Great reed warbler

The great reed warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus) is a Eurasian passerine in the genus Acrocephalus.

The genus name Acrocephalus is from Ancient Greek akros, "highest", and kephale, "head". It is possible that Naumann and Naumann thought akros meant "sharp-pointed". The specific arundinaceus is from Latin and means "like a reed", from arundo, arundinis, "reed".[3]

It used to be placed in the Old World warbler assemblage, but is now recognized as part of the marsh and tree-warbler family (Acrocephalidae). Great reed warblers are medium-sized birds and are the largest of the European warblers. They breed throughout mainland Europe and Asia and migrate to sub-Saharan Africa in the winter. Great reed warblers favour reed beds as their habitat during breeding months, while living in reed beds, bush thickets, rice fields, and forest clearings during the winter. Great reed warblers exhibit relatively low sexual dimorphism, and both genders of the species are similar in appearance. This species mates both polygynously and monogamously.

Great reed warbler
Drosselrohrsänger Great reed warbler
Adult at a bird banding station
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Acrocephalidae
Genus: Acrocephalus
A. arundinaceus
Binomial name
Acrocephalus arundinaceus
AcrocephalusArundinaceusIUCN2019 1
Range of A. arundinaceus     Breeding      Passage      Non-breeding

Turdus arundinaceus Linnaeus, 1758
Acrocephalus turdoïdes[2]


The thrush-sized warbler is one of the largest species of Old World warbler. It measures 16–21 cm (6.3–8.3 in) in length, 25 to 30 cm (9.8 to 11.8 in) in wingspan and weighs 22 to 38 g (0.78 to 1.34 oz).[4][5][6] The adult has unstreaked brown upperparts and dull buffish-white chin and underparts. The forehead is flattened, and the bill is strong and pointed. It looks very much like a giant Eurasian reed warbler (A. scirpaceus), but with a stronger supercilium.

The sexes are identical, as with most old world warblers, but young birds are richer buff below.

The warbler's song is very loud and far-carrying. The song's main phrase is a chattering and creaking carr-carr-cree-cree-cree-jet-jet, to which the whistles and vocal mimicry typical of marsh warblers are added.

Distribution and ecology

Acrocephalus arundinaceus nest
Nest with clutch of eggs

The great reed warbler breeds in Europe and westernmost temperate Asia. It does not breed in Great Britain, but is an irregular visitor. Its population has in recent decades increased around the eastern Baltic Sea, while it has become rarer at the western end of its range. It is a migratory bird, wintering in tropical Africa. This bird migrates north at a rather late date, and some birds remain in their winter quarters until the end of April.[1][7][8]

While there are no subspecies of this bird, mtDNA haplotype data indicate that during the last glacial period there were two allopatric populations of great reed warbler. The great reed warblers in southwestern and southeastern Europe were at that time apparently separated by the Vistulian-Würm ice sheets and the surrounding barren lands. Though the data are insufficient to robustly infer a date for this separation, it suggests the populations became separated around 80,000 years ago – coincident with the first major advance of the ice sheets. The populations must have expanded their range again at the start of the Holocene about 13,000 years ago, but even today the western birds winter in the west and the eastern birds in the east of tropical Africa.[8]

Flickr - coniferconifer - Great Reed Warbler
Male declaring his territory

This passerine bird is found in large reed beds, often with some bushes. On their breeding grounds, they are territorial. In their winter quarters, they are frequently found in large groups, and may occupy a reed bed to the exclusion of other birds.[7] Like most warblers, it is insectivorous, but it will take other prey items of small size, including vertebrates such as tadpoles.

