Greater blue-eared starling

The greater blue-eared starling or greater blue-eared glossy-starling (Lamprotornis chalybaeus) is a bird that breeds from Senegal east to Ethiopia and south through eastern Africa to northeastern South Africa and Angola. It is a very common species of open woodland bird, and undertakes some seasonal migration.

Greater blue-eared starling
Greater blue-eared starling (Lamprotornis chalybaeus)
in Kenya
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Sturnidae
Genus: Lamprotornis
Species:
L. chalybaeus
Binomial name
Lamprotornis chalybaeus

Description

Greater Blue-eared Glossy-Starling (Lamprotornis chalybaeus) looking right from behind
From behind

The greater blue-eared starling is a 22-cm long, short tailed bird. This starling is glossy blue-green with a purple-blue belly and blue ear patch. Its iris is bright yellow or orange. The sexes are similar, but the juvenile is duller and has blackish brown underparts.

The populations from southern Kenya southwards are smaller than northern birds and are sometimes considered to be a separate subspecies, L. c. sycobius.

The lesser blue-eared starling is similar to this species, but the blue of the belly does not extend forward of the legs.

The greater blue-eared starling has a range of musical or grating calls, but the most familiar is a nasal squee-ar.

Behaviour

Breeding

Lamprotornis chalybaeus, Mpumalanga Rural, Mpumalanga, South Africa
Adult in South Africa

The greater blue-eared starling nests in holes in trees, either natural or excavated by woodpeckers or barbets. It will also nest inside the large stick nests of the sacred ibis or Abdim's stork. A nest will include three to five eggs, which are usually greenish-blue with brown or purple spots, and hatch in 13–14 days. The chicks leave the nest roughly 23 days after hatching.

This species is parasitised by the great spotted cuckoo and occasionally by the greater honeyguide.

Roosting

The greater blue-eared starling is highly gregarious and will form large flocks, often with other starlings. Its roosts, in reedbed, thorn bushes, or acacia, may also be shared.

Feeding

Like other starlings, the greater blue-eared starling is an omnivore, taking a wide range of invertebrates seeds and berries, especially figs, but is diet is mainly insects taken from the ground.

It will perch on livestock, feeding on insects disturbed by the animals and occasionally removing ectoparasites.

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2012). "Lamprotornis chalybaeus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  • Feare, Chris; Craig, Adrian (1999). Starlings and Mynas. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-7136-3961-X.
  • Sinclair, Ian; Hockey, Phil; Tarboton, Warwick (2002). SASOL Birds of Southern Africa. Struik. ISBN 1-86872-721-1.

External links

Blouberg Nature Reserve

Blouberg Nature Reserve is a protected area situated close to Vivo, west of Louis Trichardt in the Limpopo Province, of South Africa. It covers an area of 9,360 hectares (23,100 acres) from the eastern portion of the Blouberg mountain range down to the savanna near the Brak River, and is managed and administrated by the Limpopo Provincial Government.

Cape starling

The Cape starling, red-shouldered glossy-starling or Cape glossy starling (Lamprotornis nitens) is a species of starling in the family Sturnidae. It is found in southern Africa, where it lives in woodlands, bushveld and in suburbs.

Hildebrandt's starling

Hildebrandt's starling (Lamprotornis hildebrandti) is a species of starling in the family Sturnidae. It forms a superspecies with and has previously been included in the same species as Shelley's starling, a migratory species ranging from Ethiopia and Somalia to Kenya. Both of these species have also been combined into a superspecies with the chestnut-bellied starling of West Africa. It was originally placed in the now defunct genus Notauges. The species is named for Johann Maria Hildebrandt, a German collector who was the first European to obtain specimens.

Lamprotornis

Lamprotornis is a large genus of glossy-starlings all of which occur in Africa south of the Sahara. They have glossy blue or green upper parts, which is due to hollow melanin granules arranged in a single layer near the feather barbule's surface. This unique arrangement led to some glossy starlings formerly placed in the genus Spreo being transferred to Lamprotornis, since they shared this feature (but see also below).

The genus Lamprotornis was introduce by the Dutch zoologist Coenraad Jacob Temminck

in 1820. The type species was subsequently designated as the long-tailed glossy starling.The under parts of these species lack iridescence. They may be blue, purple, yellow or brown. Most Lamprotornis starlings have striking yellow or red irides and some have long tails.

These glossy starlings are found in a variety of habitats from forests to open woodland and gardens. They nest in tree holes, either natural, or made by woodpeckers or barbets, and some will use man-made structures. Most species are resident apart from seasonal or local movement, but Shelley's starling is migratory. Most species are gregarious outside the breeding season.

Lamprotornis glossy-starlings are omnivorous and mostly feed on the ground, although they will take fruit from trees. Some will feed on or near large mammals to find insects.

