Great Seal of the Realm

The Great Seal of the Realm or Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (known prior to the Treaty of Union of 1707 as the Great Seal of Great Britain and the Great Seal of Ireland; and from then until the Union of 1801 as the Great Seal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland) is a seal that is used to symbolise the Sovereign's approval of important state documents.

Scotland has had her own great seal since the 14th century. The Acts of Union 1707, joining the kingdoms of Scotland and England, provide for the use of a single Great Seal for the united kingdoms.[1] However, it also provides for the continued use of a separate Scottish seal to be used there (this seal continues to be called the "Great Seal of Scotland" though it is not technically one). The Welsh Seal was introduced in 2011.

Sealing wax is melted in a metal mould or matrix and impressed into a wax figure that is attached by cord or ribbon to documents that the Monarch wishes to make official.

The formal keeper of the seal is the Lord High Chancellor.

Reverse of the Great Seal of the Realm 1953
An impression in wax of the Great Seal of the Realm (1953)
BBC Charter
The Great Seal attached to the BBC Charter

History

Edward the Confessor sometime before A.D. 1066 started using a "Great Seal" casting in wax of his own visage to signify that a document carried the force of his will. With some exceptions, each subsequent monarch up to 1603 and the Union of the Crowns which united the crowns of Scotland and England has chosen his or her own design for the Great Seal.

When opening Parliament, on 3 September 1654, the Lord Protector Oliver Cromwell was escorted by the three "Commissioners of the Great Seal of the Commonwealth of England", who were Whitelock, Lisle, and Widdrington. This Seal was inscribed with 'The Great Seal of England, 1648', displaying the map of England, Ireland, Jersey, and Guernsey on one side, with the Arms of England and Ireland. On the other side was shown the interior of the House of Commons, the Speaker in the chair, with the inscription, 'In the first year of Freedom, by God's blessing restored, 1648.' In 1655, Cromwell appointed three Commissioners of the Great Seal of Ireland, Richard Pepys, Chief Justice of the Upper Bench, Sir Gerard Lowther, Chief Justice of the Common Bench; and Miles Corbet, Chief Baron of the Exchequer. But they held the seal only until 1656, when Cromwell nominated William Steele, Chief Baron of the Court of Exchequer in England, Lord Chancellor of Ireland.[2]

In 1688, while attempting to flee to France, James II destroyed his Great Seal, apparently by throwing it into the River Thames in the hope that the machinery of government would cease to function. James's successors, William III and Mary II, used the same seal matrix in their new Great Seal. This may have been a deliberate choice, in order to imply the continuity of government. A new obverse was created, but the reverse was crudely adapted by inserting a female figure beside the male figure. When Mary died, the obverse returned to the design used by James II, while the female figure was deleted from the reverse. Thus, William III used a seal that was identical to James II's, except for changes to the lettering and coat of arms.[3]

Edward VIII, who abdicated in order to marry Wallis Simpson only a few months after succeeding to the throne, never selected a design for his own seal and continued to use that of his predecessor, George V. The longer-lived British monarchs have had several Great Seals during their reigns. Only one matrix of the Great Seal exists at a time, and since the wax used for the Great Seal has a high melting point, the silver plates that cast the seal eventually wear out. Queen Victoria had to select four different Great Seal designs during the sixty-three years of her reign.[4]

The current seal matrix was authorised by the Privy Council in July 2001.[5] It was designed by James Butler and replaced that of 1953, designed by Gilbert Ledward. The obverse shows a middle-aged Elizabeth II enthroned and robed, holding in her right hand a sceptre and in her left the orb. The circumscription ELIZABETH . II . D . G . BRITT . REGNORVMQVE . SVORVM . CETER . REGINA . CONSORTIONIS . POPVLORVM . PRINCEPS . F . D . is the abbreviated Latin form of the royal title.[6] On the reverse are the full royal arms, including crest, mantling and supporters. This is the first time that the royal arms have provided the main design for one side of the British Great Seal. The reverse of the 1953 version depicted the Queen on horseback, dressed in uniform and riding sidesaddle, as she used to attend the annual Trooping the Colour ceremony for many years until the late 1980s. The seal's diameter is 6 inches (150 mm) and the combined weight of both sides of the seal matrix exceeds 275 troy ounces (302 oz; 8,600 g).

Usage

The Great Seal is attached to the official documents of state that require the authorisation of the monarch to implement the advice of the Government.

Under today's usage of the Great Seal, seals of dark green wax are affixed to letters patent elevating individuals to the peerage, blue seals authorise actions relating to the Royal family, and scarlet seals appoint bishops and implement various other affairs of state. In some cases the seal is replaced by a wafer version, a smaller representation of the obverse of the Great Seal embossed on coloured paper attached to the document being sealed. This simpler version is used for royal proclamations, letters-patent granting the royal assent, writs of summons to Parliament and for licences for the election of bishops and commissions of the peace. It formerly constituted treason to forge the Great Seal.

