Greater lophorina

The greater lophorina or greater superb bird-of-paradise (Lophorina superba) is a species of the Paradisaeidae (bird-of-paradise) family. It was considered the sole species in the genus until in 2017 it was recognised that there were three species (L. superba, Lophorina minor, and Lophorina niedda).

Greater lophorina
Lophorina superba - Monograph of the Paradiseidae (cropped)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Paradisaeidae
Genus: Lophorina
Species:
L. superba
Binomial name
Lophorina superba
(Forster, 1781)

Description

It is a small, approximately 26 cm long, (passerine) bird. The male is black with an iridescent green crown, blue-green breast cover and a long velvety black erectile cape covering his back. The female is a reddish-brown bird with brownish barred buff below. The young is similar to the female. The greater lophorina is a dimorphic species.[2]

Courtship display

Paradisaeidae - Lophorina superba
Lophorina superba, male. Museum specimen

The species has an unusually low population of females, and competition amongst males for mates is intensely fierce. This has led the species to have one of the most bizarre and elaborate courtship displays in the avian world. After carefully and meticulously preparing a "dance floor" (even scrubbing the dirt or branch smooth with leaves), the male first attracts a female with a loud call. After the curious female approaches, his folded black feather cape and blue-green breast shield springs upward and spreads widely and symmetrically around its head, instantly transforming the frontal view of the bird into a spectacular ellipse-shaped creature that rhythmically snaps its tail feathers against each other, similar to how snapping fingers work, whilst hopping in frantic circles around the female. The average female rejects 15-20 potential suitors before consenting to mate. The show that males put on to attract females can be a long process that takes up many hours in a day.[3] These species are polygynous and usually will mate with more than one female.[2]

Distribution and habitat

The greater lophorina is distributed throughout rain forests of New Guinea. It inhabits most commonly in rain forests or forest edges of Indonesia and Papua New Guinea.[4] They can also be found inhabiting mountainous habitats of the forests in New Guinea.

The greater lophorina is also usually found on top of the trees that reside in the rain forests.[5]

Food/prey

The greater lophorina travels across the trees in the forest to catch its prey which can vary depending on seasonal availability of food.[4] The greater lophorina has not only been known to eat fruits and insects, but also have been spotted preying on larger animals such as frogs, reptiles, and other small birds.[5] They can sometimes be seen foraging food on the grounds of the forest for insects.[6]

Predators

Known predators of the superb bird-of-paradise include birds of prey and snakes.[5]

Reproduction and chick behavior

The greater lophorina forms their nest on top of trees using soft material that they find around the forest such as leaves. When reproducing, they usually produce from 1-3 eggs within a nest. It takes about 16–22 days for the eggs to hatch and for the chicks to be born. After that, chicks will be able to live on their own within 16–30 days, leaving their nest and becoming independent.[6] Male superb bird's-of-paradise tend to take about two years longer for them to mature compared to the females. Also, it will take about 4–7 years for males to develop their feathers for their courtship displays.[5]

Status

Although heavily hunted for its plumes, the greater lophorina is one of the most common and widespread birds of paradise in the forests of New Guinea, and is evaluated as Least Concern on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species.[1] It is listed on Appendix II of CITES.

Subspecies

  • Lophorina superba connectens
  • Lophorina superba feminina
  • Lophorina superba latipennis
  • Lophorina superba pseudoparotia[2]
  • Lophorina superba sphinx
  • Lophorina superba superba

The crescent-caped lophorina was considered to be a subspecies (L. s. niedda) until 2018, as was lesser lophorina (L. s. minor).[7]

References

  1. ^ a b BirdLife International (2012). "Lophorina superba". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ a b c Coyne A., Jerry; Kay H., Emily; Pruett-Jones, Steven (August 2007). "The Genetic Basis of Sexual Dimorphism of Birds". Evolution. 62 (1): 214–219. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00254.x.
  3. ^ "Birds of Paradise | National Geographic". 2010-04-11. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  4. ^ a b "Superb bird-of-paradise videos, photos and facts - Lophorina superba". Arkive. Archived from the original on 2017-03-05. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  5. ^ a b c d "Bird of Paradise | San Diego Zoo Animals & Plants". animals.sandiegozoo.org. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  6. ^ a b "Bird of Paradise". Animals. Retrieved 2017-05-05.
  7. ^ "Distinctive Courtship Phenotype of the Vogelkop Superb Bird-of-Paradise Lophorina niedda (Mayr, 1930) Confirms New Species Status".

Further reading

  • Beehler, Bruce (January 1983). "Frugivory and Polygamy in Birds of Paradise". The Auk. 100 (1): 1–12. ISSN 0004-8038.
  • Coyne A., Jerry; Kay H., Emily; Pruett-Jones, Steven (August 2007). "The Genetic Basis of Sexual Dimorphism in Birds". Evolution. 62 (1): 214–219. doi:10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00254.x.
  • Donovan, T. A.; Schrenzel, M.; Tucker, T. A.; Pessier, A. P.; Stalis, I. H. (1 May 2008). "Hepatic Hemorrhage, Hemocoelom, and Sudden Death due to Haemoproteus Infection in Passerine Birds: Eleven Cases". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation. 20 (3): 304–313. doi:10.1177/104063870802000307. PMID 18460616.
  • Frith, D.W.; Frith, C.B. (1988). "Courtship Display and Mating of the Superb Bird of Paradise Lophorina superba". Emu. 88 (3): 183–188. doi:10.1071/MU9880183.

External links

Astrapia

The astrapias are a genus, Astrapia, of birds-of-paradise. The genus contains five species.

They are endemic to New Guinea. The males have highly iridescent plumage and remarkably long tails. Females are duller and have shorter tails.

