Great Migration (African American)

The Great Migration, sometimes known as the Great Northward Migration, or the Black Migration, was the movement of six million African Americans out of the rural Southern United States to the urban Northeast, Midwest, and West that occurred between 1916 and 1970.[1] In every U.S. Census prior to 1910, more than 90 percent of the African-American population lived in the American South.[2] In 1900, only one-fifth of African Americans living in the South were living in urban areas.[3] By the end of the Great Migration, just over 50 percent of the African-American population remained in the South, while a little less than 50 percent lived in the North and West,[4] and the African-American population had become highly urbanized. By 1960, of those African Americans still living in the South, half now lived in urban areas,[3] and by 1970, more than 80 percent of African Americans nationwide lived in cities.[5] In 1991, Nicholas Lemann wrote that:

The Great Migration was one of the largest and most rapid mass internal movements in history—perhaps the greatest not caused by the immediate threat of execution or starvation. In sheer numbers it outranks the migration of any other ethnic group—Italians or Irish or Jews or Poles—to [the United States]. For blacks, the migration meant leaving what had always been their economic and social base in America, and finding a new one.[6]

Some historians differentiate between a first Great Migration (1916–1940), which saw about 1.6 million people move from mostly rural areas in the south to northern industrial cities, and a Second Great Migration (1940–1970), which began after the Great Depression and brought at least 5 million people—including many townspeople with urban skills—to the north and west.[7]

Since the Civil Rights Movement, a less rapid reverse migration has occurred. Dubbed the New Great Migration, it has seen a gradual increase of African American migration to the South, generally to states and cities where economic opportunities are the best. The reasons include economic difficulties of cities in the Northeastern and Midwestern United States, growth of jobs in the "New South" and its lower cost of living, family and kinship ties, and improved racial relations. As early as 1975 to 1980, several southern states were net African-American migration gainers, while in 2014, African-American millennials moved in the highest numbers to Texas, Georgia, Florida, North Carolina, and California.[8] African-American populations have continued to drop throughout much of the Northeast, especially from the state of New York[8][9] and northern New Jersey,[10] as they rise in the South.

Percentage of African American population living in the American South
Graph showing the percentage of the African-American population living in the American South, 1790–2010
GreatMigration1910to1970-UrbanPopulation
The Great Migration shown through changes in African Americans share of population in major US cities, 1910–1940 and 1940–1970

Numbers and destinations

Census 1900 Percent Black
Map of Black share of population in the 1900 US Census

James Gregory calculates decade-by-decade migration volumes in his book, The Southern Diaspora. Black migration picked up from the start of the new century, with 204,000 leaving in the first decade. The pace accelerated with the outbreak of World War I and continued through the 1920s. By 1930, there were 1.3 million former southerners living in other regions.[11]

The Great Depression wiped out job opportunities in the northern industrial belt, especially for African Americans, and caused a sharp reduction in migration. In the 1930s and 1940s, increasing mechanization of agriculture virtually brought the institution of sharecropping that had existed since the Civil War to an end in the United States causing many landless black farmers to be forced off of the land.[12]

As a result, approximately 1.4 million black southerners moved north or west in the 1940s, followed by 1.1 million in the 1950s, and another 2.4 million people in the 1960s and early 1970s. By the late 1970s, as deindustrialization and the Rust Belt crisis took hold, the Great Migration came to an end. But, in a reflection of changing economics, as well as the end of Jim Crow laws in the 1960s and improving race relations in the South, in the 1980s and early 1990s, more black Americans were heading South than leaving that region.[13]

African Americans moved from the 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Texas, and Georgia. Census figures show that African Americans went from 52.2% of the population in 1920 to 45.3% of the population in 1950 in Mississippi, from 41.7% in 1920 to 30.9% of the population in 1950 in Georgia, from 38.9% in 1920 to 32.9% of the population in 1950 in Louisiana, from 38.4% in 1920 to 32.0% of the population in 1950 in Alabama, and 36.0% in 1920 to 31.0% of the population in Texas.[13] Based on the total populations in each of the five states, only Georgia (-143,188) showed a net decrease in its African American population in 1950 compared to 1920. Louisiana (+183,256), Texas (+67,664), Alabama (+78,206) and Mississippi (+52,346) showed net increases in their African American populations in 1950 compared to 1920, with the percentage decreasing due to the white population increasing more.[11] Big cities were the principal destinations of southerners throughout the two phases of the Great Migration. In the first phase, eight major cities attracted two-thirds of the migrants: New York and Chicago, followed in order by Philadelphia, St. Louis, Denver, Detroit, Pittsburgh, and Indianapolis. The Second great black migration increased the populations of these cities while adding others as destinations, including the Western states. Western cities such as Los Angeles, San Francisco, Oakland, Phoenix, Seattle, and Portland attracted African Americans in large numbers.[11]