The Great Seal of the Realm is in the custody of and administered by the Lord Keeper of the Great Seal. This office has been held jointly with that of Lord Chancellor since 1761. The current Lord Chancellor is Robert Buckland. The Constitutional Reform Act 2005 reiterates that the Lord Chancellor continues to be the custodian of the Great Seal.[7]

The Clerk of the Crown in Chancery, who is also Permanent Secretary of the Ministry of Justice, heads Her Majesty's Crown Office, and is responsible for the affixing of the Great Seal. He is assisted by the Deputy Clerk of the Crown. Day-to-day custody is entrusted to the Clerk of the Chamber, and subordinate staff include a Sealer, and two Scribes to Her Majesty's Crown Office.

Section 2 of the Great Seal Act 1884 governs the use of the Great Seal of the Realm:

2 - (1) A warrant under Her Majesty’s Royal Sign Manual, countersigned by the Lord Chancellor, or by one of Her Majesty’s Principal Secretaries of State, or by the Lord High Treasurer, or two of the Commissioners of Her Majesty’s Treasury, shall be a necessary and sufficient authority for passing any instrument under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, according to the tenor of such warrant; Provided that any instrument which may now be passed under the Great Seal by the fiat or under the authority or directions of the Lord Chancellor or otherwise without passing through any other office may continue to be passed as heretofore.

(2) The Lord Chancellor may from time to time make, and when made revoke and vary, regulations respecting the passing of instruments under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, and respecting the warrants for that purpose, and the preparation of such instruments and warrants, and every such warrant shall be prepared by the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery.

(3) No person shall make or prepare any warrant for passing any instrument under the Great Seal of the United Kingdom, or procure any instrument to be passed under that Seal otherwise than in manner provided by this Act or the Crown Office Act 1877; and any person who acts in contravention of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanour.

Inscriptions on the Great Seal

The Great Seal for each successive monarch is inscribed with the monarch's names and titles on both sides of the seal. Some of those used in the past are shown below. Where the inscriptions on both sides of the seal are identical, only one is given. Where they are the same except for the use of abbreviations, the one with the fuller forms is given. Where they are different, they are shown separated by a slash.

Kingdom of England

  • Edward the Confessor. SIGILLVM EADVVARDI ANGLORVM BASILEI
    • Seal of Edward, Sovereign of the English.
  • William II. WILLELMVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM
    • William, by the grace of God, King of the English.
  • Henry I. HENRICVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM / HENRICVS DEI GRATIA DVX NORMANNORVM
    • Henry, by the grace of God, King of the English / Henry, by the grace of God, Duke of the Normans.
  • Stephen. STEPHANVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM
    • Stephen, by the grace of God, King of the English.
  • Henry II. HENRICVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM / HENR[ICVS] DEI GRA[TIA] DVX NORMANNORVM ET AQUIT[ANORVM] ET COM[ES] ANDEG[AVORVM]
    • Henry, by the grace of God, King of the English / Henry, by the grace of God, Duke of the Normans and of the Aquitanians and Count of the Angevins.
  • Richard I. RICARDVS DEI GRATIA REX ANGLORVM / RICARDVS DEI GRATIA DVX NORMANNORVM ET AQUITANORVM ET COMES ANDEGAVORVM
    • Richard, by the grace of God, King of the English / Richard, by the grace of God, Duke of the Normans and of the Aquitanians and Count of the Angevins.
  • John. IOHANNES DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE ET DOMINVS HIBERNIE / IOH[ANNE]S DVX NORMANNIE ET AQUITANIE COMES ANDEGAVIE
    • John, by the grace of God, King of England and Lord of Ireland / John, Duke of Normandy and of Aquitaine, Count of Anjou.
  • Henry III. HENRICVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HIBERNIE DVX AQUITANIE
    • Henry, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine.
  • Edward I. EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE DVX AQUITANIE
    • Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine.
  • Edward II. EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE DOMINVS HYBERNIE DVX AQUITANIE
    • Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland, Duke of Aquitaine.
  • Edward III. EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE D[OMI]N[V]S HIBERNIE ET AQUITANIE
    • Edward, by the grace of God, King of England, Lord of Ireland and of Aquitaine.
  • Richard II. RICARDVS DEI GRACIA REX FRANCIE ET ANGLIE ET D[OMI]N[V]S HIBERNIE
    • Richard, by the grace of God, King of France and England and Lord of Ireland.
  • Henry IV. HENRICVS DEI GRACIA REX FRANCIE ET ANGLIE ET D[OMI]N[V]S HIBERNIE
    • Henry, by the grace of God, King of France and England and Lord of Ireland.
  • Henry V. HENRICVS DEI GRACIA REX FRANCIE ET ANGLIE ET D[OMI]N[V]S HIBERNIE / HENRICVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE ET FRANCIE ET DOMINUS HIBERNIE
    • Henry, by the grace of God, King of France and England and Lord of Ireland / Henry, by the grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland.
  • Henry VI. HENRICVS DEI GRACIA FRANCORVM ET ANGLIE REX
    • Henry, by the grace of God, of the French and of England, King.
  • Edward IV. EDWARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE & FRANCIE ET DOMINVS HIBERNIE
    • Edward, by the grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland.
  • Richard III. RICARDVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE ET FRANCIE ET DOMINVS HIBERNIE
    • Richard, by the grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland.
  • Henry VII. HENRICVS DEI GRACIA REX ANGLIE ET FRANCIE ET DOMINVS HIBERNIE
    • Henry, by the grace of God, King of England and France and Lord of Ireland.
  • Henry VIII. HENRICVS OCTAV[V]S DEI GRATIA ANGLIE ET FRANCIE ET HIBERNIE REX FIDEI DEFE[N]SOR ET [IN] TER[R]A ECCLESIA[E] A[N]GLICANE ET HIBERNICE SVPREM[VM] CA[PVT]
    • Henry the Eighth, by the grace of God, of England and France and Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, and on Earth, of the English and Irish Church, Supreme Head.
  • Edward VI. ... EDWARDI SEXTI DEI GRATIA ANGLIE FRANCIE / ET HIBERNIE REX FIDEI DEFE[N]SOR ET IN TERRA ECCLESIE ANGLICANE ET HIBERNICE SVPREMVM CAPVT
    • ... of Edward the Sixth, by the grace of God of England, France / and of Ireland King, Defender of the Faith, and on Earth, of the English and Irish Church, Supreme Head.
  • Mary I. MARIA D[EI] G[RATIA] ANGLIE FRANCIE ET HIBERNIE REGINA EIVS NOMINIS PRIMA FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • Mary, by the grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, Queen, first of that name, Defender of the Faith.
  • Elizabeth I. ELIZABETHA DEI GRACIA ANGLIE FRANCIE ET HIBERNIE REGINA FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • Elizabeth, by the grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith.

