Greater Tehran

Greater Tehran is the urban agglomeration around Tehran that covers central part of Tehran Province and eastern part of Alborz Province. that covers the contiguous cities of Tehran, Ray, Shemiranat, and other areas.

As of 2012, Greater Tehran had a population of close to 14 million residents.[3] The 2016 census had the population at 13.3 million in Tehran Province (only 200 thousands of them outside Tehran and the suburban counties) and 2.2 million in Karaj and Fardis combined. This allow to estimate that the population of the urban agglomeration was about 15 million people in 2016, and it is sinking 25 cm per year because of the accelerated influx and the overuse of natural resources[4].

Greater Tehran should not be confused with the following:

  • Tehran Province (area 18814 km², population 13.27 m - 2016). Part of the province is too far from Tehran and has too low a population density to be classified as the part of agglomeration
  • Tehran County (area 1300 km², population 8.85 million (2016) with 97.5% of the population living in Tehran City itself)
  • Tehran City includes 22 districts, two of them fully and one partially are located outside of Tehran County. The city's area is about 730 km². The extension of the city to other counties began in 1973 to include the villages surrounding the city of Tajrish (Evin, Darakeh, Niyavaran, Rostan Abad, Gholhak, Zargandeh, Elahiyeh, Davoudiyeh, Zarrabkhaneh) and the cities of Vanak and Rey to which “Kooye Siman” had been annexed during the years 1956 to 1966.
Greater Tehran

تهران بزرگ
کلانشهر تهران · Tehran Metropolis
[[File:|Azadi Tower|266px]]
Milad Tower seen from Parkway
Abrisham (Silk) Bridge Tehran
Kakh Shahrbani
Golestan Palace
Mount Tochal seen from Modarres Expressway
Tehran skyline view from top of Milad Tower
Clockwise from top: Azadi Tower, Shemiran, Ab o Atash Park, Mount Tochal seen from Modarres Expressway, Shams ol Emareh, Ferdows Garden, and Milad Tower seen from Parkway.
Carte Topo Region Teheran
Greater Tehran is located in Iran
Greater Tehran
Greater Tehran
Coordinates: 35°41′46″N 51°25′23″E / 35.69611°N 51.42306°ECoordinates: 35°41′46″N 51°25′23″E / 35.69611°N 51.42306°E
Country Iran
 • Urban
730 km2 (280 sq mi)
 • Metro
9,500 km2 (3,700 sq mi)
1,200 to 1,980 m (3,900 to 6,470 ft)
 • Density1,600/km2 (4,000/sq mi)
 • Urban
 • Metro
 • Population Rank in Iran
Time zoneUTC+03:30 (IRST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+04:30 (IRDT)
Area code(s)021


There is no exact definition of Tehran agglomeration borders and composition. Beside Tehran County, also Shemiranat County, Rey County, Eslamshahr County, Pakdasht County, Robat-Karim County, Varamin County, Shahriar County, Qods County, Malard County, Pishva County and Baharestan County in Tehran Province and also Karaj County and probably even Nazarabad County and Savojbolagh County in Alborz Province can be regarded as parts of the agglomeration.


  1. ^ Approximate estimate. Includes ~40% of Tehran Province area and ~2000 km2 of Alborz Province
  2. ^ Urban population: Data for Tehran County. ~97.5% of county population live in Tehran city
    Metro population: Estimate on base of census data, includes central part of Tehran province and Karaj County and Fardis from Alborz province
  3. ^ – Iran
  4. ^
27th Mohammad Rasulullah Division

27th Mohammad Rasulullah Division (Persian: لشکر ۲۷ محمد رسول‌الله‎) was a division of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps based in Tehran.

It was established as the 27th Mohammad Rasulullah Brigade by Ahmad Motevasselian and Mohammad Ebrahim Hemmat during Iran–Iraq War, and was expanded into a division just before the Operation Jerusalem.

The division was merged with the Basij of Greater Tehran to form the Mohammad Rasulullah Corps of Greater Tehran during to rearrangements of the IRGC units in 2008.

Architecture of Tehran

Tehran has grown dramatically since Mohammad Khan Qajar chose it as the capital of the Qajar dynasty in 1796. Despite the occurrence of earthquakes during the Qajar period and before, some buildings still remain from Tehran's era of antiquity. However, most of Tehran's historic architecture has been obliterated by the wave of hasty modernization that swept through the capital over the last 40 to 50 years. Of the eight city gates of old Tehran, none remain today.