The great reed warbler undergoes marked long-term population fluctuations, and it is able to expand its range quickly when new habitat becomes available. This common and widespread bird is considered a species of least concern by the IUCN.[1][8] Population size can be calculated with a suitability model, but direct counts of territorial males in suitable habitat and sampling the population sex-ratio can be a proper alternative to inference-rich predictive modeling based on imperfect habitat-extrapolation of densities of reed warblers at large spatial scales.[9]



A. arundinacius has a primarily carnivorous diet. Observation of prey collection specifically during breeding season has shown the retrieval of insect larvae, moths, dragonflies, damselflies, beetles, spiders, small fish, and frogs.[12] A. arundinacius has also been reported to eat fruit during non-breeding seasons.[13] Nestlings typically feed on diptera and arachnids, though this may not be their preferred food.[14]

Communication and courtship

Song, recorded at Diaccia Botrona marsh (Italy)
Song, recorded at Macta marsh (Algeria)
Acro arundinaceus
Sonogram of Great reed warbler's song, recorded at Macta marsh (Algeria)
Great reed warbler (Kiev, Ukraine)

Male great reed warblers have been observed to communicate via two basic song types: short songs about one second in length with few syllables, and long songs of about four seconds that have more syllables and are louder than the short variety. It has been observed that long songs are primarily used by males to attract females; long songs are only given spontaneously by unpaired males, and cease with the arrival of a female. Short songs, however, are primarily used in territorial encounters with rival males.[15]

During experimental observation, male great reed warblers showed reluctance to approach recordings of short songs, and when lured in by long songs, would retreat when playback was switched to short songs.[15]

Traditionally, monogamous species of genus Acrocephalus use long, variable, and complex songs to attract mates, whereas polygynous varieties use short, simple, stereotypical songs for territorial defence. There is evidence that long songs have been evolved through intersexual selection, whereas short songs have been evolved through intrasexual selection. The great reed warbler is a notable example of these selective pressures, as it is a partial polygynist and has evolved variable song structure (both long and short) through evolutionary compromise.[15]

In addition to communication, the great reed warbler’s song size has been implicated in organism fitness and reproductive success. Though no direct relationship has been found between song size and either territory size or beneficial male qualities, such as wing length, weight, or age, strong correlation has been observed between repertoire size and territory quality. Furthermore, partial correlation analysis has shown that territory quality has significant effect on number of females obtained, while repertoire length is linked to the number of young produced.[16]

Mating system and sexual behavior

Acrocephalus arundinaceus MHNT 323
Great reed warbler eggs

Great reed warbler females lay 3–6 eggs in a basket nest in reeds. Some pairs of warblers are monogamous, but others are not, and unpaired, territory-less males still father some young.[17]

A long-term study of the factors that contribute to male fitness examined the characteristics of males and territories in relation to annual and lifetime breeding success. It showed that the arrival order of the male was the most significant factor for predicting pairing success, fledgling success, and number of offspring that survive. It also found that arrival order was closely correlated with territory attractiveness rank. Females seem to prefer early arriving males that occupy more attractive territories. These females also tend to gain direct benefits through the increased production of fledglings and offspring that become adults. In addition, male song repertoire length is positively correlated to annual harem size and overall lifetime production of offspring that survive. Song repertoire size alone is able to predict male lifetime number of surviving offspring. Females tend to be attracted to males with longer song repertoires since they tend to sire offspring with improved viability. In doing so, they gain indirect benefits for their own young.[18][19]

Great reed warblers have a short, polygynous breeding cycle in which the male contributes little to parental care. They defend large territories in reed beds where there is reduced visibility, which may allow males to practice deception by moving and attracting a second female. This second female may not realize that the male has already mated. Polygyny of the great reed warbler was assessed in another study that showed the importance of female choice. The differences in territory characteristics seemed to be more important. However, there is also a strong correlation between male and their territory characteristics. Models based on the polygyny threshold and sexy son hypotheses predict that females should gain evolutionary advantage in either short-term or long-term in this mating system, yet the study did not support this. The data showed that secondary females had greatly reduced breeding success.[20][21]


