Greek underworld

In mythology, the Greek underworld is an otherworld where souls go after death. The original Greek idea of afterlife is that, at the moment of death, the soul is separated from the corpse, taking on the shape of the former person, and is transported to the entrance of the underworld.[1] The underworld itself—sometimes known as Hades, after its patron god—is described as being either at the outer bounds of the ocean or beneath the depths or ends of the earth.[2] It is considered the dark counterpart to the brightness of Mount Olympus with the kingdom of the dead corresponding to the kingdom of the gods.[3] Hades is a realm invisible to the living, made solely for the dead.[4]

Hermes Psykhopompos Staatliche Antikensammlungen 2797 n2
Hermes Psykhopompos sits on a rock, preparing to lead a dead soul to the underworld. Attic white-ground lekythos, ca. 450 BC, Staatliche Antikensammlungen (Inv. 2797)

Geography

Rivers

There are six main rivers that are visible both in the living world and the underworld. Their names were meant to reflect the emotions associated with death.[5]

  • The Styx is generally considered to be one of the most prominent and central rivers of the underworld and is also the most widely known out of all the rivers. It's known as the river of hatred and is named after the goddess Styx. This river circles the underworld seven times.[6]
  • The Acheron is the river of pain. It's the one that Charon, also known as the Ferryman, rows the dead over according to many mythological accounts, though sometimes it is the river Styx or both.[7]
  • The Lethe is the river of forgetfulness. It is associated with the goddess Lethe, the goddess of forgetfulness and oblivion. In later accounts, a poplar branch dripping with water of the Lethe became the symbol of Hypnos, the god of sleep.[8]
  • The Phlegethon is the river of fire. According to Plato, this river leads to the depths of Tartarus.
  • The Cocytus is the river of wailing.
  • Oceanus is the river that encircles the world,[9] and it marks the east edge of the underworld,[10] as Erebos is west of the mortal world.

Entrance of the underworld

In front of the entrance to the underworld live Grief (Penthos), Anxiety (Curae), Diseases (Nosoi), and Old Age (Geras). Fear (Phobos), Hunger (Limos), Need (Aporia), Death (Thanatos), Agony (Algea), and Sleep (Hypnos) also live in front of the entrance, together with Guilty Joys (Gaudia). On the opposite threshold is War (Polemos), the Erinyes, and Discord (Eris). Close to the doors are many beasts, including Centaurs, Scylla, Briareus, Gorgons, the Lernaean Hydra, Geryon, the Chimera, and Harpies. In the midst of all this, an Elm can be seen where false Dreams (Oneiroi) cling under every leaf.[11]

The souls that enter the underworld carry a coin under their tongue to pay Charon to take them across the river. Charon may make exceptions or allowances for those visitors carrying a certain Golden Bough. Charon is appallingly filthy, with eyes like jets of fire, a bush of unkempt beard upon his chin, and a dirty cloak hanging from his shoulders. Although Charon embarks now one group now another, some souls he grimly turns away. These are the unburied which can't be taken across from bank to bank until they receive a proper burial.

Across the river, guarding the gates of the underworld is Cerberus. There is also an area where the Judges of the underworld decide where to send the souls of the person — to Elysium, the Fields of Asphodel, or Tartarus.[12]

Tartarus

While Tartarus is not considered to be directly a part of the underworld, it is described as being as far beneath the underworld as the earth is beneath the sky.[13] It is so dark that the "night is poured around it in three rows like a collar round the neck, while above it grows the roots of the earth and of the unharvested sea."[14] Tartarus is the place that Zeus cast the Titans along with his father Cronus after defeating them.[15] Homer wrote that Cronus then became the king of Tartarus.[16] While Odysseus does not see them himself, he mentions some of the people within the underworld who are experiencing punishment for their sins.

Asphodel Meadows

The Asphodel Meadows was a place for ordinary or indifferent souls who did not commit any significant crimes, but who also did not achieve any greatness or recognition that would warrant them being admitted to the Elysian Fields. It was where mortals who did not belong anywhere else in the underworld were sent.[17]

Mourning Fields

In the Aeneid, the Mourning Fields (Lugentes Campi) was a section of the underworld reserved for souls who wasted their lives on unrequited love. Those mentioned as residents of this place are Dido, Phaedra, Procris, Eriphyle, Pasiphaë, Evadne, Laodamia, and Caeneus.[18][19]

Elysium

Elysium was a place for the especially distinguished. It was ruled over by Rhadamanthus, and the souls that dwelled there had an easy afterlife and had no labors.[20] Usually, those who had proximity to the gods were granted admission, rather than those who were especially righteous or had ethical merit. Most accepted to Elysium were demigods or heroes.[13] Heroes such as Cadmus, Peleus, and Achilles also were transported here after their deaths. Normal people who lived righteous and virtuous lives could also gain entrance such as Socrates who proved his worth sufficiently through philosophy.[13]

Isles of the Blessed

The Fortunate Isles or Isles of the Blessed were islands in the realm of Elysium. When a soul achieved Elysium, they had a choice to either stay in Elysium or to be reborn. If a soul was reborn three times and achieved Elysium all three times, then they were sent to the Isles of the Blessed to live in eternal paradise.

