, and founds Exeter, New Hampshire.

April 15 – Shogunate forces defeat the last remnants of the Shimabara Rebellion, in the fortress of Hara.

May 13 – Construction begins on the Red Fort in Delhi (India) for Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan who is transferring his capital there from Agra.

May 23 – The Kandyan Treaty is signed between Singhala King Rajasimha II and the Dutch, to rid Ceylon of the Portuguese.

June 20 – Eighty Years' War – Battle of Kallo: Spanish troops under Ferdinand of Austria defeat a much larger Dutch force, near Antwerp.

June 27 – Patriarch Cyril of Constantinople is deposed for high treason, and strangled and thrown into the sea by Janissaries, on Ottoman Sultan Murad IV's command.

==== July–December ====

September 21 – The Treaty of Hartford is signed, ending the Pequot War between British American colonists and the Pequot.

September – John Spofford arrives in Boston Harbor, on the ship John of London, and is one of the first people to establish Rowely, Essex County, Massachusetts.

October 21 – The Great Thunderstorm breaks out in Widecombe-in-the-Moor, England.

November – The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is summoned to Glasgow, by King Charles I of England.

December 18 – Cardinal Mazarin becomes the first adviser to French potentate Richelieu, on the death of Leclerc du Tremblay.

December 21 – The full moon is in total eclipse from 1:12 to 2:47 UT, and the solstice occurs later in the day, at 16:05 UT.

December 25 – Capture of Baghdad by the Ottomans under Sultan Murad IV.

==== Date unknown ====

Scottish Covenanters meet at Muchalls Castle, to compose responses to the Bishops of Aberdeen.

Pedro Teixeira makes the first ascent of the Amazon River, from its mouth to Quito, Ecuador (the same trip had been made in the opposite direction, in 1541).

Dutch merchant Willem Kieft is appointed Director of New Amsterdam, by the Dutch West India Company.

The Netherlands colonizes Mauritius.

The Dutch settle in Ceylon.

The Finnish postal service, Suomen Posti, is founded.

New Haven, the first planned city in America, is founded.

Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan and his sons capture the city of Kandahar, from the Safavids.

Shipwrecked English buccaneer Peter Wallace, called Ballis by the Spanish, settles near and perhaps gives his name to the Belize River, the first known European settlement in Belize.

The Beijing Gazette makes an official switch in its production process of newspapers, from woodblock printing to movable type printing (private newspapers in Ming Dynasty China were first mentioned in 1582).

=== 1639 ===

==== January–June ====

January 14 – Connecticut's first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted.

c. January – The first printing press in British North America is started in Cambridge, Massachusetts by Stephen Daye.

March 3 – The early settlement of Taunton, Massachusetts is incorporated as a town.

March 13 – Harvard University is named for clergyman John Harvard.

April 14 – Swedish forces under Johan Banér inflict a crushing defeat on the Imperial army in the Battle of Chemnitz. This prolongs the Thirty Years' War, and allows the Swedes to occupy Pirna, and advance into Bohemia.

May – The first of the Bishops' Wars breaks out between Charles I and Scotland. Charles arrives with his army at Berwick-upon-Tweed.

June – The first battle of the Bishops' Wars is fought by Earl Marischal and the Marquess of Montrose, when they lead a Covenanter army of 9,000 men past Muchalls Castle over the Causey Mounth, to fight at the Bridge of Dee.

June 18 – The Treaty of Berwick is signed by Charles I and the Scots.

==== July–December ====

August 22 – The British East India Company buys a strip of land from King Peda Venkata Rayaof the Vijayanagara Empire, for the construction of Fort St. George, the first settlement of British India, so founding modern-day Chennai, capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (celebrated as Madras Day).

October 31 – Naval Battle of the Downs: A Republic of the United Provinces fleet decisively defeats a Spanish fleet in English waters.

December 4 – English astronomer Jeremiah Horrocks made the first successful prediction and observation of a transit of Venus.

==== Date unknown ====

The Casiquiare canal, a river forming a natural canal between the Amazon River and Orinoco River basins, is first encountered by Europeans.

The Barbados House of Assembly meets for the first time.

Russian Cossacks advance over the Urals to the Pacific, to Okhotsk.

Montreal, Quebec is first settled.

Sakoku starts in Japan (approximate date).