The Qajar culture flowered into a mature form of vernacular architecture, and many relics today remain of this tradition. Most, however, are government offices and residences of the royal elite. The "Kushak" of Ahmad Shah in the Niavaran Palace Complex is a fine example of this tradition.

Many of the urban designs of modern Tehran are attributed to Victor Gruen. Gruen devised a master plan for many of northern Tehran's neighborhoods between the years 1963–1967. Many palaces were built and by the late 1970s. Tehran had grown so large that Ray, a former satellite and city in itself, became connected to the ever-expanding "Greater Tehran".

Pahlavi architecture tried incorporated themes from European Modern architecture. The "White House" of Sadabad Palace and the main Palace of Niavaran are examples of this style of design.

Features of the city include gates and palaces. Despite the chaotic sprawl of Tehran, many designers are gradually incorporating aesthetics in their designs, and international awards have been given to projects in the city.

Darabad, Tehran

Darabad (Persian: دارآباد‎) is a quarter in north-eastern Tehran, the capital city of Iran.

Darabad is a former village and a summit on the slopes of the Alborz mountain range to the northeast of Tehran, which has become part of the Greater Tehran area as a result of rapid expansion of the Tehran Metropolis. Many people use Darabad as the starting point for hiking the southern slopes of Alborz, especially in the summer.

Darabad today is home to Iran's most famous museums for natural history, the Nature and Wildlife Museum of Iran. It is also the location of the Mahak hospital for children with cancer.

Death and state funeral of Ruhollah Khomeini

On 3 June 1989, just before midnight IRST, Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, leader of the Iranian Revolution and the first Supreme Leader and founder of the Islamic Republic of Iran, died in Jamaran, Greater Tehran aged 86 after spending eleven days at a local clinic, near his residency, after repeated heart failure (five heart attacks in ten days). Other sources put his age at 89, and list the cause of death as bleeding in digestive system. Khomeini was given a state funeral and then buried at the Behesht-e Zahra (The Paradise of Zahra) cemetery in south Tehran.


Ekhtiyariyeh (Persian: اختیاریه‎; also Romanized as Ekhtiyāriyeh or Extiyāriye(h)) is a neighborhood in the district of Shemiran in northern Tehran, Iran.

Ekhtiarieh was a relatively small village in the suburbs of Tehran even back in the early 1960s. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, this village as well as the whole township of Shemiran became part of Greater Tehran.

The neighborhood is divided into three main parts, namely the north, the center (where Ekhtiyariyeh Square is located) and the south.

In the past, there were three villages around Ekhtiyariyeh.

The Village of Saltanat-Abad was located in the east and south-east, The Village of Rostam-Abad was located in the west and south-west, and the Village of Farmaniyeh was located in the north of Ekhtiyariyeh. Villages of Saltanat-Abad and Farmaniyeh have disappeared altogether, but the Village of Rostam-Abad stays somewhat intact even today.

After the Revolution of 1979, the former "Saltanat Abad Street" was named "Pasdaran Street", and the former "Kamran Street" was named "Dibaji Street".

Esmail Ahmadi-Moghaddam

Esmail Ahmadi-Moghaddam (Persian: اسماعیل احمدی‌مقدم‎) is an Iranian retired military officer who served as Iran's Chief of police, the chief commander of Law Enforcement Force of Islamic Republic of Iran, from 2005 to 2015.Prior to the appointment, he served as deputy of Basij militia and its commander in Greater Tehran. Ahmadi-Moghaddam started his career at Islamic Revolution Committees and later was transferred to Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps.Ahmadi-Moghaddam has got a BA in Social Sciences from University of Tehran and obtained a master's degree in defense management from Army's University of Command and Staff, continued by a Ph.D. from Supreme National Defense University in military sciences.For some time, he was commandant of Police University. On 5 September 2018, Ahmadi-Moghaddam was banned from public office after it was confirmed he has rule in a corruption file.

Greater Isfahan Region

Greater Isfahan Metropolitan Area is a metropolitan region in Isfahan Province, central Iran. This region, although not having any official designation and recognition yet, is the second biggest one in Iran, behind the capital city Tehran (Greater Tehran). The overall region has a population of over 3,500,000 and extends along Zayandeh Rud, the main river axis through the province, and also along the northern-southern axis of the city, plus a western axis towards Lorestan Province. The region is a transportation hub and an industrial centre having concentrated all steel related industries in it. The region is also home to important military installations and centres, including nuclear facilities and airbases.

Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary

The Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary (Persian: ندامتگاه مرکزی تهران بزرگ‎) is a prison approximately 32 km (20 mi) south of Tehran.

