The Greek National Socialist Party (Greek: Ελληνικό Εθνικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα, Elliniko Ethniko Sosialistiko Komma) was a National Socialist party founded in Greece in 1932 by George S. Mercouris, a former Cabinet minister.
Greek National Socialist Party
Ελληνικό Εθνικό Σοσιαλιστικό Κόμμα
|Founder||George S. Mercouris|
|Newspaper||Ethniki Simaia |
Established in Athens in December 1932, the National Socialist Party was one of the far right groups active in the country at the time, others including the National Union of Greece (Εθνική Ενωση Ελλάδος), Iron Peace (Σιδηρά Ειρήνη), Trident (Τρίαινα), and National Sovereign State (Εθνικό Κυρίαρχο Κράτος, led by Skilakakis). However, it was distinguished by being the most fiercely supportive of Adolf Hitler, seeking to copy the National Socialist German Workers Party in organizational and policy terms.
The party emerged after Mercouris, who had previously shown sympathy to Italian fascist trade unions, split from Panagis Tsaldaris and the Populist Party over the need for a coalition government. Through contacts with Galeazzo Ciano, Mercouris secured funding for the new group from Italy, although this soon dried up as they were not convinced that the party was in any position to gain power.
The party itself was largely geared towards Italian fascism, although Mercouris himself and some of his main followers were more drawn to the German model. Mercouris was sometimes used as a go-between by the collaborationist government during the German occupation.
The Greek party, however did not serve the regime of Ioannis Metaxas, although given the monarchist stance of the party many of its followers were reconciled to the new government. During the Axis occupation of Greece the group was allowed to continue, although it had no real role in the largely military-based Greek government and faced competition from the other extremist movements. It had hoped to gain influence but the Germans reasoned that given its chronic lack of popular support it was not expedient to offer the party any power.
The Deutsches Jungvolk in der Hitler Jugend (DJ, also DJV; German for "German Youngsters in the Hitler Youth") was the separate section for boys aged 8 to 14 of the Hitler Youth organisation in Nazi Germany. Through a programme of outdoor activities, parades and sports, it aimed to indoctrinate its young members in the tenets of Nazi ideology. Membership became fully compulsory for eligible boys in 1939. By the end of World War II, some had become child soldiers. After the end of the war in 1945, the Deutsches Jungvolk and its parent organization, the Hitler Youth, ceased to exist.Eidgenössische Sammlung
Eidgenössische Sammlung (German; literally "Confederate Collection") was a Swiss political party, founded in 1940 by Robert Tobler as a successor to the recently dissolved National Front.The party demanded an adjustment in Swiss policy to favour the Axis powers. This was particularly important as, after June 1940 the country was surrounded by fascist and Nazi states. It was open in its loyalty towards Nazi Germany.The Eidgenössiche Sammlung was closely supervised by the state because of its origins and so could not develop freely. In 1943 the police finally cracked down on the group and it was outlawed along with all of its sub-organisations as part of a wider government initiative against the National Front and its offshoots.Esoteric Nazism
Esoteric Nazism is any of a number of mystical interpretations and adaptations of Nazism in the post–World War II period. After 1945, esoteric elements of the Third Reich were adapted into new völkisch religions of white nationalism and neo-Nazism.George S. Mercouris
George S. Mercouris (Greek: Γεώργιος Σ. Μερκούρης; 1886 – December 1943) was a Greek politician who served as a Member of Parliament and Cabinet Minister, and later founded the Greek National Socialist Party; a minor fascist party, they were one of several small far right parties in Greece at the time. During the occupation of Greece, Mercouris was appointed by the Nazis as Governor of the National Bank of Greece.Georgios Poulos
Colonel Georgios Poulos (Greek: Γεώργιος Πούλος; 1889, Platanos, Aetolia-Acarnania – 11 June 1949) was a Nazi collaborator during the Axis occupation of Greece during World War II. A longtime ultra-nationalist, Colonel Poulos was fanatically anti-monarchist and anti-communist. In 1943, he organised and led the Poulos Verband, the most feared collaborationist death squad in occupied-Greece. During 1944, his forces were reinforced by the Jagdkommando Schubert, a paramilitary unit raised in Crete by the notorious Friedrich Schubert.