Barnes's astrapia is a hybrid produced by the interbreeding of Princess Stephanie's astrapia and the ribbon-tailed astrapia.

Astrapian sicklebill

The astrapian sicklebill, also known as the green-breasted riflebird, is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that believed to be an intergeneric hybrid between an Arfak astrapia and black sicklebill. This explanation was proposed by Erwin Stresemann who used the same explanation for the Elliot's bird-of-paradise. The two forms are substantially different and the latter's validity is still under question.

Bird-of-paradise

The birds-of-paradise are members of the family Paradisaeidae of the order Passeriformes. The majority of species are found in eastern Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and eastern Australia. The family has 42 species in 15 genera. The members of this family are perhaps best known for the plumage of the males of the sexually dimorphic species (the majority), in particular the highly elongated and elaborate feathers extending from the beak, wings, tail or head. For the most part they are confined to dense rainforest habitat. The diet of all species is dominated by fruit and to a lesser extent arthropods. The birds-of-paradise have a variety of breeding systems, ranging from monogamy to lek-type polygamy.

A number of species are threatened by hunting and habitat loss.

Drepanornis

Drepanornis is a genus of bird-of-paradise found in forests of New Guinea. They have long decurved sickle-like bills and an overall brown plumage.The genus is sometimes considered a subgenus of Epimachus, but the two members of Drepanornis have a far shorter tail and their sexual dimorphism is less extreme.

Duivenbode's bird-of-paradise

Duivenbode's bird-of-paradise is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is a hybrid between the emperor bird-of-paradise and lesser bird-of-paradise. The common name commemorates Maarten Dirk van Renesse van Duivenbode (1804–1878), Dutch trader of naturalia on Ternate.

Duivenbode's six-wired bird-of-paradise

The Duivenbode's six-wired bird-of-paradise, also known as Duivenbode's six-plumed bird-of-paradise, is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is an intergeneric hybrid between a western parotia and greater lophorina. The common name commemorates Maarten Dirk van Renesse van Duivenbode (1804–1878), Dutch trader of naturalia on Ternate.

Epimachus

Epimachus is a genus of bird-of-paradise from highland forests in New Guinea. They have long decurved sickle-like bills and long tails. Males of both species have extensive iridescent blackish to their plumage, while females are overall brown with barred underparts.

The two members of the genus Drepanornis are sometimes included in Epimachus, but their tail is far shorter and their sexual dimorphism is less extreme.

False-lobed astrapia

The false-lobed astrapia, also known as the false-lobed long-tail, is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is a presumed intergeneric hybrid between a long-tailed paradigalla and black sicklebill. Another interpretation that has been put forward is that the only known specimen is an immature Elliot's bird-of-paradise.

Gilliard's bird-of-paradise

Gilliard's bird-of-paradise is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is a hybrid between a raggiana bird-of-paradise and lesser bird-of-paradise. It is known from adult male specimens taken in the upper Baiyer Valley in Papua New Guinea. It was named after American ornithologist Ernest Thomas Gilliard by Clifford Frith and Bruce Beehler.

Lesser lophorina

The lesser lophorina or lesser superb bird-of-paradise (Lophorina minor) is a species of passerine bird in the bird-of-paradise family Paradisaeidae.

It is endemic to Papua New Guinea. It is sometimes considered a subspecies of the greater lophorina.

Lophorina

Lophorina or superb bird-of-paradise is a genus of birds in the family Paradisaeidae.

The genus contains three species:

Greater lophorina, Lophorina superba, the sole species in the genus until 2018

Crescent-caped lophorina, Lophorina niedda, elevated from sub-species to species in 2018

Lesser lophorina, Lophorina minor

Mantou's riflebird

Mantou's riflebird, also known as Bruijn's riflebird, is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is presumed to be an intergeneric hybrid between a twelve-wired bird-of-paradise and magnificent riflebird.

Mysterious bird of Bobairo

The mysterious bird of Bobairo, named as such by Errol Fuller, is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is presumed to be an intergeneric hybrid between a black sicklebill and greater lophorina. Only one adult male specimen is known of this bird, and is held in the Netherlands National Museum of Natural History in Leiden. It derives from Bobairo, near Enarotali on Lake Paniai in the Weyland Mountains of Western New Guinea.

Rothschild's lobe-billed bird-of-paradise

Rothschild's lobe-billed bird-of-paradise ("Loborhamphus nobilis"), also known as the noble lobe-bill, is one of six enigmatic species of bird-of-paradise collected in Papua New Guinea for zoologist Walter Rothschild, 2nd Baron Rothschild. It is only known from the holotype.

In 1930 it, along with the five other collected species, was considered by Erwin Stresemann to be a hybrid, presumptively between the long-tailed paradigalla and the greater lophorina, though doubts have been raised about the parentage.

Ruys's bird-of-paradise

Ruys's bird-of-paradise is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is presumed to be an intergeneric hybrid between a magnificent bird-of-paradise and lesser bird-of-paradise.

Schodde's bird-of-paradise

Schodde's bird of paradise is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is an intergeneric hybrid between a Lawes's parotia and blue bird-of-paradise.

Stresemann's bird-of-paradise

Stresemann's bird-of-paradise is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is an intergeneric hybrid between a Queen Carola's parotia and greater lophorina.

Wilhelmina's bird-of-paradise

Wilhelmina's bird-of-paradise, also known as Wilhelmina's riflebird, is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is presumed to be an intergeneric hybrid between a greater lophorina and magnificent bird-of-paradise.

Wonderful bird-of-paradise

The wonderful bird-of-paradise, also known as Reichenow's riflebird, is a bird in the family Paradisaeidae that is an intergeneric hybrid between a twelve-wired bird-of-paradise and lesser bird-of-paradise.

Birds-of-paradise (family: Paradisaeidae)

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