  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International (2012). "Acrocephalus arundinaceus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.2. International Union for Conservation of Nature. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
  2. ^ For instance in Gould, John (1873). The Birds of Great Britain. II. pp. Plate LXXII (and accompanying text).. See also: Digital Collections, The New York Public Library. "(still image) Acrocephalus turdoïdes. Thrush-Warbler., (1862 - 1873)". The New York Public Library, Astor, Lennox, and Tilden Foundation. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
  3. ^ Jobling, James A (2010). The Helm Dictionary of Scientific Bird Names. London: Christopher Helm. pp. 30, 56. ISBN 978-1-4081-2501-4.
  4. ^ "Acrocephalus arundinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758)".
  5. ^ Josep del Hoyo; Andrew Elliott; Jordi Sargatal, eds. (1996). Handbook of the Birds of the World (3rd ed.). Barcelona: Lynx Edicions. ISBN 84-87334-20-2.
  6. ^ Stevenson, Terry; John Fanshawe (2001). Field Guide to the Birds of East Africa: Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda, Burundi. Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0856610790.
  7. ^ a b Traylor, Marvin; Daniel Parelius (13 November 1967). "A Collection of Birds from the Ivory Coast". Fieldiana Zoology. 51 (7): 91–117.
  8. ^ a b c Bensch, Staffan; Dennis Hasselquist (1 February 1999). "Phylogeographic population structure of great reed warblers: an analysis of mtDNA control region sequences". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society. 66 (2): 171–185. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.1999.tb01882.x.
  9. ^ a b Frías, O.; Bautista, L. M.; Dénes, F. V.; Cuevas, J. A.; Martínez, F.; Blanco, G. (2018). "Influence of habitat suitability and sex-related detectability on density and population size estimates of habitat-specialist warblers". PLoS ONE. 13: 020148. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0201482.
  10. ^ Prokešová, J.; Kocian, L. (2004). "Habitat selection of two Acrocephalus warblers breeding in reed beds near Malacky (Western Slovakia)" (PDF). Biologia Bratislava. 59: 637–644.
  11. ^ Dyrcz, A.; Halupa, K. (2007). "Why does the frequency of nest parasitism by the cuckoo differ considerably between two populations of warblers living in the same habitat?". Ethology. 113: 209–213.
  12. ^ Ezaki, Yasuo (1 April 1992). "Importance of communal foraging grounds outside the reed marsh for breeding great reed warblers". Ecological Research. 7 (1): 63–70. doi:10.1007/BF02348598.
  13. ^ Grzimek, Bernhard (2002). Hutchins, Jackson; Bock, Olendorf (eds.). Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia, Vol. 11.4 (2nd ed.). Farmington Hills, MI: Gale Group. p. 17.
  14. ^ Dyrcz, Andrzej; Flinks, Heiner (1 July 2000). "Potential food resources and nestling food in the Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus arundinaceus) and Eastern Great Reed Warbler (Acrocephalus arundinaceus orientalis)". Journal für Ornithologie. 141 (3): 351–360. doi:10.1007/BF02462245.
  15. ^ a b c Catchpole, Clive K. (1 November 1983). "Variation in the song of the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus in relation to mate attraction and territorial defence". Animal Behaviour. 31 (4): 1217–1225. doi:10.1016/S0003-3472(83)80028-1.
  16. ^ Catchpole, Clive K. (1 December 1986). "Song repertoires and reproductive success in the great reed warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 19 (6): 439–445. doi:10.1007/BF00300547.
  17. ^ Leisler, B.; M. Wink (1 July 2000). "Frequencies of multiple paternity in three Acrocephalus species (Aves Sylviidae) with different mating systems (A. palustris, A. arundinaceus, A. paludicola)". Ethology Ecology & Evolution. 12 (3): 237–249. doi:10.1080/08927014.2000.9522798.
  18. ^ Catchpole, Clive; Bernd Leisler; Hans Winkler (1 March 1985). "Polygyny in the great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus: a possible case of deception". Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology. 16 (3): 285–291. doi:10.1007/BF00310992.
  19. ^ Hasselquist, Dennis (1 October 1998). "Polygyny in Great Reed Warblers: a long-term study of factors contributing to male fitness". Ecology. 79 (7): 2376–2390. doi:10.1890/0012-9658(1998)079[2376:PIGRWA]2.0.CO;2.
  20. ^ Bensch, Staffan; Dennis Hasselquist (October 1991). "Territory Infidelity in the Polygynous Great Reed Warbler Acrocephalus arundinaceus: The Effect of Variation in Territory Attractiveness". Journal of Animal Ecology. 60 (3): 857–871. doi:10.2307/5418.
  21. ^ Hasselquist, Dennis; Staffan Bensch; Torbjörn von Schantz (1 January 1995). "Low frequency of extrapair paternity in the polygynous great reed warbler, Acrocephalus arundinaceus". Behavioral Ecology. 6 (1): 27–38. doi:10.1093/beheco/6.1.27.

