Great Martyr or Great-Martyr (Greek: μεγαλομάρτυς or μεγαλομάρτυρ, megalomartys or megalomartyr, from megas, "great" + "martyr") is a classification of saints who are venerated in the Eastern Orthodox Church and those Eastern Catholic Churches which follow the Rite of Constantinople.
Generally speaking, a Great Martyr is a martyr who has undergone excruciating tortures—often performing miracles and converting unbelievers to Christianity in the process—and who has attained widespread veneration throughout the Church. These saints are often from the first centuries of the Church, before the Edict of Milan. This term is normally not applied to saints who could be better described as hieromartyrs (martyred clergy) or protomartyrs (the first martyr in a given region).
Saint Catherine of Alexandria, or Saint Katharine of Alexandria, also known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine (Coptic: Ⲙⲁⲅⲓⲁ Ⲕⲁⲧⲧⲣⲓⲛ; Greek: ἡ Ἁγία Αἰκατερίνη ἡ Μεγαλομάρτυς "Holy Catherine the Great Martyr"; Latin: Catharina Alexandrina), is, according to tradition, a Christian saint and virgin, who was martyred in the early 4th century at the hands of the pagan emperor Maxentius. According to her hagiography, she was both a princess and a noted scholar, who became a Christian around the age of 14, converted hundreds of people to Christianity, and was martyred around the age of 18. More than 1,100 years after Catherine's martyrdom, Joan of Arc identified her as one of the saints who appeared to and counselled her.The Eastern Orthodox Church venerates her as a Great Martyr and celebrates her feast day on 24 or 25 November, depending on the regional tradition. In Catholicism she is traditionally revered as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers. In 1969 the Roman Catholic Church removed her feast day from the General Roman Calendar; however, she continued to be commemorated in the Roman Martyrology on 25 November. In 2002, her feast was restored to the General Roman Calendar as an optional memorial.
Some modern scholars consider that the legend of Catherine was probably based on the life and murder of the Greek philosopher Hypatia, with reversed roles of Christians and pagans.Decoration "For Beneficence"
The Decoration "For Beneficence" (Russian: Знак отличия «За благодеяние») is a decoration of Russia, established on 3 May 2012 by decree of President Dmitry Medvedev.Demetrius of Thessaloniki
Saint Demetrios of Thessaloniki (Greek: Άγιος Δημήτριος της Θεσσαλονίκης) is a Christian martyr of the early 4th century AD.
During the Middle Ages, he came to be revered as one of the most important Orthodox military saints, often paired with Saint George. His feast day is 26 October for Eastern Orthodox Christians following the Gregorian calendar and 8 November for those following the Julian calendar. In the Roman Catholic church he is most commonly called "Demetrios of Sermium" and his memorial falls on 8 October.Eduard von Falz-Fein
Baron Eduard Oleg Alexandrowitsch von Falz-Fein (14 September 1912 – 17 November 2018) was a Russian-born Liechtensteiner businessman, journalist, and sportsman. He served as a "sports diplomat" who initiated the Olympic movement in Liechtenstein was vice president of the Liechtenstein Olympic Committee in the mid-1930s. His Father Alexander Eduardovich is an agronomist, brother of the founder of the Askania-Nova biosphere reserve, Friedrich von Falz-Fein, mother Vera Nikolaevna is from a family of generals and admirals of the Russian fleet Yepanchins.List of Eastern Orthodox saint titles
The holy figures of the Eastern Orthodox Church (and of the Eastern Catholic Churches of the Byzantine Rite) have various customary saint titles with which they are commemorated on the liturgical calendar and in Divine Services.
The following list explains the references:
Confessor: one who has suffered for the faith but not martyred outright
Enlightener: the saint who first brought the faith to a people or region, or who did major work of evangelization there
Equal-to-the-Apostles: one whose work greatly built up the Church, whether through direct missionary work or through assisting the Church's place in society
Fool-for-Christ: a saint known for his apparent, yet holy insanity
God-bearing: title given to one of the Holy Fathers
Great-martyr: one who was martyred for the faith and suffered torture
Healer: a saint who used the power of God to heal maladies and injuries
Hieroconfessor: a confessor who is also a clergyman
Hieromartyr: a martyr who is also a clergyman
Martyr: one who has died for the faith
Merciful: one known for charitable work, especially toward the poor
Myrrhbearers: the first witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus
Myrrh-streaming: the relics of the saint exude holy and sweet-smelling (and often miraculous) oil
New-martyr: a martyr often bearing the same name as a more ancient martyr, but usually more recent in the Church's history
Passion-bearer: one who faced his death in a Christ-like manner
Prophet: an Old Testament saint who anticipated Christ
Protomartyr: the first martyr in a given region (in the case of Stephen the Protomartyr, the first martyr of the whole Church)
Right-believing: an epithet used for sainted secular rulers
Righteous: a holy person under the Old Covenant (Old Testament Israel) but also sometimes used for married saints of the New Covenant (the Church)
Unmercenary Healer: a saint who used the power of God to heal maladies and injuries without charge
Venerable: a monastic saint
Venerable-martyr: a martyred monastic
Virgin martyr: an unmarried, non-monastic, chaste female martyr
Wonder-worker: a saint renowned for performing miraclesMargaret the Virgin
Margaret, known as Margaret of Antioch in the West, and as Saint Marina the Great Martyr (Greek: Ἁγία Μαρίνα) in the East, is celebrated as a saint on July 20 in the Western Rite Orthodox, Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches, on July 17 (Julian calendar) by the Eastern-Rite Orthodox Church and on Epip 23 and Hathor 23 in the Coptic Churches.Said to have been martyred in 304, she was declared apocryphal by Pope Gelasius I in 494, but devotion to her revived in the West with the Crusades.