Deities

Hades

Hades (Aides, Aidoneus, or Haidês), the eldest son of the Titans Cronus and Rhea; brother of Zeus, Poseidon, Hera, Demeter, and Hestia, is the Greek god of the underworld.[21] When the three brothers divided the world between themselves, Zeus received the heavens, Poseidon the sea, and Hades the underworld; the earth itself was divided between the three. Therefore, while Hades' responsibility was in the underworld, he was allowed to have power on earth as well.[22] However, Hades himself is rarely seen outside his domain, and to those on earth his intentions and personality are a mystery.[23] In art and literature Hades is depicted as stern and dignified, but not as a fierce torturer or devil-like.[22] However, Hades was considered the enemy to all life and was hated by both the gods and men; sacrifices and prayers did not appease him so mortals rarely tried.[24] He was also not a tormenter of the dead, and sometimes considered the "Zeus of the dead" because he was hospitable to them.[25] Due to his role as lord of the underworld and ruler of the dead, he was also known as Zeus Khthonios ("the infernal Zeus" or "Zeus of the lower world"). Those who received punishment in Tartarus were assigned by the other gods seeking vengeance. In Greek society, many viewed Hades as the least liked god and many gods even had an aversion towards him, and when people would sacrifice to Hades, it would be if they wanted revenge on an enemy or something terrible to happen to them.[26]

Hades was sometimes referred to as Pluto and was represented in a lighter way – here, he was considered the giver of wealth, since the crops and the blessing of the harvest come from below the earth.[27]

Persephone

Persephone krater Antikensammlung Berlin 1984.40
The Rape of Persephone: Persephone is abducted by Hades in his chariot. Persephone krater Antikensammlung Berlin 1984.40

Persephone (also known as Kore) was the daughter of Demeter, the goddess of the harvest, and Zeus. Persephone was abducted by Hades, who desired a wife. When Persephone was gathering flowers, she was entranced by a narcissus flower planted by Gaia (to lure her to the underworld as a favor to Hades), and when she picked it the earth suddenly opened up.[28] Hades, appearing in a golden chariot, seduced and carried Persephone into the underworld. When Demeter found out that Zeus had given Hades permission to abduct Persephone and take her as a wife, Demeter became enraged at Zeus and stopped growing harvests for the earth. To soothe her, Zeus sent Hermes to the underworld to return Persephone to her mother. However, she had eaten six pomegranate seeds in the underworld and was thus eternally tied to the underworld, since the pomegranate seed was sacred there.[29]

Persephone could then only leave the underworld when the earth was blooming, or every season except the winter. The Homeric Hymns describes the abduction of Persephone by Hades:

I sing now of the great Demeter
Of the beautiful hair,
And of her daughter Persephone
Of the lovely feet,
Whom Zeus let Hades tear away
From her mother's harvests
And friends and flowers—
Especially the Narcissus,
Grown by Gaia to entice the girl
As a favor to Hades, the gloomy one.
This was the flower that
Left all amazed,
Whose hundred buds made
The sky itself smile.
When the maiden reached out
To pluck such beauty,
The earth opened up
And out burst Hades ...
The son of Kronos,
Who took her by force
On his chariot of gold,
To the place where so many
Long not to go.
Persephone screamed,
She called to her father,
All-powerful and high, ...
But Zeus had allowed this.
He sat in a temple
Hearing nothing at all,
Receiving the sacrifices of
Supplicating men.[30]

Persephone herself is considered a fitting other half to Hades because of the meaning of her name which bears the Greek root for "killing" and the -phone in her name means "putting to death".[22]

Hecate

Hekate Kharites Glyptothek Munich 60
Triple Hecate and the Charites, Attic, 3rd century BCE (Glyptothek, Munich)

Hecate was variously associated with crossroads, entrance-ways, dogs, light, the Moon, magic, witchcraft, knowledge of herbs and poisonous plants, necromancy, and sorcery.[31][32]

The Erinyes

Orestes Delphi BM GR1917.12-10.1
Orestes at Delphi flanked by Athena and Pylades among the Erinyes and priestesses of the oracle, perhaps including Pythia behind the tripod – Paestan red-figured bell-krater, c. 330 BC

The Erinyes (also known as the Furies) were the three goddesses associated with the souls of the dead and the avenged crimes against the natural order of the world. They consist of Alecto, Megaera, and Tisiphone.

They were particularly concerned with crimes done by children against their parents such as matricide, patricide, and unfilial conduct. They would inflict madness upon the living murderer, or if a nation was harboring such a criminal, the Erinyes would cause starvation and disease to the nation.[33] The Erinyes were dreaded by the living since they embodied the vengeance of the person who was wronged against the wrongdoer.[34] Often the Greeks made "soothing libations" to the Erinyes to appease them so as to not invoke the wrath of Erinyes, and overall the Erinyes received many more libations and sacrifices than other gods of the underworld.[35] The Erinyes were depicted as ugly and winged women with their bodies intertwined with serpents.[36]

Hermes

NAMA Hermès & Myrrhinè
Relief from a carved funerary lekythos at Athens: Hermes as psychopomp conducts the deceased, Myrrhine, to Hades, ca 430-420 BCE (National Archaeological Museum of Athens).