There were clear migratory patterns that linked particular states and cities in the South to corresponding destinations in the North and West. Almost half of those who migrated from Mississippi during the first Great Migration, for example, ended up in Chicago, while those from Virginia tended to move to Philadelphia. For the most part, these patterns were related to geography, with the closest cities attracting the most migrants (such as Los Angeles and San Francisco receiving a disproportionate number of migrants from Texas and Louisiana). When multiple destinations were equidistant, chain migration played a larger role, with migrants following the path set by those before them.[14]

Demographics, tensions and employment sectors

When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863, less than eight percent of the African-American population lived in the Northeastern or Midwestern United States.[15] This began to change over the next decade; by 1880, a migration was underway to Kansas. The U.S. Senate ordered an investigation into it.[16] In 1900, about 90 percent of blacks still lived in Southern states.[15]

African Americans moved as individuals or small family groups. There was no government assistance, but often northern industries, such as the railroads, meatpacking, and stockyards, sometimes paid for transportation and relocation.

Between 1910 and 1930, the African-American population increased by about forty percent in Northern states as a result of the migration, mostly in the major cities. The cities of Philadelphia, Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland, Baltimore, and New York City had some of the biggest increases in the early part of the twentieth century. Tens of thousands of blacks were recruited for industrial jobs, such as positions related to the expansion of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Because changes were concentrated in cities, which had also attracted millions of new or recent European immigrants, tensions rose as the people competed for jobs and scarce housing. Tensions were often most severe between ethnic Irish, defending their recently gained positions and territory, and recent immigrants and blacks.

Tensions and violence

In the late summer and autumn of 1919, racial tensions became violent and came to be known as the Red Summer. This period of time was defined by violence and prolonged rioting between blacks and whites in major United States cities.[17] The reasons for this violence vary. Cities that were affected by the violence included Washington D.C., Chicago, Omaha, Knoxville, Tennessee, and Elaine, Arkansas, a small rural town 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Memphis.[18]

The race riots peaked in Chicago, for the most violence and death occurred there during the riots.[19] According to The Negro in Chicago; a study of race relations and a race riot, an official report from 1922 on race relations in Chicago, came to the conclusion that there were many factors that led to the violent outbursts in Chicago. Principally, many blacks were assuming the jobs of white men who went to go fight in World War I. As the war ended in 1918, many men returned home to find out their jobs had been taken by black men who were willing to work for far less.[18] By the time the rioting and violence had subsided in Chicago, 38 people had lost their life, with hundreds more injured. In other cities across the nation many more had been affected by the violence of the Red Summer. The Red Summer enlightened many to the growing racial tension in America. The violence in these major cities prefaced the soon to follow Harlem Renaissance, an African-American cultural revolution, in the 1920s.[19]

Causes

Linchamientos
Racially motivated murders per decade from 1865 to 1965.

The primary factors for migration among southern African Americans were segregation, an increase in the spread of racist ideology, widespread lynching (nearly 3,500 African Americans were lynched between 1882 and 1968[20]), and lack of social and economic opportunities in the South. In the south, Blacks were harshly treated, and were not expected to be anything other than a slave. This theory created by society allowed for Blacks to move full force into the movement. There were also factors that pulled migrants to the north, such as labor shortages in northern factories brought about by World War I, resulting in thousands of jobs in steel mills, railroads, meatpacking plants, and the automobile industry.[21] The pull of jobs in the north was strengthened by the efforts of labor agents sent by northern businessmen to recruit southern workers.[21] Northern companies offered special incentives to encourage black workers to relocate, including free transportation and low-cost housing.[14]

Cultural changes

After moving from the racist pressures of the south to the northern states, African Americans were inspired to different kinds of creativity. The Great Migration resulted in the Harlem Renaissance, which was also fired by immigrants from the Caribbean. In her Pulitzer Prize–winning book The Warmth of Other Suns, journalist Isabel Wilkerson discusses the migration of "six million black Southerners [moving] out of the terror of Jim Crow to an uncertain existence in the North and Midwest."[22]

The struggle of African-American migrants to adapt to Northern cities was the subject of Jacob Lawrence's Migration Series of paintings, created when he was a young man in New York.[23] Exhibited in 1941 at the Museum of Modern Art, Lawrence's Series attracted wide attention; he was quickly perceived as one of the most important African-American artists of the time.[24]