Dejima becomes the only official port of trade allowed for Europeans, with the multi-national United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie) as the only European party officially allowed. Trading parties from China, India, and so on are still officially allowed; though the United East Indies Company will become the usual broker for those parties.

Japanese wives and children of Dutch and British people from Hirado are sent to Batavia (later renamed Jakarta by the Japanese around three centuries later) on Dutch ships, the Asian headquarters of the United East Indies Company.

Jules Mazarin enters the service of Cardinal Richelieu.

The Treaty of Zuhab is signed, between Ottoman (Turkish) Empire and Safavid Persia. Modern Turkey-Iran and Iraq-Iran border lines.



was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar, the 1634th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 634th year of the 2nd millennium, the 34th year of the 17th century, and the 5th year of the 1630s decade. As of the start of 1634, the Gregorian calendar was

10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.

Benthic zone

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean, lake, or stream, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers. Organisms living in this zone are called benthos and include microorganisms (e.g., bacteria and fungi) as well as larger invertebrates, such as crustaceans and polychaetes. Organisms here generally live in close relationship with the substrate and many are permanently attached to the bottom. The benthic boundary layer, which includes the bottom layer of water and the uppermost layer of sediment directly influenced by the overlying water, is an integral part of the benthic zone, as it greatly influences the biological activity that takes place there. Examples of contact soil layers include sand bottoms, rocky outcrops, coral, and bay mud.

Forster's tern

The Forster's tern (Sterna forsteri) is a tern in the family Laridae. The genus name Sterna is derived from Old English "stearn", "tern", and forsteri commemorates the naturalist Johann Reinhold Forster.It breeds inland in North America and winters south to the Caribbean and northern Central America.

This species is rare but annual in western Europe, and has wintered in Ireland and Great Britain on a number of occasions. No European tern winters so far north.

This species breeds in colonies in marshes. It nests in a ground scrape and lays two or more eggs. Like all white terns, it is fiercely defensive of its nest and young.

The Forster's tern feeds by plunge-diving for fish, but will also hawk for insects in its breeding marshes. It usually feeds from saline environments in winter, like most Sterna terns. It usually dives directly, and not from the "stepped-hover" favoured by the Arctic tern. The offering of fish by the male to the female is part of the courtship display.

This is a small tern, 33–36 cm (13–14 in) long with a 64–70 cm (25–28 in) wingspan. It is most similar to the common tern. It has pale grey upperparts and white underparts. Its legs are red and its bill is red, tipped with black. In winter, the forehead becomes white and a characteristic black eye mask remains. Juvenile Forster's terns are similar to the winter adult. The call is a harsh noise like a black-headed gull.

This species is unlikely to be confused with the common tern in winter because of the black eye mask, but is much more similar in breeding plumage. Forster's has a grey centre to its white tail, and the upperwings are pure white, without the darker primary wedge of the common tern.

Fox River (Green Bay tributary)

The Fox River is a river in eastern Wisconsin in the Great Lakes region of the United States. It is the principal tributary of the Bay of Green Bay, and via the Bay, the largest tributary of Lake Michigan. The well-known city of Green Bay, one of the first European settlements in North America, is on the river at its mouth on lower Green Bay.

Hydrographers divide the Fox into two distinct sections, the Upper Fox River, flowing from its headwaters in south central Wisconsin northeasterly into Lake Winnebago, and the Lower Fox River, flowing from Lake Winnebago northeasterly to lower Green Bay. Together, the two sections give the Fox River a length of 182 miles (293 km). Counting the distance through Lake Winnebago gives a total of 200 miles (322 km).The river's name is the English translation of the French name for a local Native American tribe in the 17th century. The river was part of the famous 1673-74 expedition of Jolliet and Marquette, in which they went on to become the first Europeans to traverse the upper Mississippi River. A particular set of cities on the lower Fox River identify themselves as the "Fox Cities".

Green Island (Wisconsin)

Green Island is an island in Green Bay and part of the Town of Peshtigo, in Marinette County, Wisconsin. The Green Island Light is on the island.

Jonathan Carver

Jonathan Carver (April 13, 1710 – January 31, 1780) was a colonial American explorer and writer. He was born in Weymouth, Province of Massachusetts Bay and then moved with his family to Canterbury, Connecticut. He later married Abigail Robbins and became a shoemaker. He is believed to have had seven children.