Sometimes called Tehran Central Prison, it is a large prison, also known as "فشافویه ", "Fashafoyeh" or "Hasanabad Qom Prison". It was built in 2012 in the Hassan_Abad region south of Tehran, in the deserts of the Tehran-Qom road.

Several thousand prisoners have been or are being transferred to the Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary from Evin, Gohardasht (Rajai Shahr) and Ghezel Hessar prisons.

In June 2016, the Ghanoon newspaper is being sued for describing a money-making operation through the Greater Tehran Central Penitentiary, as well as the prison’s poor living conditions and ill treatment of detainees.

In August 2017, a detainee describes torture and inhumane conditions, including overcrowding, unsanitary living spaces, intolerable heat with severely limited water resources and the denial of medical care.

Near the prison is a Cemetery for Executed Prisoners (Persian: قبرستان زندانیان اعدامی‎).

Hesarak (Karaj)

Hesarak is a large suburb of Karaj in Iran.

It is connected via Metro to Greater Tehran. It is close to where Morvarid Palace is located.

Tarbiat'e Moallem University is located in Hesarak

Hesarak is surrounded by Alborz mountains from north, Tehran-Qazvin highroad from south, Kharazmi University from west and Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute from east, so they call this suburb "Hesarak" (which means Small Hesar = Small fence in Persian).

Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute is located here.

Ibn Babawayh Cemetery

Inn Babawayh cemetery, Ebn-e Babveyh, or Ibn-e Baabevey (Persian: ابن بابويه‎) is located in Iran in the town of Rey (now inside Greater Tehran metropolitan area).

The cemetery is named after the most famous occupant, Ibn Babawayh (d.991 CE) a famous scholar of Shia Islam. He taught in Baghdad and lived in Rey at the end of his life. His works (more than 300 volumes) are used as valid sources in Jurisprudence. His most famous book is Man La-yahzar al-faqih. He died in 381 A.H. and his tomb is in Ebn-e Babooyeh.Many Iranian giants of sports, literature, arts, culture, religion, and politics are buried there. The reason for this is Rey being a Shiite pilgrimage site because of the Shah-Abdol-Azim shrine, which led many pious people to be buried near to this place.


Kamranieh (also spelled Kamraniyeh) (Persian: كامرانيه‎) is an affluent and luxury neighbourhood located in one the northernmost parts of Greater Tehran in the area called Shemiran, on the slopes of Alborz mountain range. Kamranieh is known for its luxurious high-rise buildings, costly apartments and massive mansions. Centered on Kamranieh street, the neighborhood is situated in Shemiranat County and district one of Tehran municipality.

Along with Farmanieh, Niavaran, Zafaraniyeh and Elahieh, it is now home to the most expensive real estate in Tehran. It is also the home to many Iranian nobles and notables as well as embassies and foreign officials.

The name of Kamranieh is based on the son of Naser-al-din Shah, Kamran Mirza Nayeb es-Saltaneh, who used to own much of the land in the area. Kamranieh was one of the first neighbourhoods in Tehran that was equipped with a telephone system.

In addition, the first pet hospital of Iran, Tehran Pet hospital, was established in this neighbourhood in 2004.


Niavaran (Persian: نياوران‎) is a affluent and upperclass district in the north of Tehran's foothills. Bordering leafy, uphill-winding Darband Street, it can be reached from Tajrish Square, and is close to Darabad at the far north-eastern corner of Greater Tehran.

Resalat Expressway

Resalat Expressway is an east-west expressway in Tehran, Iran.

It joins the eastern localities of Tehran metropolis, including Resalat District, to Seyed Khandan in north-central Tehran and further to western parts of the Greater Tehran.

The Resalat Tunnel was opened by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad with newlyweds being the first to drive through it. Upon praying in the tunnel at its re-opening, Rageh Omaar of the BBC prayed on the same prayer mat as Ahmadinejad at the same time.

Rey, Iran

Rey or Ray (Persian pronunciation: [ɾej]; Persian: شهر ری‎, Šahr-e Rey, “City of Ray”), also known as Rhages (; Greek: Ῥάγαι, Rhagai, or Ευρωπός, Europos; Latin: Rhagae or Rhaganae) and formerly as Arsacia, is the capital of Rey County in Tehran Province of Iran, and the oldest existing city in the province.

Ray today has been absorbed into the Greater Tehran metropolitan area. Ray is connected via the Tehran Metro to the rest of Tehran and has many industries and factories in operation. Limited excavations of what was not bulldozed began in 1997 in collaboration with the Iranian Cultural Heritage and Tourism Organization (ICHTO), the Department of Archaeological Sciences of the University of Bradford and the Department of Archaeology of the University of Tehran.