While Hermes did not primarily reside in the underworld and is not usually associated with the underworld, he was the one who led the souls of the dead to the underworld. In this sense, he was known as Hermes Psychopompos and with his fair golden wand he was able to lead the dead to their new home. He was also called upon by the dying to assist in their passing – some called upon him to have painless deaths or be able to die when and where they believed they were meant to die.[37]

Judges of the underworld

Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Aeacus are the judges of the dead. They judged the deeds of the deceased and created the laws that governed the underworld. However, none of the laws provided a true justice to the souls of the dead, and the dead did not receive rewards for following them or punishment for wicked actions.[38]

Aeacus was the guardian of the Keys of the underworld and the judge of the men of Europe. Rhadamanthys was Lord of Elysium and judge of the men of Asia. Minos was the judge of the final vote.

Charon

Charon is the ferryman who, after receiving a soul from Hermes, would guide them across the rivers Styx and/or Acheron to the underworld. At funerals, the deceased traditionally had an obol placed over their eye or under their tongue, so they could pay Charon to take them across. To the Etruscans, Charon was considered a fearsome being – he wielded a hammer and was hook-nosed, bearded, and had animalistic ears with teeth.[13] In other early Greek depictions, Charon was considered merely an ugly bearded man with a conical hat and tunic.[39] Later on, in more modern Greek folklore, he was considered more angelic, like the Archangel Michael. Nevertheless, Charon was considered a terrifying being since his duty was to bring these souls to the underworld and no one would persuade him to do otherwise.

Cerberus

Hades with cerberus
Hades with Cerberus.

Cerberus (Kerberos), or the "Hell-Hound", is Hades' massive multi-headed (usually three-headed)[40][41][42] dog with some descriptions stating that it also has a snake-headed tail and snake heads on its back and as its mane. Born from Echidna and Typhon, Cerberus guards the gate that serves as the entrance of the underworld.[22] Cerberus' duty is to prevent dead people from leaving the underworld.

Heracles once borrowed Cerberus as the final part of the Labours of Heracles. Orpheus once soothed it to sleep with his music.

Thanatos

Thanatos is the personification of death. He guards the Doors of Death.

Melinoë

Melinoe is a chthonic nymph, daughter of Persephone, invoked in one of the Orphic Hymns and propitiated as a bringer of nightmares and madness.[43] She may also be the figure named in a few inscriptions from Anatolia,[44] and she appears on a bronze tablet in association with Persephone.[45] The hymns, of uncertain date but probably composed in the 2nd or 3rd century AD, are liturgical texts for the mystery religion known as Orphism. In the hymn, Melinoë has characteristics that seem similar to Hecate and the Erinyes,[46] and the name is sometimes thought to be an epithet of Hecate.[47] The terms in which Melinoë is described are typical of moon goddesses in Greek poetry.

Nyx

Nyx is the goddess of the Night.

Tartarus

A deep abyss used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans,[48] Tartarus was also considered to be a primordial deity.

Achlys

Achlys is the personification of misery and sadness, sometimes represented as a daughter of Nyx, sometimes as an ancient being even older than Chaos himself.

Styx

Styx is the goddess of the river with the same name. Not much is known about her, but she is an ally of Zeus and lives in the underworld.

Eurynomos

Eurynomos is one of the daemons of the underworld, who eats off all the flesh of the corpses, leaving only their bones.

The dead

In the Greek underworld, the souls of the dead still existed but they are insubstantial and they flitted around the underworld with no sense of purpose.[49] The dead within the Homeric underworld lack menos, or strength, and therefore they cannot influence those on earth. They also lack phrenes, or wit, and are heedless of what goes on around them and on the earth above them.[50] Their lives in the underworld were very neutral, so all social statuses and political positions were eliminated and no one was able to use their previous lives to their advantage in the underworld.[38]

The idea of progress did not exist in the Greek underworld – at the moment of death, the psyche was frozen, in experience and appearance. The souls in the underworld did not age or really change in any sense. They did not lead any sort of active life in the underworld – they were exactly the same as they were in life.[51] Therefore, those who had died in battle were eternally blood-spattered in the underworld and those who had died peacefully were able to remain that way.[52]

Overall the Greek dead were considered to be irritable and unpleasant, but not dangerous or malevolent. They grew angry if they felt a hostile presence near their graves and drink offerings were given in order to appease them so as not to anger the dead.[53] Mostly blood offerings were given due to the fact that they needed the essence of life to become communicative and conscious again.[38] This is shown in Homer's Odyssey, where Odysseus had to give blood in order for the souls to interact with him. While in the underworld, the dead passed the time through simple pastimes such as playing games, as shown from objects found in tombs such as dice and game-boards.[54] Grave gifts such as clothing, jewelry, and food were left by the living for use in the underworld as well since many viewed these gifts to carry over into the underworld.[51] There was not a general consensus as to whether the dead were able to consume food or not. Homer depicted the dead as unable to eat or drink unless they had been summoned; however, some reliefs portray the underworld as having many elaborate feasts.[54] While not completely clear, it is implied that the dead could still have sexual intimacy with another, although no children were produced. The Greeks also showed belief in the possibility of marriage in the underworld, which in a sense describes the Greek underworld having no difference than from their current life.[55]

Lucian described the people of the underworld as simple skeletons. They are indistinguishable from each other, and it is impossible to tell who was wealthy or important in the living world.[56] However, this view of the underworld was not universal – Homer depicts the dead keeping their familiar faces.