The Great Migration had effects on music as well as other cultural subjects. Many blues singers migrated from the Mississippi Delta to Chicago to escape racial discrimination. Muddy Waters, Chester Burnett, and Buddy Guy are among the most well-known blues artists who migrated to Chicago. Great Delta-born pianist Eddie Boyd told Living Blues magazine, "I thought of coming to Chicago where I could get away from some of that racism and where I would have an opportunity to, well, do something with my talent.... It wasn't peaches and cream [in Chicago], man, but it was a hell of a lot better than down there where I was born."[25]

Effects

Demographic changes

The Great Migration drained off much of the rural black population of the South, and for a time, froze or reduced African-American population growth in parts of the region. In a number of states, there were decades of black population decline, especially across the Deep South "black belt" where cotton had been king. The migration changed the demographics of the South. In 1910, African Americans constituted the majority of the population of South Carolina and Mississippi, and more than 40 percent in Georgia, Alabama, Louisiana and Texas; by 1970, only in Mississippi did the African-American population constitute more than 30 percent of the state's total. "The disappearance of the 'black belt' was one of the striking effects" of the Great Migration, James Gregory wrote.[26]

In Mississippi, blacks decreased from about 56% of the population in 1910 to about 37% by 1970,[27] remaining the majority only in some Delta counties. In Georgia, blacks decreased from about 45% of the population in 1910 to about 26% by 1970. In South Carolina, blacks decreased from about 55% of the population in 1910 to about 30% by 1970.[27]

The growing black presence outside the South changed the dynamics and demographics of numerous cities in the North, Midwest and West. In 1900, only 740,000 African Americans lived outside the South, just 8 percent of the nation's total black population. By 1970, more than 10.6 million African Americans lived outside the South, 47 percent of the nation's total.[26]

Because the migrants concentrated in the big cities of the north and west, their influence was magnified in those places. Cities that had been virtually all white at the start of the century became centers of black culture and politics by mid-century. Informal residential segregation and the tendency of people to settle with others of their home communities led to concentrations of blacks in certain areas. The northern "Black metropolises" developed an important infrastructure of newspapers, businesses, jazz clubs, churches, and political organizations that provided the staging ground for new forms of racial politics and new forms of black culture.

As a result of the Great Migration, the first large urban black communities developed in northern cities beyond New York, Boston, Baltimore, Washington D.C., and Philadelphia, which had black communities even before the Civil War, and attracted migrants after the war. It is conservatively estimated that 400,000 African Americans left the South in 1916 through 1918 to take advantage of a labor shortage in industrial cities during the First World War.[28]

In 1910, the African-American population of Detroit was 6,000. The Great Migration, along with immigrants from southern and eastern Europe as well as their descendants, rapidly turned the city into the country's fourth-largest. By the start of the Great Depression in 1929, the city's African-American population had increased to 120,000.

In 1900–01, Chicago had a total population of 1,754,473.[29] By 1920, the city had added more than 1 million residents. During the second wave of the Great Migration (1940–60), the African-American population in the city grew from 278,000 to 813,000.

BLACK YOUTHS PLAY BASKETBALL AT STATEWAY GARDENS' HIGHRISE HOUSING PROJECT ON CHICAGO'S SOUTH SIDE. THE COMPLEX HAS... - NARA - 556162
African-American youths play basketball in Chicago's Stateway Gardens high-rise housing project in 1973.

The flow of African Americans to Ohio, particularly to Cleveland, changed the demographics of the state and its primary industrial city. Before the Great Migration, an estimated 1.1% to 1.6% of Cleveland's population was African American.[30] By 1920, 4.3% of Cleveland's population was African American.[30] The number of African Americans in Cleveland continued to rise over the next 20 years of the Great Migration.

Other northeastern and midwestern industrial cities, such as Philadelphia, New York City, Baltimore, Pittsburgh, St. Louis, and Omaha, also had dramatic increases in their African-American populations. By the 1920s, New York's Harlem became a center of black cultural life, influenced by the American migrants as well as new immigrants from the Caribbean area.

Second-tier industrial cities that were destinations for numerous black migrants were Buffalo, Rochester, Boston, Milwaukee, Minneapolis, Kansas City, Columbus, Cincinnati, Grand Rapids and Indianapolis, and smaller industrial cities such as Chester, Gary, Dayton, Erie, Toledo, Youngstown, Peoria, Muskegon, Newark, Flint, Saginaw, New Haven, and Albany. People tended to take the cheapest rail ticket possible and go to areas where they had relatives and friends. For example, many people from Mississippi moved directly north by train to Chicago, from Alabama to Cleveland and Detroit, from Georgia and South Carolina to New York City, Baltimore, Washington D.C. and Philadelphia, and in the second migration, from Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi to Oakland, Los Angeles, Portland, Phoenix, Denver, and Seattle.

