Great stone-curlew

The great stone-curlew or great thick-knee (Esacus recurvirostris) is a large wader which is a resident breeder in tropical southern Asia from India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh[2] into South-east Asia.

This species prefers gravel banks along rivers or large lakes, and also beaches. A single egg is laid in a bare scrape on the open shingle.

It is mainly nocturnal or crepuscular like other stone-curlews, but can frequently be seen foraging during the day, moving slowly and deliberately, with occasional short runs. It tends to be wary and flies off into the distance ahead of the observer, employing powerful, rather stiff wingbeats.

The great thick-knee is a large wader at 49–55 cm, and has a massive 7 cm bill with the lower mandible with a sharp angle giving it an upturned appearance. It has unstreaked grey-brown upperparts and breast, with rest of the underparts whitish. The face has a striking black and white pattern, and the bill is black with a yellow base. The eyes are bright yellow and the legs a duller greenish-yellow.

In flight, the great thick-knee shows black and white flight feathers on the upperwing, and a mainly white underwing. Sexes are similar, but young birds are slightly paler than adults.

The call is a wailing whistle, given mainly at night, as with other birds in this family. The great thick-knee eats crabs, large insects, and other animal prey.

Great stone-curlew
Great thick-knee (Esacus recurvirostris)
Chambal River, Uttar Pradesh, India
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Charadriiformes
Family: Burhinidae
Genus: Esacus
Species:
E. recurvirostris
Binomial name
Esacus recurvirostris
(Cuvier, 1829)
Esacus recurvirostris and Esacus magnirostris ranges
Distribution of E. recurvirostris in dark green. E. magnirostris in light green

References

  1. ^ BirdLife International (2013). "Esacus recurvirostris". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ http://www.birdlife.org/datazone/speciesfactsheet.php?id=3086
  • Shorebirds by Hayman, Marchant and Prater ISBN 0-395-60237-8

Image gallery

Great Thick-knee

Close look at the bird.

Great Stone Curlew

Great Stone-Curlew taken in Chambal India

Esacus

Esacus is a genus of bird in the stone-curlew family Burhinidae. The genus is distributed from Pakistan and India to Australia. It contains two species, the great stone-curlew and the beach stone-curlew.

Kuno National Park

Kuno National Park is a protected area in Madhya Pradesh that received the status of national park in 2018. The protected area was established in 1981 as a wildlife sanctuary with an area of 344.686 km2 (133.084 sq mi) in the Sheopur and Morena districts. It was also known as Kuno-Palpur and Palpur-Kuno Wildlife Sanctuary. It is part of the Kathiawar-Gir dry deciduous forests ecoregion.

List of birds by common name

In this list of birds by common name, a total of 9,722 extant and recently extinct bird species are recognised, belonging to a total of 204 families.

List of birds of Bangalore

The following is a list of birds found in and around Bangalore in Karnataka, India.

The Nandi Hills, Bannerghatta forest ranges and the Kaveri valley/Sangam area are included in addition to the Bangalore city limits roughly extending 40 kilometres around the city centre (General Post Office). The area has been studied from early times due to its climate and accessibility during the Colonial period. This list also includes annotations. This list is largely based on an annotated checklist published in 1994. The family placement and sequence of families is based on the IOC world bird list (version 2.9).

List of birds of Bangladesh

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bangladesh. The avifauna of Bangladesh include a total of 466 species, of which one has been introduced by humans, and twelve are rare or accidental. Three species listed are extirpated in Bangladesh and are not included in the species count. Thirty-five species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Bangladesh.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bangladesh

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bangladesh as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Bangladesh although populations exist elsewhere

List of birds of Bhutan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Bhutan. The avifauna of Bhutan include a total of 680 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and six are rare or accidental. Twenty-two species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Bhutan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Bhutan

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Bhutan as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Cambodia

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Cambodia. The avifauna of Cambodia include a total of 553 species, of which 2 have been introduced by humans. Of these, 25 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced species are included in the total species counts for Cambodia.