Hades itself was free from the concept of time. The dead are aware of both the past and the future, and in poems describing Greek heroes, the dead helped move the plot of the story by prophesying and telling truths unknown to the hero.[51] The only way for humans to communicate with the dead was to suspend time and their normal life to reach Hades, the place beyond immediate perception and human time.[51]

Greek attitudes

The Greeks had a definite belief that there was a journey to the afterlife or another world. They believed that death was not a complete end to life or human existence.[57] The Greeks accepted the existence of the soul after death, but saw this afterlife as meaningless.[58] In the underworld, the identity of a dead person still existed, but it had no strength or true influence. Rather, the continuation of the existence of the soul in the underworld was considered a remembrance of the fact that the dead person had existed, yet while the soul still existed, it was inactive.[59] However, the price of death was considered a great one. Homer believed that the best possible existence for humans was to never be born at all, or die soon after birth, because the greatness of life could never balance the price of death.[60] The Greek gods only rewarded heroes who were still living; heroes that died were ignored in the afterlife. However, it was considered very important to the Greeks to honor the dead and was seen as a type of piety. Those who did not respect the dead opened themselves to the punishment of the gods – for example, Odysseus ensured Ajax's burial, or the gods would be angered.[61]

Myths and stories

Orpheus

Orpheus, a poet and musician that had almost supernatural abilities to move anyone to his music, descended to the underworld as a living mortal to retrieve his dead wife Eurydice after she was bitten by a poisonous snake on their wedding day. With his lyre-playing skills, he was able to put a spell on the guardians of the underworld and move them with his music.[62] With his beautiful voice he was able to convince Hades and Persephone to allow him and his wife to return to the living. The rulers of the underworld agreed, but under one condition – Eurydice would have to follow behind Orpheus and he could not turn around to look at her. Once Orpheus reached the entrance, he turned around, longing to look at his beautiful wife, only to watch as his wife faded back into the underworld. He was forbidden to return to the underworld a second time and he spent his life playing his music to the birds and the mountains.[63]