External links


The Acrocephalidae (the reed warblers, marsh- and tree-warblers, or acrocephalid warblers) are a family of oscine passerine birds, in the superfamily Sylvioidea.

The species in this family are usually rather large "warblers". Most are rather plain olivaceous brown above with much yellow to beige below. They are usually found in open woodland, reedbeds, or tall grass. The family occurs mostly in southern to western Eurasia and surroundings, but also ranges far into the Pacific, with some species in Africa.

Acrocephalus (bird)

The Acrocephalus warblers are small, insectivorous passerine birds belonging to the genus Acrocephalus. Formerly in the paraphyletic Old World warbler assemblage, they are now separated as the namesake of the marsh and tree warbler family Acrocephalidae. They are sometimes called marsh warblers or reed warblers, but this invites confusion with marsh warbler and reed warbler proper, especially in North America, where it is common to use lower case for bird species.

These are rather drab brownish warblers usually associated with marshes or other wetlands. Some are streaked, others plain. Many species breeding in temperate regions are migratory.

This genus has heavily diversified into many species throughout islands across the tropical Pacific. This in turn has led to many of the resulting insular endemic species to become endangered. Several of these species (including all but one of the species endemic to the Marianas and two endemic to French Polynesia) have already gone extinct.

The most enigmatic species of the genus, the large-billed reed warbler (A. orinus), was rediscovered in Thailand in March, 2006; it was found also in a remote corner of Afghanistan in the summer of 2009. Prior to these recent sightings, it had been found only once before, in 1867.

Many species have a flat head profile, which gives rise to the group's scientific name. The genus name Acrocephalus is from Ancient Greek akros, "highest", and kephale, "head". It is possible that Naumann and Naumann thought akros meant "sharp-pointed".

Basra reed warbler

The Basra reed warbler (Acrocephalus griseldis) is a "warbler" of the genus Acrocephalus. It is an endemic breeder in East and southern Iraq and Israel[1] in extensive beds of papyrus and reeds. It is easily mistaken for the great reed warbler but is a bit smaller, has whiter under parts and has a narrower, longer and more pointed bill. It winters in East Africa. It is a very rare vagrant in Europe. The call is a gruff 'chaar', deeper than a reed warbler's.

It is found in aquatic vegetation in or around shallow, fresh or brackish water, still or flowing, mainly in dense reedbeds. It is found in thickets and bushland when migrating or wintering.

In 2007, the species was discovered as a breeding bird in northern Israel.

Cehei Pond

Cehei Pond Nature Reserve (Romanian: Balta Cehei) is situated in north-western Romania, in Crasna river floodplain, in Sălaj County and is a protected area with aquatic vegetation and fauna specific to such area.

Clamorous reed warbler

The clamorous reed warbler (Acrocephalus stentoreus) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It breeds from Egypt eastwards through Pakistan, Afghanistan and northernmost India to south China, southeast Asia and south to Australia. A. s. meridionalis is an endemic race in Sri Lanka.

Common cuckoo

The common cuckoo (Cuculus canorus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, Cuculiformes, which includes the roadrunners, the anis and the coucals.

This species is a widespread summer migrant to Europe and Asia, and winters in Africa. It is a brood parasite, which means it lays eggs in the nests of other bird species, particularly of dunnocks, meadow pipits, and reed warblers. Although its eggs are larger than those of its hosts, the eggs in each type of host nest resemble the host's eggs. The adult too is a mimic, in its case of the sparrowhawk; since that species is a predator, the mimicry gives the female time to lay her eggs without being seen to do so.

Eurasian reed warbler

The Eurasian reed warbler, or just reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus) is an Old World warbler in the genus Acrocephalus. It breeds across Europe into temperate western Asia. It is migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.

Gedser Odde

Gedser Odde on the island of Falster in the Baltic Sea is Denmark's southernmost point. The terminal moraine from Idestrup through Skelby to Gedser is part of the maximum glaciation line across Falster, from Orehoved to Gedser. Fronted by low cliffs, the ridge, 5–7 m (16–23 ft) high, continues underwater a further 18 km (11 mi) south-east to Gedser Rev. Sydstenen (the south stone) marks the southernmost point.