The following tag has been used to highlight introduced species. The commonly occurring native species are untagged.

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Cambodia as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of China

This is a list of the bird species recorded in China. The avifauna of China include a total of 1314 species, of which 52 are endemic, two have been introduced by humans, and 56 species listed are accidental. Of these, 87 species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for China.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in China

(E) Endemic - a species native or restricted to China

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to China as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Hong Kong

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Hong Kong. The avifauna of Hong Kong include a total of 522 species, of which twenty-three have been introduced by humans. Twenty-nine species are globally threatened.This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the Hong Kong Bird List published by Hong Kong Bird Watching Society. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Hong Kong.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Hong Kong

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Hong Kong as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of India

This is a list of the bird species of India and includes extant and recently extinct species recorded within the political limits of the Republic of India as defined by the Indian government are known to have around 1266 species as of 2016, of which sixty-one are endemic to the country, one has been introduced by humans and twenty-five are rare or accidental. Two species are suspected have been extirpated in India and eighty-two species are globally threatened. The Indian peafowl (Pavo cristatus) is the national bird of India. This list does not cover species in Indian jurisdiction areas such as Dakshin Gangothri and oceanic species are delineated by an arbitrary cutoff distance. The list does not include fossil bird species or escapees from captivity.

Two of the most recently discovered birds of India are the Himalayan forest thrush and Bugun liocichla both discovered in Arunachal Pradesh in 2016 and 2006. Also, a few birds considered to be extinct, such as the Jerdon's courser, have been rediscovered. Several species have been elevated from subspecies to full species.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fit within any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - Also known as a rarity, it refers to a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in India-typically less than ten confirmed records.

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to India

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in India although populations exist elsewhere

(NB) Non-breeding range

List of birds of Laos

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Laos. The avifauna of Laos include a total of 701 species, of which two have been introduced by humans and eight are rare or accidental. Twenty-five species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Laos.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories, but not all species fall into one of these categories. Those that do not are commonly occurring native species.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Laos

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Laos as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Nepal

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Nepal. The avifauna of Nepal include a total of about 900 species (886 species recorded) which are 9% of the total bird found in the world, of which two are endemic, one has been introduced by humans and 74 are rare or accidental. Thirty-two species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Nepal.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Nepal

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Nepal

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Nepal as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

List of birds of Pakistan

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Pakistan. The avifauna of Pakistan include a total of 786 species, of which 39 are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Pakistan and is not included in the species count. The chukar (Alectoris chukar) is the official national bird of Pakistan, and the shaheen falcon is the symbolic icon of the Pakistan Air Force and Pakistan Avicultural Foundation.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) generally follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Accidental species are included in the total species count for Pakistan.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Pakistan

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Pakistan but exists in other places

List of birds of Sri Lanka

Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of India. The bird life of Sri Lanka is very rich for its size and about 433 species have been recorded. In addition to the many resident birds, a considerable number of migratory species winter in the country to escape their northern breeding grounds.

There are 452 species which are resident, of which 33 are endemic. The other resident species are also found in the nearby Indian mainland, but over 80 have developed distinct Sri Lankan races. Some of these races are very different in their plumage characteristics from the related forms in India.

Bird distribution in Sri Lanka is largely determined by its climatic zones. The dry zone is largest of the three, covering more than half of the island, with a prolonged dry and hot period and only one monsoon (the north east monsoon from October to January).

The wet zone, with two monsoons, is in the south western quarter of the island, where the few remaining rain forests are found and humidity is high.

The central hill zone rises to over 2450 m (8-10,000 ft) and has a cool temperate climate. Most of the 26 endemic species are confined to the wet and the hill zones, with only a few extending into the dry zone as well.

Recent updates and sighting information can be obtained through the Field Ornithology Group of Sri Lanka website. The following list is prepared according to An Illustrated Guide to the Birds of Sri Lanka on 2010 by Sarath Kotagama and Gamini Ratnavira.