See also

References

  1. ^ Long, J. Bruce (2005). Encyclopedia of Religion. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA. p. 9452.
  2. ^ Garland, Robert (1985). The Greek Way of Death. London: Duckworth. p. 49.
  3. ^ Fairbanks, Arthur (1 January 1900). "The Chthonic Gods of Greek Religion". The American Journal of Philology. 21 (3): 242. doi:10.2307/287716. JSTOR 287716.
  4. ^ Albinus, Lars (2000). The House of Hades: studies in ancient Greek eschatology. Aarhus University Press: Aarhus. p. 67.
  5. ^ Mirto, Maria Serena; A. M Osborne (2012). Death in the Greek World: From Homer to the Classical Age. Normal: University of Oklahoma Press. p. 16.
  6. ^ Leeming, David (2005). "Styx". The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195156690.001.0001. ISBN 9780195156690. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  7. ^ Buxton, R.G.A (2004). The Complete World of Greek Mythology. London: Thames & Hudson. p. 209.
  8. ^ "Theoi Project: Lethe". Retrieved September 30, 2012.
  9. ^ The Iliad
  10. ^ The Odyssey
  11. ^ Virgil, Aeneid 268 ff
  12. ^ "Underworld and Afterlife - Greek Mythology Link". Maicar.com. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  13. ^ a b c d Buxton pg.213
  14. ^ Garland pg.51
  15. ^ Garland pg.50
  16. ^ Albinus pg.87
  17. ^ "The Greek Underworld". Wiki.uiowa.edu. 2010-01-31. Retrieved 2018-04-02.
  18. ^ Wordsworth, William. Knight, William (edit.). The Poetical Works of William Wordsworth, Volume 6. MacMillan & Co. 1896; pg. 14.
  19. ^ Virgil. Fairclough, H. Rushton (trans.). Virgil: Eclogues. Georgics. Aeneid I-VI. Vol. 1. William Heinemann. G.P. Putnam's Sons. 1916.
  20. ^ Albinus pg.86
  21. ^ "Theoi Project: Haides". Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  22. ^ a b c d O'Cleirigh, Padraig (2000). An Introduction to Greek mythology : story, symbols, and culture. Lewiston, N.Y.: Edwin Mellen Press. p. 190.
  23. ^ Mirto pg.21
  24. ^ Peck, Harry Thurston (1897). Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. Harper. p. 761.
  25. ^ Garland pg.52
  26. ^ Hades
  27. ^ Peck pg.761
  28. ^ Leeming, David (2005). "Demeter and Persephone". The Oxford Companion to World Mythology. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/acref/9780195156690.001.0001. ISBN 9780195156690. Retrieved 2 December 2012.
  29. ^ Pfister, F (1961). Greek Gods and Heroes. London: Macgibbon & Kee. p. 86.
  30. ^ Leeming, Demeter and Persephone
  31. ^ "HECATE : Greek goddess of witchcraft, ghosts & magic; mythology; pictures : HEKATE". Theoi.com. Retrieved 2012-09-24.
  32. ^ d'Este, Sorita & Rankine, David, Hekate Liminal Rites, Avalonia, 2009.
  33. ^ "Theoi Project: Erinyes". Retrieved October 8, 2012.
  34. ^ Fairbanks pg.251
  35. ^ Fairbanks pg.255
  36. ^ Theoi Project: Erinyes
  37. ^ Garland pgs.54-55
  38. ^ a b c Long pg.9453
  39. ^ "Theoi Project: Kharon". Retrieved December 2, 2012.
  40. ^ "Cerberus". Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved 2009-07-16.
  41. ^ "Yahoo! Deducation". Archived from the original on 2012-10-21.
  42. ^ Cerberus definition - Dictionary - MSN Encarta. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31.
  43. ^ Orphic Hymn 70 or 71 (numbering varies), as given by Richard Wünsch, Antikes Zaubergerät aus Pergamon (Berlin, 1905), p. 26:
    Μηλινόην καλέω, νύμφην χθονίαν, κροκόπεπλον,
    ἣν παρὰ Κωκυτοῦ προχοαῖς ἐλοχεύσατο σεμνὴ
    Φερσεφόνη λέκτροις ἱεροῖς Ζηνὸς Κρονίοιο
    ᾗ ψευσθεὶς Πλούτων᾽ἐμίγη δολίαις ἀπάταισι,
    θυμῷ Φερσεφόνης δὲ διδώματον ἔσπασε χροιήν,
    ἣ θνητοὺς μαίνει φαντάσμασιν ἠερίοισιν,
    ἀλλοκότοις ἰδέαις μορφῆς τὐπον έκκπροφανοῦσα,
    ἀλλοτε μὲν προφανής, ποτὲ δὲ σκοτόεσσα, νυχαυγής,
    ἀνταίαις ἐφόδοισι κατὰ ζοφοειδέα νύκτα.
    ἀλλἀ, θεά, λίτομαί σε, καταχθονίων Βασίλεια,
    ψυχῆς ἐκπέμπειν οἶστρον ἐπὶ τέρματα γαίης,
    εὐμενὲς εὐίερον μύσταις φαίνουσα πρόσωπον.
  44. ^ Jennifer Lynn Larson, Greek Nymphs: Myth, Cult, Lore (Oxford University Press, 2001), p. 268.
  45. ^ Radcliffe G. Edmonds III, "Orphic Mythology," in A Companion to Greek Mythology (Blackwell, 2011), note 58, p. 100; Apostolos N. Athanassakis, The Orphic Hymns: Text, Translation, and Notes (Scholars Press, 1977), p. viii.
  46. ^ Edmonds, "Orphic Mythology," pp. 84–85.
  47. ^ Ivana Petrovic, Von den Toren des Hades zu den Hallen des Olymp (Brill, 2007), p. 94; W. Schmid and O. Stählin, Geschichte der griechischen Literatur (C.H. Beck, 1924, 1981), vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 982; W.H. Roscher, Ausführliches Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie (Leipzig: Teubner, 1890–94), vol. 2, pt. 2, p. 16.
  48. ^ Georg Autenrieth. "Τάρταρος". A Homeric Dictionary. Retrieved 7 April 2012.
  49. ^ Mikalson, Jon D (2010). Ancient Greek Religion. Chichester, West Sussex: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 177.
  50. ^ Garland pg.1
  51. ^ a b c d Albinus pg.27
  52. ^ Garland pg.74
  53. ^ Garland pgs.5-6
  54. ^ a b Garland pg.70
  55. ^ Garland pg.71
  56. ^ O’Cleirigh pg.191
  57. ^ Mystakidou, Kyriaki; Eleni Tsilika; Efi Parpa; Emmanuel Katsouda; Lambros Vlahos (1 December 2004). "Death and Grief in the Greek Culture". OMEGA: Journal of Death and Dying. 50 (1): 24. doi:10.2190/YYAU-R4MN-AKKM-T496. Retrieved 4 December 2012.
  58. ^ Mikalson pg.178
  59. ^ Mystakidou pg.25
  60. ^ Mystakidou pg.24
  61. ^ Garland pg.8
  62. ^ Albinus pg.105
  63. ^ Hamilton, Edith. "The Story of Orpheus and Eurydice". Retrieved December 2, 2012.