In 1755 Carver joined the Massachusetts colonial militia at the start of the French and Indian War. In 1757, Carver, a friend of Robert Rogers, enlisted with Burke's Rangers. Burke's Rangers would in 1758 become a part of Rogers' Rangers. During the war he studied surveying and mapping techniques. He was successful in the military and eventually became captain of a Massachusetts regiment in 1761. Two years later he quit the army with a determination to explore the new territories acquired by the British as a result of the war.

Initially Carver was unable to find a sponsor for his proposed explorations but in 1766, Robert Rogers contracted Carver to lead an expedition to find a western water route to the Pacific Ocean, the Northwest Passage. There was a great incentive to discover this route. The king and Parliament had promised a vast prize in gold for any such discovery. The eastern route to the Pacific was around the Cape of Good Hope. That route was both lengthy and contested by competing European powers.

In 1766-67 he explored parts of present-day Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa, mainly along the upper Mississippi River. When he returned east, however, his efforts were not recognized. He sailed to England in 1769, seeking recompense, and remained there for the rest of his life. In 1778 he published a book on his travels, which became very successful. He died in 1780.

Following his death, some of his heirs claimed to that he had obtained a land grant from two Sioux chiefs for a large area of eastern Wisconsin during his voyage; however, the grant was legally invalid and may have been a later fraud.

Carver, Minnesota, Carver County, Minnesota and Jonathan Association in Chaska, Minnesota were named in honor of Jonathan Carver for his exploration and mapping of the region.


Limnoforming (from Greek: limnee, "lake"; Latin: formocode: lat promoted to code: la , "to shape", as in shaping, fashioning, molding, modeling) is the process of manipulating the physical or chemical properties of a body of water by introducing organisms which facilitate higher level biological activity, thus impacting the overall ecology of a given body of water, and eventually adjacent ecosystems.

Limnoforming is a process using living organisms to enhance a habitat's abiotic component, ultimately rendering it more conducive to a higher ecological quality. This could be accomplished by introducing a population of organisms, e.g., invertebrates or microbes, en masse to the substrate of a body of water. These organisms would then physically and/or chemically alter the underwater environment to furnish a more suitable substrate for a wider range of biological activity; the result being an increased ecological function (e.g., in trophic dynamics), and thus a higher quality ecological state. Ultimately, limnoforming aims to accelerate the rate of ecological succession in distressed aquatic systems (e.g., lower Green Bay, Lake Michigan), so as to produce a biologically complex climax community in a comparatively short amount of time.

The concept of limnoforming originated from the benthic ecology laboratory of Dr. Jerry L. Kaster, School of Freshwater Sciences, University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. Limnoforming was partially inspired by, and is similar in several aspects to, the concept of terraforming. The two concepts' main similarity is that both aim to accelerate the rate of change occurring in a given environment, in terms of its habitability for a given species or for a number of species, and furthermore, the overall function of its ecology. Instead of creating a habitable ecosystem or biosphere from scratch, limnoforming simply aims to amend degraded earthly aqueous environments less apt to harboring a high quality ecological community into an environment which does support an ecologically flourishing system. Limnoforming differs from traditional habitat rehabilitation or restoration in that limnoforming is driven by an early sere biological succession process that modifies the physical substrate making it better suited for later seres, whereas rehabilitation/restoration is generally driven by targeting a terminal sere that is poorly adapted at re-forming habitat upon which it depends.

The initial limnoforming study, in Green Bay, Lake Michigan, uses freshwater oligochaetes to re-consolidate highly fluid gyttja substrate (organic black ooze) found extensively in lower Green Bay. The goal is to modify substrate suitability for the mayfly Hexagenia. Historically, this mayfly was found in abundance but the eutrophication of the bay led to their demise in first half of the 20th century.

List of Art Deco architecture

This is a list of buildings that are examples of Art Deco.

List of peninsulas

A peninsula (Latin: paeninsula from paene "almost" and insula "island") is a piece of land that is bordered by water on three sides but connected to mainland. The surrounding water is usually understood to be continuous, though not necessarily named as such. A peninsula can also be a headland, cape, island promontory, bill, point,

or spit. A point is generally considered a tapering piece of land projecting into a body of water that is less prominent than a cape. In English, the plural of peninsula is peninsulas or, less commonly, peninsulae. A river which courses through a very tight meander is also sometimes said to form a "peninsula" within the (almost closed) loop of water.