Gray's grasshopper warbler

Gray's grasshopper warbler (Helopsaltes fasciolatus), also known as Gray's warbler, is a species of grass warbler in the family Locustellidae; it was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

The Sakhalin grasshopper warbler was formerly considered conspecific.


Haemoproteus is a genus of alveolates that are parasitic in birds, reptiles and amphibians. Its name is derived from Greek: Haima, "blood", and Proteus, a sea god who had the power of assuming different shapes. The name Haemoproteus was first used in the description of Haemoproteus columbae in the blood of the pigeon Columba livia by Kruse in 1890. This was also the first description of this genus. Two other genera — Halteridium and Simondia — are now considered to be synonyms of Haemoproteus.

The protozoa are intracellular parasites that infect the erythrocytes. They are transmitted by blood sucking insects including mosquitoes, biting midges (Culicoides), louse flies (Hippoboscidae) and tabanid flies (Tabanidae). Infection with this genus is sometimes known as pseudomalaria because of the parasites' similarities with Plasmodium species.

Within the genus there are at least 173 species, 5 varieties and 1 subspecies. Of these over 140 occur in birds, 16 in reptiles and 3 in amphibia: 14 orders and 50 families of birds are represented. These include gamebirds (Galliformes), waterfowl (Anseriformes), raptors (Accipitriformes, Falconiformes, Strigiformes), pigeons and doves (Columbiformes), and perching birds or songbirds (Passeriformes).

Hlinka (Bruntál District)

Hlinka (German: Glemkau) is a village and municipality in Bruntál District in the Moravian-Silesian Region of the Czech Republic.

Hlinka village lies in the northern part of Osoblažsko region aside from the main roads. It was founded in 1267 in connection with the German colonization of the region. German colonizers took over their Slavic ancestors‘ name of the village „Glynik“ and so the village got the German name „Glemkau“. The Slavic name is derived from clay which was mined here since Slavic times. Currently, there are 236 inhabitants living in the village.

There is a small Church of St. Valentine to be found on the village square dated back to 1813. Very impressive is the Memorial to the fallen in World War I to be found behind the village along the road from Hlinka to Dívčí Hrad. The memorial is presented as a knight (probably Roland The Knight from German legends) and the statue lost its head due to vandalism in recent years. Together with scars from World War II which the knight received during battles in Osoblažsko region the statue was given an impressive appearance which is unique especially in the sunset.

In Hlinka district near the village of Slezské Pavlovice Velký Pavlovický rybník (The great pond) Natural Reserve is situated. This natural reserve was created to protect the unique habitat as this pond serves as a stopping place for birds during its spring and autumn migrations. During this time you may see many protected birds there such as the blue winged teal, bittern, water crake, snipe and great reed – warbler and during the summer time also many protected wetland and aquatic animals.

A part of Hlinka village is a local place called Rylovka which lied on the important historical path of Leobschütz (today's Polish Glubczyce) – Osoblaha – Neustadt (Prudnik). After the war the road lost its significance mainly due to harsh socialist system and the German population transfer. In 2009 the road between Rylovka and Polish Krzyzkowice was rebuilt and as a result there is an opportunity for every tourist to visit the 12 km distant Polish city of Prudnik on foot or by bicycle. Prudnik city has its own historical centre being dominated by the „Vok Tower“ which is a remnant of a brick castle built by Rožmberks.

Itako, Ibaraki

Itako (潮来市, Itako-shi) is a city located in Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan. As of September 2015, the city had an estimated population of 29,047, and a population density of 407 persons per km2. Its total area is 71.40 square kilometres (27.57 sq mi). It is known for its annual iris festival (Itako Ayame Matsuri). Much of the city is within the borders of the Suigo-Tsukuba Quasi-National Park.

Katori, Chiba

Katori (香取市, Katori-shi) is a city located in Chiba Prefecture, Japan.

As of April 2012, the city has an estimated population of 81,240, and a population density of 310 persons per km2. The total area is 262.31 km2.