Bibliography

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Angelos (mythology)

In Greek mythology, Angelos (Ancient Greek: Ἄγγελος) or Angelia (Ἀγγελία) was a daughter of Zeus and Hera who became known as a chthonic deity. Her story only survives in scholia on Theocritus' Idyll 2, and is as follows:

Angelos was raised by nymphs to whose care her father had entrusted her. One day she stole her mother Hera's appointments and gave them away to Europe. To escape Hera's wrath, she had to hide first in the house of a woman in labor, and next among people who were carrying a dead man. Hera eventually ceased from prosecuting her, and Zeus ordered the Cabeiroi to cleanse Angelos. They performed the purification right in the waters of the Acherusia Lake in the Underworld. Consequently, she received the world of the dead as her realm of influence, and was assigned an epithet katachthonia ("she of the underworld").

The story of Angelos is cited by the scholiast in a series of rare myths concerning the birth of Hecate, which makes it possible to think that Angelos was essentially equal to Hecate. This is to some extent confirmed by the fact that, according to Hesychius, Angelos was a surname of Artemis in Syracuse, being that Artemis as goddess of the moon was identified with Hecate. Angelos could be an early version of Hecate, the one that pertained both to the upper world and the underworld, similar to the position of Persephone.

Aornum

Aornum (Ancient Greek: Ἄορνον) was an oracle in Ancient Greece, located in Thesprotia in a cave called Charonium (Χαρώνειον ἄντρον or χάσμα) which gave forth poisonous vapours. The name of the cave, "Charon's Cave", reflects the belief that it was an entrance for Hades, the Greek underworld. In a version of the myth, Orpheus travels to Aornum to recover his wife, Eurydice, from Hades.

Arae

In Greek mythology, the Arae () were female spirits of curses, particularly of the curses placed by the dead upon those guilty of their death; they were associated with the underworld.They are sometimes identified with the Erinyes.

Ascalaphus (son of Acheron)

In Greek mythology, Ascalaphus (; Ancient Greek: Ἀσκάλαφος Askalaphos) was the son of Acheron and Orphne.

Asphodel Meadows

The Asphodel Meadows is a section of the ancient Greek underworld where ordinary souls were sent to live after death.

Castor and Pollux

Castor and Pollux (or in Greek, Polydeuces) were twin half-brothers in Greek and Roman mythology, known together as the Dioscuri.Their mother was Leda, but they had different fathers; Castor was the mortal son of Tyndareus, the king of Sparta, while Pollux was the divine son of Zeus, who seduced Leda in the guise of a swan. Though accounts of their birth are varied, they are sometimes said to have been born from an egg, along with their twin sisters Helen of Troy and Clytemnestra.

In Latin the twins are also known as the Gemini (literally "twins") or Castores, as well as the Tyndaridae or Tyndarids. When Castor was killed, Pollux asked Zeus to let him share his own immortality with his twin to keep them together, and they were transformed into the constellation Gemini. The pair were regarded as the patrons of sailors, to whom they appeared as St. Elmo's fire. They were also associated with horsemanship, due to the idea that they rode the 'white horses' of foam that were formed by curling ocean waves.

Ceuthonymus

Ceuthonymus or Keuthonymos (Ancient Greek: Κευθώνυμος) is a spirit in mythology who is the father of Menoites (or Menoetes, Menoetius). Ceuthonymus is a mysterious daimon or spirit of the underworld, who lives in the realm of Hades. Ceuthonymus is possibly the same as Iapetos, a Titan, and father of a certain Menoitios.

Charon

In Greek mythology, Charon or Kharon (; Greek Χάρων) is the ferryman of Hades who carries souls of the newly deceased across the rivers Styx and Acheron that divided the world of the living from the world of the dead. A coin to pay Charon for passage, usually an obolus or danake, was sometimes placed in or on the mouth of a dead person. Some authors say that those who could not pay the fee, or those whose bodies were left unburied, had to wander the shores for one hundred years. In the catabasis mytheme, heroes – such as Aeneas, Dionysus, Heracles, Hermes, Odysseus, Orpheus, Pirithous, Psyche, Theseus and Sisyphus – journey to the underworld and return, still alive, conveyed by the boat of Charon.

Elysium

Elysium or the Elysian Fields (Ancient Greek: Ἠλύσιον πεδίον, Ēlýsion pedíon) is a conception of the afterlife that developed over time and was maintained by some Greek religious and philosophical sects and cults. Initially separate from the realm of Hades, admission was reserved for mortals related to the gods and other heroes. Later, it expanded to include those chosen by the gods, the righteous, and the heroic, where they would remain after death, to live a blessed and happy life, and indulging in whatever employment they had enjoyed in life.The Elysian Fields were, according to Homer, located on the western edge of the Earth by the stream of Okeanos. In the time of the Greek oral poet Hesiod, Elysium would also be known as the Fortunate Isles or the Isles (or Islands) of the Blessed, located in the western ocean at the end of the earth. The Isles of the Blessed would be reduced to a single island by the Thebean poet Pindar, describing it as having shady parks, with residents indulging in athletic and musical pastimes.The ruler of Elysium varies from author to author: Pindar and Hesiod name Cronus as the ruler, while the poet Homer in the Odyssey describes fair-haired Rhadamanthus dwelling there.