Presented below is a list of peninsulas.

List of straits in the United States

These are the straits of the United States.

Agate Pass in Puget Sound

Arthur Kill separates Staten Island and New Jersey

Carquinez Strait connects San Pablo Bay and Suisun Bay in California

Chatham Strait between Chichagof Island and Admiralty Island, Alaska

Clarence Strait between Prince of Wales Island (Alaska) and mainland Alaska§

Colvos Passage in Puget Sound

Dalco Passage in Puget Sound

Deception Pass in Puget Sound

Detroit River connects Lakes Erie and St Clair

East River between Manhattan, the Bronx and Long Island

Erie Canal between Lake Erie and Hudson River

Harlem River between Manhattan and The Bronx

Kill Van Kull between Staten Island and Bayonne, New Jersey

The Narrows between Staten Island and Brooklyn, New York

Niagara River between Lakes Erie and Ontario

Pickering Passage in Puget Sound

Port Washington Narrows in Puget Sound

Porte des Morts between Green Bay (Lake Michigan) and Lake Michigan

Rich Passage in Puget Sound

Sakonnet River between Aquidneck Island and Tiverton and Little Compton, Rhode Island

San Luis Pass between Galveston Island and Texas mainland

St. Clair River separates Lakes Huron and St Clair

St. Mary's River separates Lakes Superior and Huron

Straits of Florida separates the Florida peninsula from Cuba

Strait of Juan de Fuca borders Canada

Straits of Mackinac between Lakes Huron and Michigan

Menominee River

The Menominee River is a river in northwestern Michigan and northeastern Wisconsin in the United States. It is approximately 116 miles (187 km) long, draining a rural forested area of northern Wisconsin and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan into Lake Michigan. Its entire course, with that of its tributary, the Brule River, forms part of the boundary between the two states.

Porte des Morts

Porte des Morts, also known as Porte des Mortes, the Door of Death, and Death's Door is a strait linking Lake Michigan and Green Bay between the northern tip of the peninsula of Door County, Wisconsin and a group of islands historically known as the Potawatomi Islands and dominated by Washington Island. The name is French and means, literally, "the door of the dead".

Sister Islands (Wisconsin)

The Sister Islands are two islands in Lake Michigan. They are located in the bay of Green Bay, in the town of Liberty Grove, Wisconsin. At one point the islands were connected, but higher water levels have eroded the size of the islands. Combined, the area of the islands sits at 30.6 acres (12.4 ha). The Sister Islands State Natural Area occupies the space of both of the islands. There are many species of birds that nest on the islands. Both islands are owned and operated by the Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources.The shipwreck Meridian lies in the water south of the islands.

Wisconsin glaciation

The Wisconsin Glacial Episode, also called the Wisconsinan glaciation, was the most recent glacial period of the North American ice sheet complex. This advance included the Cordilleran Ice Sheet, which nucleated in the northern North American Cordillera; the Innuitian ice sheet, which extended across the Canadian Arctic Archipelago; the Greenland ice sheet; and the massive Laurentide ice sheet, which covered the high latitudes of central and eastern North America. This advance was synchronous with global glaciation during the last glacial period, including the North American alpine glacier advance, known as the Pinedale glaciation. The Wisconsin glaciation extended from approximately 75,000 to 11,000 years ago, between the Sangamonian Stage (known globally as the Eemian stage) and the current interglacial, the Holocene. The maximum ice extent occurred approximately 25,000–21,000 years ago during the last glacial maximum, also known as the Late Wisconsin in North America.

This glaciation radically altered the geography north of the Ohio River. At the height of the Wisconsin Episode glaciation, the ice sheet covered most of Canada, the Upper Midwest, and New England, as well as parts of Idaho, Montana, and Washington. On Kelleys Island in Lake Erie or in New York City's Central Park, the grooves left in rock by these glaciers can be easily observed. In southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta a suture zone between the Laurentide and Cordilleran ice sheets formed the Cypress Hills, North America's northernmost point that remained south of the continental ice sheets. During much of the glaciation, sea level was low enough to permit land animals, including humans, to occupy Beringia (the Bering Land Bridge) and move between North America and Siberia. As the glaciers retreated, glacial lakes were breached in great floods of water such as the Kankakee Torrent, which reshaped the landscape south of modern Chicago as far as the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers.

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