List of birds of Africa

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Africa. The area covered by this list is the Africa region defined by the American Birding Association's listing rules. In addition to the continent itself, the area includes Socotra in the Arabian Sea, Zanzibar, the Canary Islands, and São Tomé, Príncipe, and Annobon in the Gulf of Guinea. It does not include Madeira, the Azores, Cape Verde, the Sinai Peninsula, Madagascar, Seychelles or the Comoro Islands.

This list is that of the African Bird Club (ABC) supplemented by Bird Checklists of the World (Avibase) and The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families, and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) are those of the Clements list. Taxonomic changes are on-going. As more research is gathered from studies of distribution, behavior, and DNA, the names, sequence, and number of families and species change every year. Furthermore, different approaches to ornithological nomenclature have led to concurrent systems of classification (see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy). Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

List of birds of Angola

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Angola. The avifauna of Angola include a total of 983 species, of which fourteen are endemic, one has been introduced by humans and four are rare or accidental. Twenty species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Angola.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Angola

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Angola

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Angola as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Botswana

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Botswana. The avifauna of Botswana include a total of 589 species, of which 97 are accidental, 100 are uncommon, and four have been introduced by humans. None are endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of BirdLife Botswana's Checklist for Southern Africa. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of BirdLife Botswana are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents; the tags follow the BirdLife Botswana list usage.

(A) Accidental - a species which has been recorded 10 or fewer times in Botswana

(B) Uncommon - a species which has been recorded more than 10 times but for which BirdLife Botswana wishes to receive more records so as to better assess their status

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Botwana as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and which has a self-sustaining population.

List of birds of Ethiopia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ethiopia. The avifauna of Ethiopia include a total of 864 confirmed species as of June 2018. Of them, 25 are accidental, 17 are endemic, and one has been introduced by humans. An additional 16 species are hypothetical as defined below. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of iGoTerra.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition.The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ethiopia (also called a vagrant)

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Ethiopia

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Ethiopia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(H) Hypothetical - a species possibly present but which has not been documented.

List of birds of Ghana

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Ghana. The avifauna of Ghana include a total of 749 confirmed species, of which 64 are accidental. An additional two species are considered "uncertain" (see below) and are not included in the count. None are endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the African Bird Club's (ABC) Checklist of the Birds of Ghana. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Ghana (also called a vagrant)

(U) Uncertain - a species recorded but not confirmed in Ghana

List of birds of Kenya

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Kenya. The avifauna of Kenya include a total of 1105 species, of which eight are endemic, 75 are accidental, and two have been introduced by humans. An additional six species are considered "uncertain" (see below) and are not included in the count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the African Bird Club's Checklist of the Birds of Kenya. The club will be referred to as ABC throughout. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and non-endemic residents. The "A", "I", and "U" tags follow the ABC list. The "E" tags are based on Clements, because the ABC does not note endemics. The notes of population status are from the Avibase Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Kenya (also called a vagrant)

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Kenya

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Kenya as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(U) Uncertain - a species recorded but not confirmed in Kenya

List of birds of Namibia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Namibia. The avifauna of Namibia include a total of 676 confirmed species, of which one is endemic, 15 are near endemic, four have been introduced by humans, and 56 are vagrants. An additional 35 species are unconfirmed and are not included in the total above.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the Namibia Bird Records Committee (NBRC). Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the NBRC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories of occurrence.

(V) Vagrant - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Namibia

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Namibia

(NE) Near endemic - a species with "90% or more of its population in Namibia" per the NBRC

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Namibia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions, and which has a self-sustaining population

(U) Unconfirmed - a "species reported to occur in Namibia but for which there is as yet no unequivocal evidence" per the NBRC

List of birds of Rwanda

This is a list of bird species recorded in Rwanda. The avifauna of Rwanda include a total of 703 confirmed species. 510 resident species. 183 visiting species (including vagrants and migrants). Ten species are considered extirpated in Rwanda.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) largely follows The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 update. However, in an attempt to make the list more accessible to a wide range of users several things have been done.

Scientific names follow those used in the linked articles.

Where there is an alternative common name (that may be used more frequently in the UK and East Africa) this is included after the Clements' common name.

Where subspecies or an eBird preferred taxon is available this is included e.g. yellow wagtail, Motacilla flava.

The species listed here are the same as used on the eBird in Rwanda.The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Rwanda, where known the number of sightings for rare records is indicated.