Erebus

In Greek mythology, Erebus , also Erebos (Ancient Greek: Ἔρεβος, Érebos, "deep darkness, shadow" or "covered"), was often conceived as a primordial deity, representing the personification of darkness; for instance, Hesiod's Theogony identifies him as one of the first five beings in existence, born of Chaos.

Erinyes

In ancient Greek religion and mythology, the Erinyes (; sing. Erinys , ; Greek: Ἐρινύες, pl. of Ἐρινύς, Erinys), also known as the Furies, were female chthonic deities of vengeance, sometimes referred to as "infernal goddesses" (χθόνιαι θεαί). A formulaic oath in the Iliad invokes them as "the Erinyes, that under earth take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath." Walter Burkert suggests they are "an embodiment of the act of self-cursing contained in the oath." They correspond to the Dirae in Roman mythology. The Roman writer Maurus Servius Honoratus wrote that they are called "Eumenides" in hell, "Furiae" on earth, and "Dirae" in heaven.According to Hesiod's Theogony, when the Titan Cronus castrated his father, Uranus, and threw his genitalia into the sea, the Erinyes (along with the Giants and the Meliae) emerged from the drops of blood which fell on the earth (Gaia), while Aphrodite was born from the crests of sea foam. According to variant accounts, they emerged from an even more primordial level—from Nyx ("Night"), or from a union between air and mother earth. Their number is usually left indeterminate. Virgil, probably working from an Alexandrian source, recognized three: Alecto or Alekto ("endless"), Megaera ("jealous rage"), and Tisiphone or Tilphousia ("vengeful destruction"), all of whom appear in the Aeneid. Dante Alighieri followed Virgil in depicting the same three-character triptych of Erinyes; in Canto IX of the Inferno they confront the poets at the gates of the city of Dis. Whilst the Erinyes were usually described as three maiden goddesses, the Erinys Telphousia was usually a by-name for the wrathful goddess Demeter, who was worshipped under the title of Erinys in the Arkadian town of Thelpousa.

Eurynomos (daemon)

In Greek mythology, Eurynomos (; Greek Εὐρύνομος; Latin Eurynomus) was the netherworld daimon (spirit) of rotting corpses dwelling in the Underworld. Eurynomos is either a minor figure whose associated literature is lost to time, or possibly an invention by the painter Polygnotos. The sole piece of evidence concerning him is the following paragraph by Pausanias in a painting of Hades by Polygnotos at Delphoi, Phocis:

Eurynomos, said by the Delphian guides to be one of the daimones of Hades, who eats off all the flesh of the corpses, leaving only their bones. But Homer’s Odyssey, the poem called the Minyad, and the Returns, although they tell of Hades and its horrors, know of no daimon called Eurynomos. However, I will describe what he is like and his attitude in the painting. He is of a colour between blue and black, like that of meat flies; he is showing his teeth and is seated, and under him is spread a vulture’s skin.

Eurynomos is mentioned in the Satanic Bible, where the name is misspelled as "Euronymous".

Katabasis

Katabasis or catabasis (Ancient Greek: κατάβασις, from κατὰ "down" and βαίνω "go") is a descent of some type, such as moving downhill, the sinking of the winds or sun, a military retreat, a trip to the underworld, or a trip from the interior of a country down to the coast. The term has multiple related meanings in poetry, rhetoric, and modern psychology.

Menoetius

Menoetius or Menoetes (; Greek: Μενοίτιος, Μενοίτης Menoitios), meaning doomed might, is a name that refers to three distinct beings from Greek mythology:

Menoetius, a second generation Titan, son of Iapetus and Clymene or Asia, and a brother of Atlas, Prometheus and Epimetheus, Menoetius was killed by Zeus on Mount Triphyle with a flash of lightning in the Titanomachy, and banished to Tartarus. His name means "doomed might," deriving from the Ancient Greek words menos ("might, power") and oitos ("doom, pain"). Hesiod described Menoetius as hubristic, meaning exceedingly prideful and impetuous to the very end. From what his name suggests, along with Hesiod's own account, Menoetius was perhaps the Titan god of violent anger and rash action.

Menoetius, guard of the cattle of Hades. During Heracles twelfth labor, which required him to steal the hound Cerberus from the Underworld, he slays one of Hades cattle. A certain Menoetius, son of Keuthonymos, challenges Heracles to a wrestling match during which Heracles hugs him and breaks his ribs before Persephone intervenes.

Menoetius, from Opus was one of the Argonauts and son of Actor and Aegina. He was the father of Patroclus and Myrto by either Damocrateia, Sthenele, Periopis or Polymele. Among the settlers of Locris, Menoetius was chiefly honored by King Opus II, son of Zeus and Protogeneia.

Ploutonion

A ploutonion (Ancient Greek: Πλουτώνιον, lit. "Place of Pluto") or plutonium (from the Latin) is a sanctuary specially dedicated to the ancient Greek and Roman god Pluto (better known as Hades ). Only a few such shrines are known from classical sources, usually at locations that produce poisonous emissions and were considered to represent an entrance to the underworld.