Sa'dabad Complex

The Sa'dabad Palace Complex (Persian: مجموعه سعدآباد‎ – Majmue ye Sa’dābād) is a 300 hectare complex built by the Qajar and Pahlavi monarchs, located in Shemiran, Greater Tehran, Iran. Today, the official residence of the President of Iran is located adjacent to the complex.

The complex includes more than 180 hectares of natural forest, streets, qanats, galleries, mansions/ palaces and museums.


Tehran (; Persian: تهران‎ Tehrân [tehˈɾɒːn] (listen)) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the most populous city in Iran and Western Asia, and has the second-largest metropolitan area in the Middle East. It is ranked 24th in the world by the population of its metropolitan area.In the Classical era, part of the territory of present-day Tehran was occupied by Rhages, a prominent Median city. It was subject to destruction through the medieval Arab, Turkic, and Mongol invasions. Its modern-day inheritor remains as an urban area absorbed into the metropolitan area of Greater Tehran.

Tehran was first chosen as the capital of Iran by Agha Mohammad Khan of the Qajar dynasty in 1796, in order to remain within close reach of Iran's territories in the Caucasus, before being separated from Iran as a result of the Russo-Iranian Wars, and to avoid the vying factions of the previously ruling Iranian dynasties. The capital has been moved several times throughout the history, and Tehran is the 32nd national capital of Iran. Large scale demolition and rebuilding began in the 1920s, and Tehran has been a destination for mass migrations from all over Iran since the 20th century.Tehran is home to many historical collections, including the royal complexes of Golestan, Sa'dabad, and Niavaran, where the two last dynasties of the former Imperial State of Iran were seated. Tehran's most famous landmarks include the Azadi Tower, a memorial built under the reign of Mohammad Reza Shah of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1971 to mark the 2,500th year of the foundation of the Imperial State of Iran, and the Milad Tower, the world's sixth-tallest self-supporting tower which was completed in 2007. The Tabiat Bridge, a newly-built landmark, was completed in 2014.The majority of the population of Tehran are Persian-speaking people, and roughly 99% of the population understand and speak Persian, but there are large populations of other ethno-linguistic groups who live in Tehran and speak Persian as a second language.Tehran has an international airport (Imam Khomeini Airport) , a domestic airport (Mehrabad Airport), a central railway station, the rapid transit system of Tehran Metro, a bus rapid transit system, trolleybuses, and a large network of highways.

There have been plans to relocate Iran's capital from Tehran to another area, due mainly to air pollution and the city's exposure to earthquakes. To date, no definitive plans have been approved. A 2016 survey of 230 cities by consultant Mercer ranked Tehran 203rd for quality of life. According to the Global Destinations Cities Index in 2016, Tehran is among the top ten fastest growing destinations.October 6 is marked as Tehran Day based on a 2016 decision by members of the City Council, celebrating the day when the city was officially chosen as the capital of Iran by the Qajar dynasty back in 1907.

Tehran County

Tehran County (Persian: شهرستان تهران‎) is a county in Tehran Province in Iran. The capital of the county is Tehran. At the 2006 census, the county's population was 7,882,843, in 2,313,002 families. The county is subdivided into three districts: the Central District, Kan District, and Aftab District. The county has one city: Tehran.

Greater Tehran is situated mostly in Tehran County. It is the most populous county in Iran.


Tehranpars or Tehran Pars (تهران‌پارس) is an absorbed city inside the Greater Tehran Area and is located in the north east area of the city. It is considered a neighbourhood of Tehran City and lies in Tehran's eastern flank inside the area of the 4th and 8th municipalities of Tehran.

Tehranpars has four main squares called 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th falakeh and three metro stations named Shahid Bagheri, Tehran Pars and Farhang Sara.

Farhang Sara is the eastern end-station of Tehran Metro network.

Tehranpars was built according to a project in the Pahlavi era in order to keep pace with Tehran's rapid growth. It is surrounded by planted forests of Sorkhe-hesar and Lavizan. The name Tehran Pars literally means "Tehran's Persia".

Some of the Zoroastrian centers of Tehran such as Rostam-bagh and Markar Complex are situated in Tehranpars.

The adjacent neighbourhoods to Tehranpars are Narmak, Qanat Kowsar, Lavizan, Hakimiyeh, Khak-sefid, Majidiyeh, Shahrak-e Omid.

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