Discrimination and working conditions

Bronxhub1.jpeg
The Hub is the retail heart of the South Bronx, New York City.[31]

Educated African Americans were better able to obtain jobs after the Great Migration, eventually gaining a measure of class mobility, but the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination. Because so many people migrated in a short period of time, the African-American migrants were often resented by the urban white working class (often recent immigrants themselves); fearing their ability to negotiate rates of pay or secure employment, the ethnic whites felt threatened by the influx of new labor competition. Sometimes those who were most fearful or resentful were the last immigrants of the 19th and new immigrants of the 20th century.

African Americans made substantial gains in industrial employment, particularly in the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, and meatpacking industries. Between 1910 and 1920, the number of blacks employed in industry nearly doubled from 500,000 to 901,000.[28] After the Great Depression, more advances took place after workers in the steel and meatpacking industries organized into labor unions in the 1930s and 1940s, under the interracial Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO). The unions ended the segregation of many jobs, and African Americans began to advance into more skilled jobs and supervisory positions previously informally reserved for whites.

Between 1940 and 1960, the number of blacks in managerial and administrative occupations doubled, along with the number of blacks in white-collar occupations, while the number of black agricultural workers in 1960 fell to one-fourth of what it was in 1940.[32] Also, between 1936 and 1959, black income relative to white income more than doubled in various skilled trades.[33] Despite employment discrimination, blacks had higher labor force participation rates than whites in every U.S. Census from 1890 to 1950.[34] As a result of these advancements, the percentage of black families living below the poverty line declined from 87 percent in 1940 to 47 percent by 1960 and to 30 percent by 1970.[35]

Populations increased so rapidly among both African-American migrants and new European immigrants that there were housing shortages in most major cities. With fewer resources, the newer groups were forced to compete for the oldest, most run-down housing. Ethnic groups created territories which they defended against change. Discrimination often restricted African Americans to crowded neighborhoods. The more established populations of cities tended to move to newer housing as it was developing in the outskirts. Mortgage discrimination and redlining in inner city areas limited the newer African-American migrants' ability to determine their own housing, or obtain a fair price. In the long term, the National Housing Act of 1934 contributed to limiting the availability of loans to urban areas, particularly those areas inhabited by African Americans.[36]

Integration and segregation

We want white tenants
White tenants seeking to prevent blacks from moving into the Sojourner Truth housing project in Detroit erected this sign, 1942

In cities such as Newark, New York and Chicago, African Americans became increasingly integrated into society. As they lived and worked more closely with European Americans, the divide became increasingly indefinite. This period marked the transition for many African Americans from lifestyles as rural farmers to urban industrial workers.[37]

This migration gave birth to a cultural boom in cities such as Chicago and New York. In Chicago for instance, the neighborhood of Bronzeville became known as the "Black Metropolis". From 1924 to 1929, the "Black Metropolis" was at the peak of its golden years. Many of the community's entrepreneurs were black during this period. "The foundation of the first African American YMCA took place in Bronzeville, and worked to help incoming migrants find jobs in the city of Chicago."[38] The "Black Belt" geographical and racial isolation of this community, bordered to the north and east by whites, and to the south and west by industrial sites and ethnic immigrant neighborhoods, made it a site for the study of the development of an urban black community. For urbanized people, eating proper foods in a sanitary, civilized setting such as the home or a restaurant was a social ritual that indicated one's level of respectability. The people native to Chicago had pride in the high level of integration in Chicago restaurants, which they attributed to their unassailable manners and refined tastes.[39]

Migrants often encountered residential discrimination, in which white home owners and realtors prevented migrants from purchasing homes or renting apartments in white neighborhoods. In addition, when numerous blacks moved into white neighborhoods, whites would quickly relocate out of fear of a potential rise in property crime, rape, drugs and violence that was attributed to neighborhoods with large black populations. These tendencies contributed to maintaining the "racial divide" in the North, perhaps accentuating it. By the late 1950s and 1960s, African Americans were hyper-urban, more densely concentrated in inner cities than other groups.