Union of the Crowns

St Mary Magdalene, Croome, Worcs - Monument to 1st Baron Coventry (1578–1640) detail 3
Depiction of the Great Seal of the Realm (Charles I) on a 17th-century funerary monument (St Mary Magdalene's Church, Croome D'Abitot, Worcestershire)
  • James VI and I. IACOBVS DEI GRACIA ANGLIÆ SCOTIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • James, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.
  • Charles I. CAROLVS DEI GRATIA ANGLIÆ SCOTIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • Charles, by the grace of God, of England, Scotland, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.

Commonwealth

  • Commonwealth. THE GREAT SEAL OF ENGLAND / IN THE THIRD YEARE OF FREEDOME BY GODS BLESSING RESTORED
  • Oliver Cromwell. OLIVARIVS DEI GRA[TIA] REIP[VBLICÆ] ANGLIÆ SCOTIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ &C PROTECTOR
    • Oliver, by the grace of God, of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, etc., Protector.
  • Richard Cromwell. RICHARDVS DEI GRA[TIA] REIP[VBLICÆ] ANGLIÆ SCOTIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ &C PROTECTOR
    • Richard, by the grace of God, of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland, etc., Protector.

(Restored)

  • Charles II. CAROLVS II DEI GRA[TIA] MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • Charles II, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.
  • James II and VII. IACOBVS SECVNDVS DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • James the Second, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.
  • William and Mary. GVLIELMVS III ET MARIA II DEI GRA[TIA] ANG[LIÆ] FRA[NCIÆ] ET HIB[ERNIÆ] REX ET REGINA FIDEI DEFENSATORES / AUREA FLORIGERIS SUCCRESCUNT POMA ROSETIS : SECURITAS BRITANNIÆ RESTITUTA
    • William III and Mary II, by the grace of God, of England, France and Ireland, King and Queen, Defenders of the Faith / Golden apples grow in flowering rosebushes : The security of Britain restored.
  • William III. GVLIELMVS III DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • William III, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.
  • Anne. ANNA DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REGINA FID[EI] DEFENSOR
    • Anne, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith.

Kingdom of Great Britain

  • Anne. ANNA DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REGINA FID[EI] DEFENSOR / BRITANNIA ANNO REGNI ANNÆ REGINÆ SEXTO
    • Anne, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith / Britain in the sixth year of the reign of Queen Anne.
  • George I. GEORGIVS DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR / BRVNSWICEN[SIS] ET LVNENBVRGEN[SIS] DVX SACRI ROMANI IMPERII ARCHITESAVRARIVS ET PRINCEPS ELECTOR
    • George, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith / Of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Duke, of the Holy Roman Empire, Arch-treasurer and Prince-Elector.
  • George II. GEORGIVS II DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR / BRVNSWICE[NSIS] ET LVNEBVRGEN[SIS] DVX SACRI ROMANI IMPERII ARCHITHESAVRARIVS ET PRINCEPS ELECTOR
    • George II, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith / Of Brunswick and Lüneburg, Duke, of the Holy Roman Empire, Arch-treasurer and Prince-Elector.
  • George III. GEORGIVS III DEI GRATIA MAGNÆ BRITANNIÆ FRANCIÆ ET HIBERNIÆ REX FIDEI DEFENSOR[8]
    • George III, by the grace of God, of Great Britain, France, and Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith.