She was reputed to have promised very powerful indulgences to those who wrote or read her life, or invoked her intercessions; these no doubt helped the spread of her cultus.Margaret is one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, and is one of the saints who spoke to Joan of Arc.Naina Yeltsina
Naina Iosifovna Yeltsina (Russian: Наина Иосифовна Ельцина, née Girina, Гирина; born 14 March 1932) is the widow of the first President of Russia, Boris Yeltsin.Order of Saint Anastasia
The Order of St. Anastasia the Holy Great Martyr 'Alleviatrix of Captives' is a dynastic order of the former Russian Imperial House for women. It was established and its statutes approved on August 20, 2010 by Grand Duchess Maria Vladimirovna.
The order is composed of only one class. The feast days of the Order are celebrated on (22 December/4 January) Holy Great Martyr Anastasia the "Alleviatrix of Captives", and 7/20 August, the day of commemoration for the Tsaritsa Anastasia Romanovna.Order of Saint Catherine the Great Martyr
The Order of St. Catherine the Great Martyr (Russian: Орден Святой великомученицы Екатерины), is a State decoration of Russia established on 3 May 2012. President Dmitry Medvedev issued a presidential decree establishing an Order of St. Catherine to honour Russians and foreigners for outstanding contributions toward peacekeeping, charity, humanitarian efforts, and the preservation of cultural heritage.Russian Orthodox Patriarchal Parishes in the USA
The Russian Orthodox Church in the USA is the name of the group of parishes of the Russian Orthodox Church in America that are under the canonical authority of the Patriarch of Moscow. They were previously known as the Russian Exarchate of North America before autocephaly was granted to the Orthodox Church in America (OCA) in 1970.
All of the parishes of the exarchate were given a choice to join the OCA at that time. The parishes that remained were the following:
St. Nicholas Church, Brookside, Alabama
St. Demetrius Monastery, Bellflower, California
Christ the Savior Church, Berkeley, California
St. Nicholas Cathedral, San Francisco, California
Church of All Saints Glorified in the Russian Land, San Francisco, California
Our Lady of Kazan Church, San Diego, California
Resurrection Church, Chicago, Illinois
Dormition Church, Benld, Illinois
Holy Trinity Church, Baltimore, Maryland
St. Elias Church, Battle Creek, Michigan
St. Innocent Church, Detroit, Michigan
St. Michael the Archangel Church, Detroit, Michigan
Church of St. Andrew the First-Called Apostle, East Lansing, Michigan
Holy Trinity Church, Saginaw, Michigan
St. John Chrysostom Church, Grand Rapids, Michigan
House Chapel of St. Seraphim of Sarov, Westtown, New York
St. Demetrius Church, Jackson, Michigan
St. Nicholas Church, Bayonne, New Jersey
Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Elizabeth, New Jersey
Three Hierarchs Church, Garfield, New Jersey
Holy Cross Church, Hackettstown, New Jersey
Sts. Peter and Paul Church; Passaic, New Jersey
St. John the Baptist Church, Singac, New Jersey
St. Olga Church, Somerset, New Jersey
St. Mark Chapel, New York
Church of St. George the Great Martyr, New York
Church of All Saints Glorified in the Russian Land, on the estate of Pine Bush, New York
St. John the Baptist Chapel, Bronx, New York
Church of All Saints Glotified in the Russian Land, Amsterdam (Wolf Run), Ohio
St. Stephen Church, Lorain, Ohio
Nativity of Christ Church, Youngstown, Ohio
St. Nicholas Church, Chester, Pennsylvania
St. Nicholas Church, Pageville, Edinboro, Pennsylvania
St. Nicholas Church, Reading, Pennsylvania
Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Mount Union, Pennsylvania
St. Nicholas Church, Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania
St. Andrew the Apostle Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
St. Michael the Archangel Church, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Scranton, Pennsylvania
Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Burgaw, North Carolina
St. Gregory the Theologian Church, Tampa, Florida
Sts. Peter and Paul Church, Manchester, New Hampshire
Church of St. George the Great Martyr, Buffalo, New York
All Exarchate parishes and clergy in Canada
St. Nicholas Cathedral, New YorkSaint Barbara
Saint Barbara (Greek: Αγία Βαρβάρα, Coptic: Ϯⲁⲅⲓⲁ Ⲃⲁⲣⲃⲁⲣⲁ), Feast Day December 4, known in the Eastern Orthodox Church as the Great Martyr Barbara, was an early Christian Greek saint and martyr. Accounts place her in the 3rd century in Heliopolis Phoenicia, present-day Baalbek, Lebanon. There is no reference to her in the authentic early Christian writings nor in the original recension of Saint Jerome's martyrology. Despite the legends detailing her story, the earliest references to her supposed 3rd century life do not appear until the 7th century, and veneration of her was common, especially in the East, from the 9th century.Because of doubts about the historicity of her legend, she was removed from the General Roman Calendar in the 1969 revision, though not from the Catholic Church's list of saints.Saint Barbara is often portrayed with miniature chains and a tower. As one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers, Barbara continues to be a popular saint in modern times, perhaps best known as the patron saint of armourers, artillerymen, military engineers, miners and others who work with explosives because of her legend's association with lightning, and also of mathematicians. A 15th-century French version of her story credits her with thirteen miracles, many turn on the security she offered that her devotees would not die before getting to make confession and receiving extreme unction.Saint Christina