At Eleusis, the ploutonion was near the north entrance to the sacred district (temenos). It was built by Peisistratos in the 6th century BC and rebuilt two centuries later, when the Eleusinian mysteries were at the height of their influence. The cave was the traditional site of the birth of the Divine Child Ploutos.

The Greek geographer Strabo mentioned three sites as having a ploutonion. One was on a hill between Tralleis and Nysa. Its precinct encompassed a sacred grove, a temple of Plouton and Persephone, and an adjoining cave called the Charonion, after the ferryman of the dead. According to Strabo, it "possesses some singular physical properties" and served as a shrine for healing and a dream oracle (incubation).

Pluto's Gate, the ploutonion at Phrygian Hierapolis (modern Pamukkale in Turkey), was connected to the local cult of Cybele. Inhaling its vapors was said to be lethal to all living things except the Galli, the goddess's eunuch priests. During the Roman Imperial era, the cult of Apollo subsumed existing religious sites there, including the ploutonion. Archaeological excavations in the 1960s showed that the ploutonion had been located within the sacred precinct of Apollo: "it consisted of a natural opening along a wall of travertine, leading to a grotto in which streams of hot water gushed forth to release a noxious exhalation". This site was also associated with a dream oracle; the Neoplatonist Damascius dreamed that he was Attis in the company of the Great Mother.

Strabo further records that Lake Avernus in Italy had been taken as a ploutonion because the gases it produced were so noxious that they overwhelmed birds flying overhead. According to earlier sources, he says, this was the oracle of the dead (nekumanteion) sought by Odysseus in Book 11 of the Odyssey; Strabo, however, seems not to have himself regarded Avernus as a ploutonion.

There was a Ploutonion at Acharaca.

Shade (mythology)

In literature and poetry, a shade (translating Greek σκιά, Latin umbra) is the spirit or ghost of a dead person, residing in the underworld.

An underworld where the dead live in shadow is common to beliefs in the ancient Near East, in Biblical Hebrew expressed by the term tsalmaveth (צַלמָוֶת: lit. "death-shadow", "shadow of death"; alternate term for Sheol). The Witch of Endor in the First Book of Samuel notably conjures the ghost (owb) of Samuel.

Only select individuals are exempt from the fate of dwelling in shadow after death, and instead ascend to the divine sphere. This is the apotheosis aspired to by kings claiming divinity, and reflected in the veneration of heroes. Plutarch relates how Alexander the Great was inconsolable after the death of Hephaistion up to the moment he received an oracle of Ammon confirming that the deceased was a hero, i.e. enjoyed the status of a divinity.Shades appear in Book Eleven of Homer's Odyssey, when Odysseus descends into Hades, and in Virgil's Aeneid, when Aeneas travels to the underworld. In the Divine Comedy by Dante Alighieri, many of the dead are similarly referred to as shades (Italian ombra), including Dante's guide, Virgil.

The phrase "peace to thy gentle shade [and endless rest]" is sometimes seen in epitaphs, and was used by Alexander Pope in his epitaph for Nicholas Rowe.

Sheol

She’ol ( SHEE-ohl, ; Hebrew שְׁאוֹל Šəʾōl), in the Hebrew Bible, is a place of darkness to which all the dead go, both the righteous and the unrighteous, regardless of the moral choices made in life, a place of stillness and darkness cut off from life but not God because as per written in Book of Psalm 139:8 "If I ascend to heaven, You are there; If I make my bed in Sheol, behold, You are there." The inhabitants of Sheol are the "shades" (rephaim), entities without personality or strength. Under some circumstances they are thought to be able to be contacted by the living, as the Witch of Endor contacts the shade of Samuel for Saul, but such practices are forbidden (Deuteronomy 18:10).While the Hebrew Bible describes Sheol as the permanent place of the dead, in the Second Temple period (roughly 500 BC – 70 AD) a more diverse set of ideas developed. In some texts, Sheol is considered to be the home of both the righteous and the wicked, separated into respective compartments; in others, it was considered a place of punishment, meant for the wicked dead alone, and is equated with Gehenna in the Talmud. When the Hebrew scriptures were translated into Greek in ancient Alexandria around 200 BC, the word "Hades" (the Greek underworld) was substituted for Sheol. This is reflected in the New Testament where Hades is both the underworld of the dead and the personification of it.

Tartarus

In Greek mythology, Tartarus (; Ancient Greek: Τάρταρος, Tartaros) is the deep abyss that is used as a dungeon of torment and suffering for the wicked and as the prison for the Titans. Tartarus is the place where, according to Plato's Gorgias (c. 400 BC), souls are judged after death and where the wicked received divine punishment. Tartarus is also considered to be a primordial force or deity alongside entities such as the Earth, Night and Time.

Tisiphone

Tisiphone, or Tilphousia, was one of the three Erinyes or Furies. Her sisters were Alecto and Megaera. She was the one who punished crimes of murder: parricide, fratricide and homicide.

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