United Kingdom

Seal charter Cathedral Saint Alban 1900
Great Seal of the Realm of Queen Victoria attached to the charter incorporating the Dean and Chapter of the Cathedral of Saint Alban, 1900.
  • George III. GEORGIUS TERTIUS DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR[9]
    • George the Third, by the grace of God, King of the Britains, Defender of the Faith.
  • George IV. GEORGIUS QUARTUS DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR[10]
    • George the Fourth, by the grace of God, King of the Britains, Defender of the Faith.
  • William IV. GULIELMUS QUARTUS DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REX FIDEI DEFENSOR[11]
    • William the Fourth, by the grace of God, King of the Britains, Defender of the Faith.
  • Victoria. VICTORIA DEI GRATIA BRITANNIARUM REGINA FIDEI DEFENSOR
    • Victoria, by the grace of God, Queen of the Britains, Defender of the Faith.
  • Edward VII. EDWARDVS VII D:G: BRITT: ET TERRARUM TRANSMAR: QVÆ IN DIT: SVNT BRIT: REX F:D: IND:IMP:[12] (To be read: Edwardus Septimus Dei gratiâ Britanniarum et terrarum transmarinarum quae in Ditione sunt Britannicâ, Rex, Fidei Defensor, Indiae Imperator)
    • Edward VII, by the grace of God, of the Britains and of the lands across the sea which are in the British Dominion, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.
  • George V. GEORGIVS V D G MAG BR HIB ET TERR TRANSMAR QVAE IN DIT SVNT BRIT REX F D IND IMP (To be read: Georgius Quintus Dei gratiâ Magnae Britanniae, Hiberniae, et terrarum transmarinarum quae in Ditione sunt Britannicâ, Rex, Fidei Defensor, Indiae Imperator)
    • George the Fifth, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Lands across the sea which are in the British Dominion, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.
  • George VI. GEORGIUS VI D G MAG BR HIB ET TERR TRANSMAR QUAE IN DIT SUNT BRIT REX F D IND IMP (To be read: Georgius Sextus Dei gratiâ Magnae Britanniae, Hiberniae, et terrarum transmarinarum quae in Ditione sunt Britannicâ, Rex, Fidei Defensor, Indiae Imperator)
    • George the Sixth, by the Grace of God, of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Lands across the sea which are in the British Dominion, King, Defender of the Faith, Emperor of India.
  • Elizabeth II. ELIZABETH II D G BRITT REGNORVMQVE SVORVM CETER REGINA CONSORTIONIS POPVLORVM PRINCEPS F D (To be read: Elizabeth Secunda Dei Gratia Britanniarum Regnorumque Suorum Ceterorum Regina Consortionis Populorum Princeps Fidei Defensor)
    • Elizabeth II, by the Grace of God, of the Britains and her other realms Queen, Head of the Commonwealth of Nations, Defender of the Faith

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Article XXIV
  2. ^ James Roderick O'Flanagan, The lives of the Lord Chancellors and Keepers of the Great Seal of Ireland, from the earliest times to the reign of Queen Victoria, (1870), Chapter XXV. Custody Of The Great Seal During The Commonwealth.
  3. ^ Jenkinson, Hilary (1943). "What happened to the Great Seal of James II?". Antiquaries Journal. 23: 1–13. doi:10.1017/s0003581500042189.
  4. ^ Davies, Caroline (16 February 2001). "New seal of approval for Queen". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  5. ^ "Great Seal of the Realm". The Royal Household. 2009. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  6. ^ In full: Elizabeth Secunda Dei Gratia Britanniarum Regnorumque Suorum Ceterorum Regina Consortionis Populorum Princeps Fidei Defensor. This is the official Latin form of the royal title: Elizabeth II by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.
  7. ^ Constitutional Reform Act 2005, schedule 7, paragraph 1
  8. ^ Silver Imprint of the Royal Seal of George III. Live Auctioneers
  9. ^ Impression from the seal of George III, Caernarfon, 1816 - 1837 Archived 15 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine Gathering the Jewels
  10. ^ "The University's Original Charter". University of Toronto. Retrieved 25 October 2013.
  11. ^ Great Seal of England of King William IV, British Museum, engraved by Benjamin Wyon
  12. ^ W. H. Boulton; The Romance of the British Museum - The Story of Its Origins, Growth and Purpose and Some of Its Contents, Horney Press, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4437-5922-9