Saint Christina or Christine may refer to:
Saint Christina of Persia, 6th century (feast day: March 13)
Saint Christina of Bolsena (Christina of Tyre, Christina the Great Martyr), (feast day: July 24)
Saint Christina the Astonishing (1150 – 1224), (feast day: July 24)Saint George's Cathedral (Novi Sad)
The Cathedral Church of the Holy Great-Martyr George (Serbian: Саборни храм Светог великомученика Георгија, Saborni hram Svetog velikomučenika Georgija) is the seat of the Serbian Orthodox Eparchy of Bačka, located in Novi Sad, northern Serbia. The present-day church was completed in 1905, on the ruins of a church built in 1734 and destroyed in 1849. It is located next to the Eparchy offices in the Bishop's Palace, in Nikola Pašić Street. It is commonly known as Saborna crkva ('Cathedral Church') among the city residents.Saint Irene
Saint Irene may refer to:
Irene of Thessalonica, one of the virgin sisters, feast day April 5
Irene of Rome (died c. 288), wife of martyr Saint Castulus, feast day January 22
Irene of Tomar (died c. 653), of Portugal, feast day October 20
Irene of Macedonia (4th century), considered great-martyr with feast day May 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) in Eastern Orthodox churches
Irene of Athens, Byzantine Empress, feast day August 9
Irene of Cappadocia, abbess, feast day July 28 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics) in Eastern Orthodox churches
Irene of Hungary, empress (died 1134), feast day August 13 in Eastern Orthodox churches
Hagia Irene church in Istanbul is often called "St Irene", although it is actually named after the "Holy (Divine) Peace"Saint Kyriaki
Saint Kyriaki (Greek: Αγία Κυριακή), also known as Saint Kyriaki the Great Martyr (Greek: Αγία Κυριακή η Μεγαλομάρτυς), is a Christian saint, who martyred under the emperor Diocletian.Saint Phanourios
Phanourios the Great Martyr & Newly Appeared of Rhodes is recognized as a saint by the Greek Orthodox church. He is commemorated on August 27.Saint Phanourios was awarded the Martyr's Crown in the Orthodox Christian faith.
He is also well known for finding people's lost belongings after fervent supplications.
Angelos Akotantos from Crete has painted a number of the Saint's icons many times depicting him killing a dragon; this tradition is found mainly in Crete especially in icons of the 15th century when the Saint is said to have saved many Cretans from certain death from the hands of the invading Ottomans.St. George the Great Martyr Orthodox Church
St. George the Great Martyr Orthodox Church is a historic Russian Orthodox church on St. George Island, Alaska. Now it is under Diocese of Alaska of the Orthodox Church in AmericaA first church was built on the island during 1870-78; the current church was built about five miles away in about 1935. As there were no trees on the island, all materials had to be brought in. According to a 1979 evaluation, "of all the R. 0. village churches and chapels in Alaska, this may be the best example of effective balance and integration of classic designs
to produce a building pleasing to the eye and utile in its purpose.The current church was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1980.Theodore Stratelates
Theodore Stratelates (Greek: Ἅγιος Θεόδωρος ὁ Στρατηλάτης,, translit. lit. "the General" or "Military Commander"; Coptic: ⲡⲓⲁⲅⲓⲟⲥ Ⲑⲥⲟⲇⲱⲣⲟⲥ), also known as Theodore of Heraclea (Greek: Θεόδωρος Ἡρακλείας), is a martyr and Warrior Saint venerated with the title Great-martyr in the Eastern Orthodox Church, Eastern Catholic and Roman Catholic Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches .
There is much confusion between him and St. Theodore of Amasea and they were in fact probably the same person, whose legends later diverged into two separate traditions.Tryphon, Respicius, and Nympha
Saint Tryphon (also spelled Trypho, Trifon or Triphon, and known as Tryphon of Campsada) was a 3rd century Christian saint. He is venerated by the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches as a great martyr and holy unmercenary.
Saint Tryphon was formerly celebrated jointly with Saints Respicius and Nympha on 10 November in the liturgical calendar of the Latin Church from the eleventh century until the twentieth. Saint Tryphon continues to be celebrated (separately) on 1 February [O.S. 14 February] on both the Orthodox liturgical calendar and the Roman Calendar of Saints.