Katori Shrine is in the city of Katori, as is the old merchant town and canal of Sawara.

Lanškroun Pond Nature Park

Lanškroun Pond Nature Park is a nature reserve around the area of Lanškroun in the Ústí nad Orlicí District, Pardubice Region of the Czech Republic. Encompassing 243 ha, the park was established in 1990 as a place for relaxation and sports activities, and also for biological and aesthetic preservation. Olšový, Pšeničkův, Slunečný and Plockův are the most important ponds, providing quiet spots for fishing. The area of Lanškroun Ponds is an important nesting place for migratory birds. The common snipe, little bittern, white and black stork, water rail, osprey, great reed warbler and many duck species are among the endangered birds who nest in the area. The area is also home to European crayfish, alpine newt, European and green toad, European tree frog and other species of amphibians. The flora is typical for damp areas and includes the yellow iris, white water lilly, western marsh orchid, spring snowflake and other species.

Oriental reed warbler

The Oriental reed warbler (Acrocephalus orientalis) is a passerine bird of eastern Asia belonging to the reed warbler genus Acrocephalus. It was formerly classified as a subspecies of the great reed warbler (A. arundinaceus) of western Eurasia.

Polygyny in animals

Polygyny (; from Neo-Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is a mating system in which one male lives and mates with multiple females, but each female only mates with a single male. Systems where several females mate with several males are defined either as promiscuity or polygynandry. Lek mating is frequently regarded as a form of polygyny because one male mates with many females, but lek-based mating systems differ in that the male has no attachment to the females with whom he mates, and that mating females lack attachment to one another.Polygyny is typical of one-male, multi-female groups and can be found in many species including: elephant seal, gorilla, red-winged warbler, house wren, hamadryas baboon, common pheasant, red deer, Bengal tiger, Xylocopa varipuncta, Anthidium manicatum and elk. Oftentimes in polygynous systems, females will provide the majority of parental care.

Polygyny threshold model

The polygyny threshold model is an explanation of polygyny, the mating of one male of a species with more than one female. The model shows how females may gain a higher level of biological fitness by mating with a male who already has a mate. The female makes this choice despite other surrounding males because the choice male's genetics, territory, food supply, or other important characteristics are better than those of his competitors, even with two females on the territory.

Sakhalin grasshopper warbler

Sakhalin grasshopper warbler (Helopsaltes amnicola), is a species of grass warbler in the family Locustellidae; it was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

Thick-billed warbler

The thick-billed warbler (Arundinax aedon) breeds in temperate east Asia. It is migratory, wintering in tropical South Asia and South-east Asia. It is a very rare vagrant to western Europe.

This passerine bird is a species found in dense vegetation such as reeds, bushes and thick undergrowth. 5-6 eggs are laid in a nest in a low tree.

This is a large warbler, at 16–17.5 centimetres (6.3–6.9 in) long nearly as big as great reed warbler. The adult has an unstreaked brown back and buff underparts, with few obvious distinctive plumage features. The forehead is rounded, and the bill is short and pointed. The sexes are identical, as with most warblers, but young birds are richer buff below. Like most warblers, it is insectivorous, but will take other small prey items.

The song is fast and loud, and similar to marsh warbler, with much mimicry and typically acrocephaline whistles added.

It was sometimes placed in the monotypic genus Phragmaticola (or Phragamaticola) and for a long time as Acrocephalus and in 2009 suggested as being within the Iduna clade but a 2014 phylogeny study based on more loci suggested that it did not fit into the Iduna clade suggesting a resurrection of the genus Phragamaticola or Arundinax, the oldest available genus name which has priority.Keyserling and Blasius gave no explanation of the genus name Iduna. The specific aedon is from Latin aëdon or Ancient Greek aedon and means nightingale. In Greek mythology Aëdon was changed into a nightingale after killing her own son while attempting to murder one of the sons of her sister Niobe.

Population densities of Great reed warblers (mean±SD) in European countries
Country Method Pairs/ha Birds/ha Nests/ha Ref.
Spain Transect - 1.4 - [9]
Slovakia Nest 6.5±6.2 - - [10]
Poland Nest - - 2.5±1.8 [11]


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