Bibliography

  • Bedos-Rezak, Brigitte (1986). "The king enthroned, a new theme in Anglo-Saxon royal iconography: the seal of Edward the Confessor and its political implications". In Rosenthal, J.T. (ed.). Kings and Kingship. Binghamton, NY: State University of New York: Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies. pp. 53–88.
  • Harvey, P.D.A.; McGuinness, Andrew (1996). A Guide to British Medieval Seals. London: British Library and Public Record Office. pp. 27–34. ISBN 0-7123-0410-X.
  • Jenkinson, Hilary (1936). "The Great Seal of England: deputed or departmental seals". Archaeologia. 85: 293–340. doi:10.1017/s026134090001523x.
  • Jenkinson, Hilary (1936). "The Great Seal of England: some notes and suggestions". Antiquaries Journal. 16: 8–28. doi:10.1017/s0003581500011355.
  • Jenkinson, Hilary (1938). "A new seal of Henry V". Antiquaries Journal. 18: 382–90. doi:10.1017/s0003581500015547.
  • Jenkinson, Hilary (1953). "The Great Seal of England". Journal of the Royal Society of Arts. 101: 550–63.
  • Maxwell Lyte, Sir Henry C. (1926). Historical Notes on the Use of the Great Seal of England. London: HMSO.
  • Perceval, R. W. (1948). "The Great Seal". Parliamentary Affairs. 1 (4): 40–46.
  • Wyon, Alfred Benjamin; Wyon, Allan (1887). The Great Seals of England: from the earliest period to the present time. London: E. Stock.

External links

1215

Year 1215 (MCCXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar.

Bibye Lake

Sir Bibye Lake, 1st Baronet (c. 1684 – 1744) was an English lawyer and aristocrat. He was one of the Lake baronets.

He was the only son of Thomas Lake (9 February 1656 – 22 May 1711), a Boston-born English-educated lawyer, who was a barrister of the Middle Temple, London. Thomas Lake was the son of Captain Thomas Lake, a wealthy Bostonian who was the younger half-brother of Sir Edward Lake, 1st Baronet. Captain Lake bought Arrowsic, Maine, in 1660, and was killed aged 61 in a fight with Native Americans at his trading post on 14 August 1676. He was buried in Copp's Hill Burying Ground, Boston. Sir Edward died without issue aged 77 on 18 April 1674, and his estate subsequently devolved to Thomas Lake, the son of Captain Lake.Bibye or Bibby Lake was baptised on 10 April 1684 at Bishop Norton, Lincolnshire. Bibye was the surname of Sir Edward Lake's wife, who had died more than 14 years before. He became a Bencher of the Middle Temple, London, and was Sub-Governor of the African Company. Shortly after his father's death, he made representations that his great-uncle had received a warrant from King Charles I, dated 30 December 1643, for a baronetcy with a remainder to his heirs male. The warrant had not received the Great Seal of the Realm and so was not valid, but if it had been, the baronetcy would have devolved on Bibye. A new warrant, this time sealed, was drawn up and Bibye Lake became the first baronet of a new Lake line on 17 October 1711.He married in or before 1713 Mary Atwell, daughter and heir of William Atwell of London. He was buried on 6 April 1744, in the Temple Church, aged 60, where his widow was also later buried on 23 January 1752. In or after April 1760, their bodies were re-interred at Edmonton, London, in the same vault as their eldest son, Sir Atwell Lake, 2nd Baronet.

Chancellor of Norway

The Chancellor of Norway (modern Norwegian: Norges rikes kansler, "Chancellor of Norway's Realm") was the most important aide of the King of Norway during the Middle Ages. He issued laws and regulations, and was responsible for day-to-day administration of the kingdom. From 1270, the Chancellor resided in Bergen. Haakon V of Norway moved the Chancellor's residence to Oslo; on 31 August 1314 the provost of St Mary's Church became Chancellor on a permanent basis. He was given the Great Seal of the Realm "for eternity." The Chancellors were originally chosen from the clergy. The position lost its importance after Jens Bjelke's tenure, and was abolished in 1679.

Clerk of the Crown in Chancery

In the Government of the United Kingdom, the Clerk of the Crown in Chancery is a senior civil servant who is the head of the Crown Office.

The Crown Office, a section of the Ministry of Justice, has custody of the Great Seal of the Realm, and has certain administrative functions in connection with the courts and the judicial process, as well as functions relating to the electoral process for House of Commons elections, to the keeping of the Roll of the Peerage, and to the preparation of royal documents such as warrants required to pass under the royal sign-manual, fiats, letters patent, etc.

Great Seal of Ireland

The Great Seal of Ireland was the seal used until 1922 by the Dublin Castle administration to authenticate important state documents in Ireland, in the same manner as the Great Seal of the Realm in England. The Great Seal of Ireland was used in the Lordship of Ireland (1180s–1534) and the Kingdom of Ireland (1534–1800), and remained in use when the island was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland (1801–1922), just as the Great Seal of Scotland remained in use after the Act of Union 1707.

Great Seal of Ireland (disambiguation)

The Great Seal of Ireland was the seal used before 1922 by the Dublin Castle administration in Ireland to authenticate important state documents.