List of birds of Vietnam

This is a list of the bird species recorded in Vietnam. The avifauna of Vietnam include a total of 848 species, of which thirteen are endemic, three have been introduced by humans and nine are rare or accidental. One species listed is extirpated in Vietnam and is not included in the species count. Forty-three species are globally threatened.

This list's taxonomic treatment (designation and sequence of orders, families and species) and nomenclature (common and scientific names) follow the conventions of The Clements Checklist of Birds of the World, 6th edition. The family accounts at the beginning of each heading reflect this taxonomy, as do the species counts found in each family account. Introduced and accidental species are included in the total counts for Vietnam.

The following tags have been used to highlight several categories. The commonly occurring native species do not fall into any of these categories.

(A) Accidental - a species that rarely or accidentally occurs in Vietnam

(E) Endemic - a species endemic to Vietnam

(I) Introduced - a species introduced to Vietnam as a consequence, direct or indirect, of human actions

(Ex) Extirpated - a species that no longer occurs in Vietnam although populations exist elsewhere

List of near threatened birds

As of May 2019, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) lists 1012 near threatened avian species. 9.3% of all evaluated avian species are listed as near threatened.

No subpopulations of birds have been evaluated by the IUCN.

This is a complete list of near threatened avian species evaluated by the IUCN. Where possible common names for taxa are given while links point to the scientific name used by the IUCN.

Stone-curlew

The stone-curlews, also known as dikkops or thick-knees, consist of nine species within the family Burhinidae, and are found throughout the tropical and temperate parts of the world, with two species found in Australia. Despite the group being classified as waders, most species have a preference for arid or semi-arid habitats.

Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary

Sundarbans East Wildlife Sanctuary, a protected forest in Bangladesh, extends over an area of 31,227 ha. of mangrove forest. It was established in 1977 under the Bangladesh Wildlife (Preservation) (Amendment) Act, 1974, having previously been a forest reserve. It is the most fertile of the three, non-adjoining wildlife sanctuaries established in the Sundarbans at that time, the others being the Sundarbans West Wildlife Sanctuary and the Sundarbans South Wildlife Sanctuary. The dominant mangrove species is "sundri" (Heritiera fomes) from which the Sundarbans region gets its name.

Yala National Park

Yala (යාල) National Park is the most visited and second largest national park in Sri Lanka, bordering the Indian Ocean. The park consists of five blocks, two of which are now open to the public, and also adjoining parks. The blocks have individual names such as, Ruhuna National Park (Block 1), and Kumana National Park or 'Yala East' for the adjoining area. It is situated in the southeast region of the country, and lies in Southern Province and Uva Province. The park covers 979 square kilometres (378 sq mi) and is located about 300 kilometres (190 mi) from Colombo. Yala was designated as a wildlife sanctuary in 1900, and, along with Wilpattu was one of the first two national parks in Sri Lanka, having been designated in 1938. The park is best known for its variety of wild animals. It is important for the conservation of Sri Lankan elephants, Sri Lankan leopards and aquatic birds.

There are six national parks and three wildlife sanctuaries in the vicinity of Yala. Among the largest is Lunugamvehera National Park. The park is situated in the dry semi-arid climatic region and rain is received mainly during the northeast monsoon. Yala hosts a variety of ecosystems ranging from moist monsoon forests to freshwater and marine wetlands. It is one of the 70 Important Bird Areas (IBAs) in Sri Lanka. Yala harbours 215 bird species including six endemic species of Sri Lanka. The number of mammals that has been recorded from the park is 44, and it has one of the highest leopard densities in the world.

The area around Yala has hosted several ancient civilizations. Two important pilgrim sites, Sithulpahuwa and Magul Vihara, are situated within the park. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami caused severe damage on the Yala National Park and 250 people died in its vicinity. The number of visitors has been on the rise since 2009, after the security situation in the park improved.

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