Poulos participated in Sonderkommando 2000, a German counter intelligence unit which aimed at infiltrating the Greek resistance movement. Poulos also worked for the National Union of Greece (EEE), an antisemitic party sponsored by the SS. He and his forces organised and committed many crimes in the rural areas of Greece; the most notorious was the attack on Giannitsa in September 1944, during which about a hundred peasants were executed. The aim of the executions was to instill terror into the supporters of the left-wing EAM/ELAS, as Giannitsa was considered an important resistance centre. However, Poulos and his men killed in an indiscriminate fashion and it is probable that most of the victims had little to do with the Resistance. In March 1945, Poulos and his unit were transferred to Kitzbühel, Austria. They remained there until the end of the war and were captured by the US 7th Army. Colonel Poulos was convicted of treason and executed in June 1949.Hellenic Socialist Patriotic Organisation
The ESPO (Greek: Ελληνική Σοσιαλιστική Πατριωτική Οργάνωσις, lit. 'Hellenic Socialist Patriotic Organization') was a collaborationist, pro-Nazi organization created in the summer of 1941 in German-occupied Greece, under the leadership of Georgios Vlavianos and later Dr. Spyros Sterodimas. Its members were ultra-nationalists, national-socialists and/or fascists aiming to help the Axis occupation forces against Communism and Jewry.
One of their main actions was the ransacking of the synagogue on Melidoni Street, Athens, by the ESPO's youth section.National Movement of Switzerland
The National Movement of Switzerland (German: Nationale Bewegung der Schweiz or NBS) was a Nazi umbrella-group formed in Switzerland in 1940.
The NBS had its roots in the 1938 foundation of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung by Rolf Henne after the more moderate Robert Tobler had removed Henne from the leadership of the National Front. In 1940, the Bund absorbed a number of tiny Nazi-supporting organisations to become the NBS under Henne and Dr. Max Leo Keller. Other groups absorbed included the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiterpartei and elements of the National Front. The new group also officially bore the French-language name Mouvement Nationale Suisse as an appeal to Francophone Swiss. Keller had worked with Heinrich Himmler and brought with him Andreas von Sprecher, whom the SS had trained, to run the new group's propaganda department.Keller, Jakob Schaffner and Ernst Hofmann, as representatives of the NBS, received an audience with the Swiss President Marcel Pilet-Golaz (in office throughout 1940) in which they demanded much closer relations with Nazi Germany, leading to eventual incorporation. This was followed by a Munich conference in October 1940 to which the Director of the Reich Main Security Office, Reinhard Heydrich and the Swiss doctor and SS-member Franz Riedweg invited the leaders of the NBS and of other Swiss groups in order to increase cohesion. Ultimately the meeting strengthened the hand of the NBS, as the remnants of the Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung as well as the Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiter-Partei and Ernst Leonhardt's Nationalsozialistische Schweizerische Arbeitspartei agreed to be absorbed into the movement.Despite this strengthening the National Movement did not last long, as the Swiss Federal Council feared that annexation by Germany was just around the corner. In a series of moves against the most extreme groups, the NBS was closed down on 19 November 1940, by which time it had 160 cells and around 4000 members. The group continued to work underground for a time before a police crackdown which led to most of the leadership fleeing to Germany. Whilst in Germany Keller set up the Bund der Schweizer Nationalsozialisten as an émigré movement, although its influence remained limited; eventually he returned to Switzerland in 1941. Meanwhile, various NBS units continued underground activity secretly, mostly with help from the SS, until World War II ended in 1945.National Socialism (disambiguation)
National Socialism most often refers to Nazism, the ideology of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers' Party, NSDAP) which existed in Germany between 1920 and 1945 and ruled the country from 1933 to 1945. The term "National Socialism" was used by a number of unrelated groups before the Nazis, but since their rise to prominence it has become associated almost exclusively with their ideas.