Since African-American migrants retained many Southern cultural and linguistic traits, such cultural differences created a sense of "otherness" in terms of their reception by others who were already living in the cities.[40] Stereotypes ascribed to black people during this period and ensuing generations often derived from African-American migrants' rural cultural traditions, which were maintained in stark contrast to the urban environments in which the people resided.[40]

Second and New Great Migration

The Great Depression of the 1930s resulted in reduced migration because of decreased opportunities. With the defense buildup for World War II and with the post-war economic prosperity, migration was revived, with larger numbers of blacks leaving the South through the 1960s. After the political and civil gains of the Civil Rights Movement, in the 1970s migration began to increase again. It moved in a different direction, as blacks traveled to new regions of the South for economic opportunity.

White southern reaction

The beginning of the Great Migration exposed a paradox in race relations in the American South at that time. Although blacks were treated with extreme hostility and subjected to legal discrimination, the southern economy was deeply dependent on them as an abundant supply of cheap labor, and black workers were seen as the most critical factor in the economic development of the South. One South Carolina politician summed up the dilemma: "Politically speaking, there are far too many negroes, but from an industrial standpoint there is room for many more."[41]

When the Great Migration started in the 1910s, white southern elites seemed to be unconcerned, and industrialists and cotton planters saw it as a positive, as it was siphoning off surplus industrial and agricultural labor. As the migration picked up, however, southern elites began to panic, fearing that a prolonged black exodus would bankrupt the South, and newspaper editorials warned of the danger. White employers eventually took notice and began expressing their fears. White southerners soon began trying to stem the flow in order to prevent the hemorrhaging of their labor supply, and some began attempting to address the poor living standards and racial oppression experienced by Southern blacks in order to induce them to stay.

As a result, southern employers increased their wages to match those on offer in the North, and some individual employers opposed the worst excesses of Jim Crow laws. When the measures failed to stem the tide, white southerners, in concert with federal officials who feared the rise of black nationalism, co-operated in attempting to coerce blacks to stay in the South. The Southern Metal Trades Association urged decisive action to stop black migration, and some employers undertook serious efforts against it. The largest southern steel manufacturer refused to cash checks sent to finance black migration, efforts were made to restrict bus and train access for blacks, agents were stationed in northern cities to report on wage levels, unionization, and the rise of black nationalism, and newspapers were pressured to divert more coverage to negative aspects of black life in the North. A series of local and federal directives were put into place with the goal of restricting black mobility, including local vagrancy ordinances, "work or fight" laws demanding all males either be employed or serve in the army, and conscription orders. Intimidation and beatings were also used to terrorize blacks into staying.[41][42]These intimidation tactics were described by Secretary of Labor William B. Wilson as interfering with "the natural right of workers to move from place to place at their own discretion".[43]

During the wave of migration that took place in the 1940s, white southerners were less concerned, as mechanization of agriculture in the late 1930s had resulted in another labor surplus so southern planters put up less resistance.[41]

In popular culture

The Great Migration is a backdrop of the 2013 film The Butler, as the Forest Whitaker character Cecil Gaines moves from a plantation in Georgia to become a butler at the White House.