Great Seal of Ireland may also refer to:

the Great Seal of Ireland introduced by Oliver Cromwell in 1655, see Great Seal of the Realm

the Seal of the President of Ireland introduced in 1937

List of Knights Commander of the Royal Victorian Order appointed by Queen Victoria

The Royal Victorian Order is an order of knighthood awarded by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth realms. It is granted personally by the monarch and recognises personal service to the monarchy, the Royal Household, royal family members, and the organisation of important royal events. The order was officially created and instituted on 23 April 1896 by letters patent under the Great Seal of the Realm by Queen Victoria. It was instituted with five grades, Knight Grand Cross (GCVO), Knight Commander (KCVO), Commander (CVO), Member (fourth class) and Member (fifth class), the last two of which were abbreviated to MVO. The two highest conferred the status of knighthood on holders; in 1984, the grade of Member (fourth class) was renamed Lieutenant (LVO), and holders of the fifth grade became Members. Women were not admitted until 1936; those receiving the highest two awards were styled Dames and those grades, when conferred on women, are Dame Grand Cross and Dame Commander (DCVO). The order could also be conferred on foreigners, who were typically appointed to honorary grades and were thus not entitled to the styles, such as Sir and Dame, associated with ordinary grades.

List of Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order appointed by Victoria

The Royal Victorian Order is an order of knighthood awarded by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth realms. It is granted personally by the monarch and recognises personal service to the monarchy, the Royal Household, royal family members, and the organisation of important royal events. The order was officially created and instituted on 23 April 1896 by letters patent under the Great Seal of the Realm by Queen Victoria. It was instituted with five grades, Knight Grand Cross (GCVO), Knight Commander (KCVO), Commander (CVO), Member (fourth class) and Member (fifth class), the last two of which were abbreviated to MVO. The two highest conferred the status of knighthood on holders; in 1984, the grade of Member (fourth class) was renamed Lieutenant (LVO), and holders of the fifth grade became Members. Women were not admitted until 1936; those receiving the highest two awards were styled Dames and those grades, when conferred on women, are Dame Grand Cross and Dame Commander (DCVO). The order could also be conferred on foreigners, who were typically appointed to honorary grades and were thus not entitled to the styles, such as Sir and Dame, associated with ordinary grades.

No limit was placed on the number of appointments which could be made. The first two appointments were to Queen Victoria's sons, Albert, Prince of Wales, and Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn, who both received the highest grade on 6 May 1896. The first honorary GCVO to be appointed was Arsène Henry, the Prefect of the Alpes Maritimes, France, two days later. Queen Victoria appointed 19 Knights Grand Cross, plus an additional 28 honorary Knights Grand Cross, between the order's institution and her death on 22 January 1901; of those 19, six were to Princes of the United Kingdom—her own children, grandchildren or other close relatives—and a further seven to those already holding a peerage.The foreign appointments included 14 Germans, six Russians, two Frenchmen, and one Austro-Hungarian, Chinese, Dane, Egyptian, Montenegrin and Spanish citizens. The King of Spain, Emperor of Germany and Prince of Montenegro were among them, along with several German princes and courtiers from Russia and Germany. Five honorary appointments were made to mark the Coronation of Nicholas II of Russia in 1896 and four to mark the occasion of the German Emperor's visit to England in 1899.

List of Knights and Dames Commander of the Royal Victorian Order appointed by George VI

The Royal Victorian Order is an order of knighthood awarded by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth realms. It is granted personally by the monarch and recognises personal service to the monarchy, the Royal Household, royal family members, and the organisation of important royal events. The order was officially created and instituted on 23 April 1896 by letters patent under the Great Seal of the Realm by Queen Victoria. It was instituted with five grades, the two highest of which were Knight Grand Cross (GCVO) and Knight Commander (KCVO), which conferred the status of knighthood on holders (apart from foreigners, who typically received honorary awards not entitling them to the style of a knight). Women were not admitted until Edward VIII altered the statutes of the order in 1936; those receiving the highest two awards were styled dames and those grades, when conferred on women, are Dame Grand Cross and Dame Commander (DCVO).No limit was placed on the number of appointments which could be made. King George VI (reigned 1937–52) appointed 102 Knights Commander and nine Dames Commander of the order.

List of Knights and Dames Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order appointed by George VI

The Royal Victorian Order is an order of knighthood awarded by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth realms. It is granted personally by the monarch and recognises personal service to the monarchy, the Royal Household, royal family members, and the organisation of important royal events. The order was officially created and instituted on 23 April 1896 by letters patent under the Great Seal of the Realm by Queen Victoria. It was instituted with five grades, the two highest of which were Knight Grand Cross (GCVO) and Knight Commander (KCVO), which conferred the status of knighthood on holders (apart from foreigners, who typically received honorary awards not entitling them to the style of a knight). Women were not admitted until Edward VIII altered the statutes of the order in 1936; those receiving the highest two awards were styled dames and those grades, when conferred on women, are Dame Grand Cross and Dame Commander (DCVO).No limit was placed on the number of appointments which could be made. King George VI appointed 43 Knights Grand Cross and 12 Dames Grand Cross between his accession to the throne on 11 December 1936 and his death on 6 February 1952.

List of knights and dames of the Royal Victorian Order appointed by Edward VIII

The Royal Victorian Order is an order of knighthood awarded by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth realms. It is granted personally by the monarch and recognises personal service to the monarchy, the Royal Household, royal family members, and the organisation of important royal events. The order was officially created and instituted on 23 April 1896 by letters patent under the Great Seal of the Realm by Queen Victoria. It was instituted with five grades, the two highest of which were Knight Grand Cross (GCVO) and Knight Commander (KCVO), which conferred the status of knighthood on holders (apart from foreigners, who typically received honorary awards not entitling them to the style of a knight). Women were not admitted until Edward VIII altered the statutes of the order in 1936; those receiving the highest two awards were styled dames and those grades, when conferred on women, are Dame Grand Cross and Dame Commander (DCVO).