National Socialism may also refer to:
Ethnic German movements related to Nazism:
Austrian National Socialism, an early influence on the NSDAP
German National Socialist Workers' Party (Czechoslovakia) (Sudeten German, anti-Semitic)
Sudeten German Party (Sudeten German, pro-annexation-by-Germany, successor of the above)
Strasserism, a breakaway movement from German Nazism
Non-German groups drawing inspiration from Nazism and existing in the same historical period:
Bulgarian National Socialist Workers Party
Canadian National Socialist Unity Party (pro-Anglo-Canadian/French-Canadian)
National Socialist Movement of Chile (1930s)
National Socialist Workers' Party of Denmark (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
Greek National Socialist Party (Italian-style fascist, pro-Hitler)
Hungarian National Socialist Party (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
National Socialist Dutch Workers Party (1920s–1930s; favoured German annexation of the Netherlands)
National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands (1930s–1940s; unlike the above, it nominally supported an independent Netherlands)
National Socialist Workers' Party of Norway (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
Nasjonal Samling (Norway) (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic, anti-Masonic)
National Socialist Party (Romania) (German-style Nazi)
Swedish National Socialist Freedom League (pro-Hitler, founded in 1924)
Swedish National Socialist Party (founded in 1930 through a merger of Nazi and fascist groups)
National Socialist Workers' Party (Sweden) (split from the above in 1933, became more Strasserite and independently Swedish before declining during World War II)
South African Gentile National Socialist Movement (1930s–1940s; pro-apartheid, white, anti-Semitic)
Neo-Nazism, a label for groups and ideologies after 1945 that are considered to be based on Nazism:
National Socialist Movement of Denmark (contemporary)
Iranian National Socialist Party, created in 1952 (pro-Hitler, anti-Semitic, anti-Arab, anti-Turk)
National Socialist Party of New Zealand (German-style Nazi, anti-Semitic)
National Socialist Movement of Norway (contemporary)
Russian National Socialist Party (Russian nationalist, fascist, anti-immigrant, promoting Orthodox Christian theocracy)
Colin Jordan's National Socialist Movement (UK, 1962) of the United Kingdom
National Socialist Action Party (British, founded in 1982)
National Socialist Movement (United Kingdom) (contemporary)
National Socialist League (United States) (gay, "Aryan", pro-Hitler)
National Socialist Party of America (white, anti-Semitic, anti-black)
National Socialist Movement (United States) (contemporary)
Other unrelated ideologies and organizations, some of which were founded before the NSDAP and thus before "National Socialism" became associated with Nazism, while others exist in non-European contexts where Nazism is not widely known:
Ba'ath Party, an Arab national-socialist party in Iraq and Syria
Czech National Social Party, founded in Austria-Hungary in 1898 as a center-left party advocating Czech independence
National-Social Association, a small center-left Christian liberal party in Germany, founded by Friedrich Naumann in 1896
National Socialist Party (UK), a breakaway group from the British Socialist Party formed in 1916; historically Marxist, it reverted to a previous name as the Social Democratic Federation in 1919 and then merged with the Labour Party
Jatiya Samajtantrik Dal (National Socialist Party), a small socialist party in Bangladesh
National Socialist Council of Nagaland, a Maoist insurgent group in India
National Socialist Party of Tripura, a party advocating Tripuri self-determination in IndiaNational Socialist Bloc
National Socialist Bloc (in Swedish: Nationalsocialistiska Blocket) was a Swedish national socialist political party formed in the end of 1933 by the merger of Nationalsocialistiska Samlingspartiet, Nationalsocialistiska Förbundet and local National Socialist units connected to the advocate Sven Hallström in Umeå. Later Svensk Nationalsocialistisk Samling merged into NSB.
The leader of the party was Colonel Martin Ekström. The party maintained several publications, Landet Fritt (Gothenburg), Vår Kamp (Gothenburg), Vår Front (Umeå), Nasisten (Malmö) and Riksposten.
NSB differentiated itself from other Swedish National Socialist groups due to its liaisons with the Swedish upper class. NSB was clearly smaller than the two main National Socialist parties in Sweden at the time, SNSP and NSAP. Gradually the party vanished.National Socialist Flyers Corps
The National Socialist Flyers Corps (German: Nationalsozialistisches Fliegerkorps; NSFK) was a paramilitary organization of the Nazi Party that was founded 15 April 1937 as a successor to the German Air Sports Association; the latter had been active during the years when a German air force was forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles. The NSFK organization was based closely on the para-military organization of the Sturmabteilung (SA). A similar group was the National Socialist Motor Corps (NSKK).