Statistics

African Americans as a Percentage of the Total Population By U.S. Region (1900–2010)[44][45][46]
Region 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Change in the Black Percentage of the Total Population Between 1900 and 2010
 United States 11.6% 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.3% 12.6% +1.0%
Northeast 1.8% 1.9% 2.3% 3.3% 3.8% 5.1% 6.8% 8.9% 9.9% 11.0% 11.4% 11.8% +10.0%
Midwest 1.9% 1.8% 2.3% 3.3% 3.5% 5.0% 6.7% 8.1% 9.1% 9.6% 10.1% 10.4% +8.5%
South 32.3% 29.8% 26.9% 24.7% 23.8% 21.7% 20.6% 19.1% 18.6% 18.5% 18.9% 19.2% -13.1%
West 0.7% 0.7% 0.9% 1.0% 1.2% 2.9% 3.9% 4.9% 5.2% 5.4% 4.9% 4.8% +4.1%
African Americans as a Percentage of the Total Population By U.S. State (1900–2010)[44][45][46]
State Region 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Change in the Black Percentage of the Total Population Between 1900 and 2010
 United States N/A 11.6% 10.7% 9.9% 9.7% 9.8% 10.0% 10.5% 11.1% 11.7% 12.1% 12.3% 12.6% +1.0%
 Alabama South 45.2% 42.5% 38.4% 35.7% 34.7% 32.0% 30.0% 26.2% 25.6% 25.3% 26.0% 26.2% -19.0%
 Alaska West 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 3.0% 3.0% 3.4% 4.1% 3.5% 3.3% +3.0%
 Arizona West 1.5% 1.0% 2.4% 2.5% 3.0% 3.5% 3.3% 3.0% 2.8% 3.0% 3.1% 4.1% +2.6%
 Arkansas South 28.0% 28.1% 27.0% 25.8% 24.8% 22.3% 21.8% 18.3% 16.3% 15.9% 15.7% 15.4% -12.6%
 California West 0.7% 0.9% 1.1% 1.4% 1.8% 4.4% 5.6% 7.0% 7.7% 7.4% 6.7% 6.2% +5.5%
 Colorado West 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.1% 1.1% 1.5% 2.3% 3.0% 3.5% 4.0% 3.8% 4.0% +2.4%
 Connecticut Northeast 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 1.9% 2.7% 4.2% 6.0% 7.0% 8.3% 9.1% 10.1% +8.4%
 Delaware South 16.6% 15.4% 13.6% 13.7% 13.5% 13.7% 13.6% 14.3% 16.1% 16.9% 19.2% 21.4% +4.8%
 District of Columbia South 31.1% 28.5% 25.1% 27.1% 28.2% 35.0% 53.9% 71.1% 70.3% 65.8% 60.0% 50.7% +19.6%
 Florida South 43.7% 41.0% 34.0% 29.4% 27.1% 21.8% 17.8% 15.3% 13.8% 13.6% 14.6% 16.0% -27.7%
 Georgia South 46.7% 45.1% 41.7% 36.8% 34.7% 30.9% 28.5% 25.9% 26.8% 27.0% 28.7% 30.5% -16.2%
 Hawaii West 0.2% 0.4% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.5% 0.8% 1.0% 1.8% 2.5% 1.8% 1.6% +1.4%
 Idaho West 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% +0.4%
 Illinois Midwest 1.8% 1.9% 2.8% 4.3% 4.9% 7.4% 10.3% 12.8% 14.7% 14.8% 15.1% 14.5% +12.7%
 Indiana Midwest 2.3% 2.2% 2.8% 3.5% 3.6% 4.4% 5.8% 6.9% 7.6% 7.8% 8.4% 9.1% +6.8%
 Iowa Midwest 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.7% 0.8% 0.9% 1.2% 1.4% 1.7% 2.1% 2.9% +2.3%
 Kansas Midwest 3.5% 3.2% 3.3% 3.5% 3.6% 3.8% 4.2% 4.8% 5.3% 5.8% 5.7% 5.9% +2.4%
 Kentucky South 13.3% 11.4% 9.8% 8.6% 7.5% 6.9% 7.1% 7.2% 7.1% 7.1% 7.3% 7.8% -5.5%
 Louisiana South 47.1% 43.1% 38.9% 36.9% 35.9% 32.9% 31.9% 29.8% 29.4% 30.8% 32.5% 32.0% -15.1%
 Maine Northeast 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.5% 1.2% +1.0%
 Maryland South 19.8% 17.9% 16.9% 16.9% 16.6% 16.5% 16.7% 17.8% 22.7% 24.9% 27.9% 29.4% +9.6%
 Massachusetts Northeast 1.1% 1.1% 1.2% 1.2% 1.3% 1.6% 2.2% 3.1% 3.9% 5.0% 5.4% 6.6% +5.5%
 Michigan Midwest 0.7% 0.6% 1.6% 3.5% 4.0% 6.9% 9.2% 11.2% 12.9% 13.9% 14.2% 14.2% +13.5%