No limit was placed on the number of appointments which could be made. King Edward VIII appointed 5 Knights Grand Cross, 1 Dame Grand Cross and 2 Knights Commander, between his accession to the throne on 20 January 1936 and his abdication on 11 December 1936. He appointed his mother, Queen Mary, a Dame Grand Cross; she was the only royal to receive either of the two highest grades under Edward VIII and was also the first woman appointed in the order's history. Of the Knights Grand Cross, all but one were members of the Royal Household, two of whom were recognised for their service to King George V; the other was the Lord Mayor of London, Lord Wakefield. The two Knights Commander were officers in the army. All of the appointments were made to celebrate the King's Birthday, except for Sir Philip Hunloke, who received the GCVO on 1 February 1937, back-dated to 15 July 1936.

List of officers of the Royal Victorian Order

The Royal Victorian Order is an order of knighthood awarded by the sovereign of the United Kingdom and several Commonwealth realms. It is granted personally by the monarch and recognises personal service to the monarchy, the Royal Household, royal family members, and the organisation of important royal events. The order was officially created and instituted on 23 April 1896 by letters patent under the Great Seal of the Realm by Queen Victoria. The order has had five grades since its institution, the two highest of which confer the status of knighthood on holders (apart from foreigners, who typically received honorary awards not entitling them to the style of a knight). Women were not admitted until Edward VIII altered the statutes of the order in 1936. The order has five statutory officers—Grand Master, Chancellor, Secretary, Registrar and Chaplain—as well as a non-statutory Honorary Genealogist.

The order has had a chancellor and a secretary since it was founded; the former office is held ex officio by the Lord Chamberlain of the Royal Household, while the office of secretary has been held ex officio by the Keeper of the Privy Purse (except for the years 1936 to 1943 when the King's Private Secretary was also the order's secretary). The order has had a registrar since 1916; the first appointee was the Secretary of the Private Secretary's Office, Sir Francis Morgan Bryant, while his two successors were Secretaries to the Privy Purse; since 1936, the Registrar has always been the Secretary of the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood. On 1 February 1937, King George VI appointed his Queen, Elizabeth (later the Queen Mother) as the order's inaugural Grand Master; after her death in 2002, the office fell vacant until Elizabeth II appointed her daughter, Princess Anne, Princess Royal, Grand Master. The Savoy Chapel was made the order's chapel in 1938 and its chaplain has also been ex officio the order's chaplain ever since. Since 1938, the order has also had an Honorary Genealogist, who has also been an Officer of Arms, although appointees are not technically officers of the order, there being no provision for it in the statutes.

Lord Chancellor

The Lord Chancellor, formally the Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, is the highest ranking among those Great Officers of State which are appointed regularly in the United Kingdom, nominally outranking the Prime Minister. The Lord Chancellor is outranked only by the Lord High Steward, another Great Officer of State, who is appointed only for the day of coronations. The Lord Chancellor is appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the Prime Minister. Prior to the Union there were separate Lord Chancellors for England and Wales, for Scotland and for Ireland.

The Lord Chancellor is a member of the Cabinet and, by law, is responsible for the efficient functioning and independence of the courts. In 2007, there were a number of changes to the legal system and to the office of the Lord Chancellor. Formerly, the Lord Chancellor was also the presiding officer of the House of Lords, the head of the judiciary in England and Wales and the presiding judge of the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice, but the Constitutional Reform Act 2005 transferred these roles to the Lord Speaker, the Lord Chief Justice and the Chancellor of the High Court respectively. The current Lord Chancellor is Robert Buckland, who is also Secretary of State for Justice.

One of the Lord Chancellor's responsibilities is to act as the custodian of the Great Seal of the Realm, kept historically in the Lord Chancellor's Purse. A Lord Keeper of the Great Seal may be appointed instead of a Lord Chancellor. The two offices entail exactly the same duties; the only distinction is in the mode of appointment. Furthermore, the office of Lord Chancellor may be exercised by a committee of individuals known as Lords Commissioners of the Great Seal, usually when there is a delay between an outgoing Chancellor and their replacement. The seal is then said to be "in commission". Since the 19th century, however, only Lord Chancellors have been appointed, the other offices having fallen into disuse.