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Rwanda although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of South Africa

South Africa is a large country, ranked 25th by size in the world, and is situated in the temperate latitudes and subtropics. Due to a range of climate types present, a patchwork of unique habitat types occur, which contribute to its biodiversity and level of endemism. This list incorporates the mainland and nearshore islands and waters only. The submerged though ecologically important Agulhas Bank is for most part inside its territorial waters. Offshore, South Africa's territory includes the Prince Edward Islands in the Subantarctic Indian Ocean.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Taxonomic changes are on-going. As more research is gathered from studies of distribution, behaviour and DNA, the order and number of families and species may change. Furthermore, different approaches to ornithological nomenclature have led to concurrent systems of classification (see Sibley-Ahlquist taxonomy and IOU taxonomy).

Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of BirdLife South Africa (BLSA). Notes in the status column are also from this source. Notes of population status, such as "Endangered", refer to the worldwide population, not the South African part of it. Unless otherwise noted in the "status" column, the species is a resident or regularly-occurring migrant.

"Vagrant" means the species rarely or accidentally occurs in South Africa.

"Endemic" means the species is found only in South Africa.

"SLS endemic" means the species is found only in South Africa and the Kingdoms of Lesotho and Eswatini (formerly Swaziland). Lesotho is surrounded by South Africa and Eswatini nearly so.This list contains 849 species according to the Clements taxonomy. The BLSA list includes additional entries as species which Clements considers subspecies; some of them are noted. According to BLSA, 18 species are endemic, 20 are SLS endemic, and 11 have been introduced by humans. Clements describes only 16 as endemic and 15 as SLS endemic. Of the 849, 125 are considered vagrants.

List of birds of South Sudan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in South Sudan. The avifauna of South Sudan include a total of 884 species.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for South Sudan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in South Sudan

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to South Sudan

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to South Sudan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Sudan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Sudan. The avifauna of Sudan include a total of 653 species.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Sudan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Sudan

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Sudan

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Sudan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Tanzania

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Tanzania. The avifauna of Tanzania include a total of 1050 species, of which 26 are endemic, 30 are accidental, and two have been introduced by humans. An additional four species are considered "uncertain" (see below) and are not included in the count.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the African Bird Club's Checklist of the Birds of Tanzania. The Club will be referred to as ABC throughout. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and non-endemic residents. The "A", "I", and "U" tags follow the ABC list. The "E" tags are based on Clements, because the ABC does not note endemics. The notes of population status are from the Avibase Bird Checklists of the World.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Tanzania (also called a vagrant)

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Tanzania

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Tanzania as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(U) Uncertain - a species recorded but not confirmed in Tanzania

List of birds of Uganda

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Uganda. The avifauna of Uganda include a total of 1031 confirmed species, of which 58 are accidental. An additional 19 species are considered "uncertain" (see below) and are not included in the count. One species is endemic.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 2018 edition. Unless otherwise noted, the list is that of the African Bird Club's (ABC) Checklist of the Birds of Uganda. Differences in common and scientific names between the Clements taxonomy and that of the ABC are frequent but are seldom noted here.

The following tags highlight several categories of occurrence other than regular migrants and residents.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Uganda (also called a vagrant)

(U) Uncertain - a species recorded but not confirmed in Uganda

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Uganda

Starling

Starlings are small to medium-sized passerine birds in the family Sturnidae. The name "Sturnidae" comes from the Latin word for starling, sturnus. Many Asian species, particularly the larger ones, are called mynas, and many African species are known as glossy starlings because of their iridescent plumage. Starlings are native to Europe, Asia and Africa, as well as northern Australia and the islands of the tropical Pacific. Several European and Asian species have been introduced to these areas as well as North America, Hawaii and New Zealand, where they generally compete for habitats with native birds and are considered to be invasive species. The starling species familiar to most people in Europe and North America is the common starling, and throughout much of Asia and the Pacific, the common myna is indeed common.

Starlings have strong feet, their flight is strong and direct, and they are very gregarious. Their preferred habitat is fairly open country, and they eat insects and fruit. Several species live around human habitation and are effectively omnivores. Many species search for prey such as grubs by "open-bill probing", that is, forcefully opening the bill after inserting it into a crevice, thus expanding the hole and exposing the prey; this behaviour is referred to by the German verb zirkeln (pronounced [ˈtsɪɐ̯kl̩n]).Plumage of many species is typically dark with a metallic sheen. Most species nest in holes and lay blue or white eggs.

Starlings have diverse and complex vocalizations and have been known to embed sounds from their surroundings into their own calls, including car alarms and human speech patterns. The birds can recognize particular individuals by their calls and are the subject of research into the evolution of human language.

Yebo Yes United F.C.

Yebo Yes United is a South African fourth division football club. The club currently plays in the SAB Regional League and is the Development and Feeder Club to Orlando Pirates Football Club. The relationship works two ways as Yebo Yes United develops players for Orlando Pirates and in exchange Orlando Pirates sponsor transport and on field equipment. The club is a fully competitive entity and can be classed as semi professional in nature. The club's home venue is Arthur Block Park in Mayfair, Johannesburg.

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