 Minnesota Midwest 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.4% 0.4% 0.5% 0.7% 0.9% 1.3% 2.2% 3.5% 5.2% +4.9%
 Mississippi South 58.5% 56.2% 52.2% 50.2% 49.2% 45.3% 42.0% 36.8% 35.2% 35.6% 36.3% 37.0% -21.5%
 Missouri Midwest 5.2% 4.8% 5.2% 6.2% 6.5% 7.5% 9.0% 10.3% 10.5% 10.7% 11.2% 11.6% +6.4%
 Montana West 0.6% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% -0.2%
 Nebraska Midwest 0.6% 0.6% 1.0% 1.0% 1.1% 1.5% 2.1% 2.7% 3.1% 3.6% 4.0% 4.5% +3.9%
 Nevada West 0.3% 0.6% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 2.7% 4.7% 5.7% 6.4% 6.6% 6.8% 8.1% +7.8%
 New Hampshire Northeast 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.6% 0.7% 1.1% +0.9%
 New Jersey Northeast 3.7% 3.5% 3.7% 5.2% 5.5% 6.6% 8.5% 10.7% 12.6% 13.4% 13.6% 13.7% +10.0%
 New Mexico West 0.8% 0.5% 1.6% 0.7% 0.9% 1.2% 1.8% 1.9% 1.8% 2.0% 1.9% 2.1% +1.3%
 New York Northeast 1.4% 1.5% 1.9% 3.3% 4.2% 6.2% 8.4% 11.9% 13.7% 15.9% 15.9% 15.9% +14.5%
 North Carolina South 33.0% 31.6% 29.8% 29.0% 27.5% 25.8% 24.5% 22.2% 22.4% 22.0% 21.6% 21.5% -11.5%
 North Dakota West 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.0% 0.0% 0.1% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 0.6% 1.2% +1.1%
 Ohio Midwest 2.3% 2.3% 3.2% 4.7% 4.9% 6.5% 8.1% 9.1% 10.0% 10.6% 11.5% 12.2% +9.9%
 Oklahoma South 7.0% 8.3% 7.4% 7.2% 7.2% 6.5% 6.6% 6.7% 6.8% 7.4% 7.6% 7.4% +0.4%
 Oregon West 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.8% 1.0% 1.3% 1.4% 1.6% 1.6% 1.8% +1.5%
 Pennsylvania Northeast 2.5% 2.5% 3.3% 4.5% 4.7% 6.1% 7.5% 8.6% 8.8% 9.2% 10.0% 10.8% +8.3%
 Rhode Island Northeast 2.1% 1.8% 1.7% 1.4% 1.5% 1.8% 2.1% 2.7% 2.9% 3.9% 4.5% 5.7% +3.6%
 South Carolina South 58.4% 55.2% 51.4% 45.6% 42.9% 38.8% 34.8% 30.5% 30.4% 29.8% 29.5% 27.9% -30.5%
 South Dakota West 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 0.6% 1.3% +1.2%
 Tennessee South 23.8% 21.7% 19.3% 18.3% 17.4% 16.1% 16.5% 15.8% 15.8% 16.0% 16.4% 16.7% -7.1%
 Texas South 20.4% 17.7% 15.9% 14.7% 14.4% 12.7% 12.4% 12.5% 12.0% 11.9% 11.5% 11.8% -8.6%
 Utah West 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.2% 0.2% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.6% 0.7% 0.8% 1.1% +0.9%
 Vermont Northeast 0.2% 0.5% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2% 0.3% 0.5% 1.0% +0.8%
 Virginia South 35.6% 32.6% 29.9% 26.8% 24.7% 22.1% 20.6% 18.5% 18.9% 18.8% 19.6% 19.4% -16.2%
 Washington West 0.5% 0.5% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 1.3% 1.7% 2.1% 2.6% 3.1% 3.2% 3.6% +3.1%
 West Virginia South 4.5% 5.3% 5.9% 6.6% 6.2% 5.7% 4.8% 3.9% 3.3% 3.1% 3.2% 3.4% -1.1%
 Wisconsin Midwest 0.1% 0.1% 0.2% 0.4% 0.4% 0.8% 1.9% 2.9% 3.9% 5.0% 5.7% 6.3% +6.2%
 Wyoming West 1.0% 1.5% 0.7% 0.6% 0.4% 0.9% 0.7% 0.8% 0.7% 0.8% 0.8% 0.8% -0.2%
African Americans as a Percentage of the Population By Large U.S. Cities (Those With a Peak Population of 500,000 or More by 1990) Outside of the Former Confederacy[47][48]
City 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Change in the Black Percentage of the Total Population Between 1900 and 1990
Phoenix, Arizona 2.7% 2.9% 3.7% 4.9% 6.5% 4.9% 4.8% 4.8% 4.8% 5.2% +2.5%
Los Angeles, California 2.1% 2.4% 2.7% 3.1% 4.2% 8.7% 13.5% 17.9% 17.0% 14.0% +11.9%
San Diego, California 1.8% 1.5% 1.3% 1.8% 2.0% 4.5% 6.0% 7.6% 8.9% 9.4% +7.6%