Master of the Rolls

The Keeper or Master of the Rolls and Records of the Chancery of England, known as the Master of the Rolls, is the second-most senior judge in England and Wales after the Lord Chief Justice, and serves as President of the Civil Division of the Court of Appeal and Head of Civil Justice. The position dates from at least 1286, although it is believed that the office probably existed earlier than that.The Master of the Rolls was initially a clerk responsible for keeping the "Rolls" or records of the Court of Chancery, and was known as the Keeper of the Rolls of Chancery. The Keeper was the most senior of the dozen Chancery clerks, and as such occasionally acted as keeper of the Great Seal of the Realm. The post evolved into a judicial one as the Court of Chancery did; the first reference to judicial duties dates from 1520. With the Judicature Act 1873, which merged the Court of Chancery with the other major courts, the Master of the Rolls joined the Chancery Division of the High Court and the Court of Appeal, but left the Chancery Division by the terms of the Judicature Act 1881. The Master of the Rolls had also been warden of the little-used Domus Conversorum for housing Jewish converts, which led to the house and chapel being used to store legal documents and later becoming the location of the Public Record Office. He retained his clerical functions as the nominal head of the Public Record Office until the Public Records Act 1958 transferred responsibility for it to the Lord Chancellor. One residual reminder of this role is the fact that the Master of the Rolls of the day continues to serve, ex officio, as President of the British Records Association. The Master of the Rolls was also previously responsible for registering solicitors, the officers of the Senior Courts.One of the most prominent people to hold the position was Thomas Cromwell, a highly influential figure during the reign of Henry VIII; more recently, Lord Denning held the position for 20 years, from 1962 to 1982, and made sweeping changes in the common law. On 3 October 2016, Sir Terence Etherton succeeded Lord Dyson as Master of the Rolls.

Purse Bearer

The Purse bearer is an official in the Royal Households of the United Kingdom, and based in the Ministry of Justice.

The use of a special purse or burse to hold the Great Seal of the Realm, the Lord Chancellor's symbol of Office, can be traced as far back as the end of the 13th Century. The purse is solemnly carried before the Lord Chancellor in procession on State occasions.It no longer contains the Great Seal which now reposes at the Palace of Westminster; it is however used by the Lord Chancellor to convey the signed copy of the Queen's Speech printed on vellum, from the Queen's Robing Room to the steps of the Throne in the Chamber of the House of Lords, at every State Opening of Parliament.The Purse presently in use is made from crimson velvet and lavishly embellished with the Royal Arms and Emblems.

Royal seal (disambiguation)

Royal seal can refer to:

Great Seal of the Realm, United Kingdom

Great Seal of Scotland

Great Seal of Northern Ireland

Great Seal of Canada

Serjeant-at-law

A Serjeant-at-Law (SL), commonly known simply as a Serjeant, was a member of an order of barristers at the English and Irish bar. The position of Serjeant-at-Law (servientes ad legem), or Sergeant-Counter, was centuries old; there are writs dating to 1300 which identify them as descended from figures in France before the Norman Conquest. The Serjeants were the oldest formally created order in England, having been brought into existence as a body by Henry II. The order rose during the 16th century as a small, elite group of lawyers who took much of the work in the central common law courts. With the creation of Queen's Counsel (or "Queen's Counsel Extraordinary") during the reign of Elizabeth I, the order gradually began to decline, with each monarch opting to create more King's or Queen's Counsel. The Serjeants' exclusive jurisdictions were ended during the 19th century and, with the Judicature Act 1873 coming into force in 1875, it was felt that there was no need to have such figures, and no more were created. The last appointed was Nathaniel Lindley, later a Law Lord, who retired in 1905 and died in 1921. The number of Irish Serjeants-at-law was limited to three (originally one, later two). The last appointment was A. M. Sullivan in 1912; after his 1921 relocation to the English bar he remained "Serjeant Sullivan" as a courtesy title.

The Serjeants had for many centuries exclusive jurisdiction over the Court of Common Pleas, being the only lawyers allowed to argue a case there. At the same time they had rights of audience in the other central common law courts (the Court of King's Bench and Exchequer of Pleas) and precedence over all other lawyers. Only Serjeants-at-Law could become judges of these courts right up into the 19th century, and socially the Serjeants ranked above Knights Bachelor and Companions of the Bath. Within the Serjeants-at-Law were more distinct orders; the King's Serjeants, particularly favoured Serjeants-at-Law, and within that the King's Premier Serjeant, the Monarch's most favoured Serjeant, and the King's Ancient Serjeant, the oldest. Serjeants (except King's Serjeants) were created by Writ of Summons under the Great Seal of the Realm and wore a special and distinctive dress, the chief feature of which was the coif, a white lawn or silk skullcap, afterwards represented by a round piece of white lace at the top of the wig.

Treasurer's House, Martock

The Treasurer's House is a National Trust-owned property in Martock, in the English county of Somerset. It has been designated as a grade I listed building. Apart from the Bishop's Palace, Wells it is the oldest house in the county.

The original 13th-century buildings have been added to several times, including a 15th-century great hall which has an arch-braced-collar truss roof. Several of the rooms have wall paintings which have been uncovered and restored since the National Trust were given the building in 1970. The house belonged to the Bishop of Bath and Wells and at one time was used to store the Great Seal of the Realm when John Langton was the chancellor of England.

William Rawlinson (Commissioner)

Sir William Rawlinson (1640–1703) was an English serjeant-at-law and Commissioner for the Great Seal of the Realm between 1688 and 1693.

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