During the early years of its existence, the NSFK conducted military aviation training in gliders and private airplanes. Friedrich Christiansen, originally a Generalleutnant then later a Luftwaffe General der Flieger, was NSFK Korpsführer from 15 April 1937 until 26 June 1943, followed by Generaloberst Alfred Keller until 8 May 1945.National Socialist League
The National Socialist League was a short-lived Nazi political movement in the United Kingdom immediately before the Second World War.National Unity Party (Canada)
The Parti National Social Chrétien (English: National Social Christian Party) was a Canadian political party formed by Adrien Arcand in February 1934. The party identified with antisemitism, and German leader Adolf Hitler's Nazism. The party was later known, in English, as the Canadian National Socialist Unity Party or National Unity Party.Nationalist Liberation Alliance
The Nationalist Liberation Alliance (Spanish: Alianza Libertadora Nacionalista, ALN), originally known as the Argentine Civic Legion (Legión Cívica Argentina, LCA) from 1931 to 1937, the Alliance of Nationalist Youth (Alianza de la Juventud Nacionalista, AJN) from 1937 to 1943, and then using its final name from 1943 to 1955, was a Nacionalista and fascist movement.The movement was heavily influenced by fascism, with its members utilizing the Roman salute, wearing fascist-style uniforms, and marching in military formation. The movement's declaration of principles in 1931 attacked Marxism and democracy and declared support for the creation of a corporatist state like that of Fascist Italy. It cooperated with the Argentine Fascist Party, particularly in the Córdoba region of Argentina. In Córdoba in 1935, the local militia allied with the Argentine Fascist Party and Argentine Nationalist Action to form the Frente de Fuerzas Fascistas de Córdoba, which was replaced by the National Fascist Union in 1936. In 1936, its leader General Juan Bautista Molina reorganized the militia to be based upon the organization of the Nazi Party. General Molina wanted an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.The movement called for "hierarchy and order" in society, various xenophobic and anti-Semitic themes, and the demand for "social justice" and "revolutionary" land reform to destroy the "oligarchy" in Argentina. Juan Bautista Molina wanted the creation of an Argentina based on Nazi lines, presenting himself as an Argentine Hitler, and having close relations with Nazi Germany.It was violently anti-Semitic, with its journal Combate issuing a "commandment" to its members: "War against the Jew. Hatred towards the Jew. Death to the Jew."Ossewabrandwag
The Ossewabrandwag (OB) (Ox-wagon Sentinel) was an anti-British and pro-German organisation in South Africa during World War II, which opposed South African participation in the war. It was formed in Bloemfontein on 4 February 1939 by pro-German Afrikaners.Otto Strasser
Otto Johann Maximilian Strasser (also German: Straßer, see ß; 10 September 1897 – 27 August 1974) was a German politician and an early member of the Nazi Party. Otto Strasser, together with his brother Gregor Strasser, was a leading member of the party's left-wing faction, and broke from the party due to disputes with the dominant "Hitlerite" faction. He formed the Black Front, a group intended to split the Nazi Party and take it from the grasp of Hitler. This group also functioned during his exile and World War II as a secret opposition group.
His brand of National Socialism is now known as Strasserism.Strasserism
Strasserism (German: Strasserismus or Straßerismus) is a strand of Nazism that calls for a more radical, mass-action and worker-based form of Nazism—hostile to Jews not from a racial, ethnic, cultural or religious perspective, but from an anti-capitalist basis—to achieve a national rebirth. It derives its name from Gregor and Otto Strasser, the two Nazi brothers initially associated with this position.
Otto Strasser, who opposed on strategic grounds the views of Adolf Hitler, was expelled from the Nazi Party in 1930 and went into exile in Czechoslovakia, while Gregor Strasser was murdered in Germany on 30 June 1934 during the Night of the Long Knives. Strasserism remains an active position within strands of neo-Nazism.The Immortals (neo-Nazis)
The Immortals (German Die Unsterblichen) was a neo-Nazi organization based in Germany that uses flash mobs to coordinate, gather and demonstrate. The members wear black clothing with white facial masks and carry torches when they march.Ubaldo Soddu
Ubaldo Soddu (23 July 1883 – 20 July 1949) was an Italian military officer, who commanded the Italian Forces in the Greco-Italian War for a month.
Soddu was born in Salerno. From 1939–1940, Soddu was under-secretary at the Ministry of War. In November 1940 he was sent to Albania to take over command of the Italian Forces from General Sebastiano Visconti Prasca and then sacked and replaced by the Chief of the General staff Ugo Cavallero four weeks later.