San Francisco, California 0.5% 0.4% 0.5% 0.6% 0.8% 5.6% 10.0% 13.4% 12.7% 10.9% +10.4%
San Jose, California 1.0% 0.6% 0.5% 0.4% 0.4% 0.6% 1.0% 2.5% 4.6% 4.7% +3.7%
Denver, Colorado 2.9% 2.5% 2.4% 2.5% 2.4% 3.6% 6.1% 9.1% 12.0% 12.8% +9.9%
Washington, District of Columbia 31.1% 28.5% 25.1% 27.1% 28.2% 35.0% 53.9% 71.1% 70.3% 65.8% +34.7%
Chicago, Illinois 1.8% 2.0% 4.1% 6.9% 8.2% 13.6% 22.9% 32.7% 39.8% 39.1% +37.3%
Indianapolis, Indiana 9.4% 9.3% 11.0% 12.1% 13.2% 15.0% 20.6% 18.0% 21.8% 22.6% +13.2%
Baltimore, Maryland 15.6% 15.2% 14.8% 17.7% 19.3% 23.7% 34.7% 46.4% 54.8% 59.2% +43.6%
Boston, Massachusetts 2.1% 2.0% 2.2% 2.6% 3.1% 5.0% 9.1% 16.3% 22.4% 25.6% +23.5%
Detroit, Michigan 1.4% 1.2% 4.1% 7.7% 9.2% 16.2% 28.9% 43.7% 63.1% 75.7% +74.3%
Minneapolis, Minnesota 0.8% 0.9% 1.0% 0.9% 0.9% 1.3% 2.4% 4.4% 7.7% 13.0% +12.2%
Kansas City, Missouri 10.7% 9.5% 9.5% 9.6% 10.4% 12.2% 17.5% 22.1% 27.4% 29.6% +18.9%
St. Louis, Missouri 6.2% 6.4% 9.0% 11.4% 13.3% 17.9% 28.6% 40.9% 45.6% 47.5% +41.3%
Buffalo, New York 0.5% 0.4% 0.9% 2.4% 3.1% 6.3% 13.3% 20.4% 26.6% 30.7% +30.2%
New York City, New York 1.8% 1.9% 2.7% 4.7% 6.1% 9.5% 14.0% 21.1% 25.2% 28.7% +26.9%
Cincinnati, Ohio 4.4% 5.4% 7.5% 10.6% 12.2% 15.5% 21.6% 27.6% 33.8% 37.9% +33.5%
Cleveland, Ohio 1.6% 1.5% 4.3% 8.0% 9.6% 16.2% 28.6% 38.3% 43.8% 46.6% +45.0%
Columbus, Ohio 6.5% 7.0% 9.4% 11.3% 11.7% 12.4% 16.4% 18.5% 22.1% 22.6% +16.1%
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 4.8% 5.5% 7.4% 11.3% 13.0% 18.2% 26.4% 33.6% 37.8% 39.9% +35.1%
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 5.3% 4.8% 6.4% 8.2% 9.3% 12.2% 16.7% 20.2% 24.0% 25.8% +20.5%
Seattle, Washington 0.5% 1.0% 0.9% 0.9% 1.0% 3.4% 4.8% 7.1% 9.5% 10.1% +9.6%
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 0.3% 0.3% 0.5% 1.3% 1.5% 3.4% 8.4% 14.7% 23.1% 30.5% +30.2%
African Americans as a Percentage of the Population By Large U.S. Cities (Those With a Peak Population of 500,000 or More by 1990) Inside the Former Confederacy[47][48]
City 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Change in the Black Percentage of the Total Population Between 1900 and 1990
Jacksonville, Florida 57.1% 50.8% 45.3% 37.2% 35.7% 35.4% 41.1% 22.3% 25.4% 25.2% -31.9%
New Orleans, Louisiana 27.1% 26.3% 26.1% 28.3% 30.1% 31.9% 37.2% 45.0% 55.3% 61.9% +34.8%
Memphis, Tennessee 48.8% 40.0% 37.7% 38.1% 41.5% 37.2% 37.0% 38.9% 47.6% 54.8% +6.0%
Dallas, Texas 21.2% 19.6% 15.1% 14.9% 17.1% 13.1% 19.0% 24.9% 29.4% 29.5% +8.3%
El Paso, Texas 2.9% 3.7% 1.7% 1.8% 2.3% 2.4% 2.1% 2.3% 3.2% 3.4% +0.5%
Houston, Texas 32.7% 30.4% 24.6% 21.7% 22.4% 20.9% 22.9% 25.7% 27.6% 28.1% -4.6%
San Antonio, Texas 14.1% 11.1% 8.9% 7.8% 7.6% 7.0% 7.1% 7.6% 7.3% 7.0% -7.1%
Black % by U.S. state 1900

A map of the black percentage of the U.S. population by each state/territory in 1900.
Black = 35.00+%
Brown = 20.00-34.99%
Red = 10.00-19.99%
Orange = 5.00-9.99%
Light orange = 1.00-4.99%
Gray = 0.99% or less
Magenta = No data available

Black % by U.S. state 1990

A map of the black percentage of the U.S. population by each state/territory in 1990.
Black = 35.00+%
Brown = 20.00–34.99%
Red = 10.00–19.99%
Orange = 5.00–9.99%
Light orange = 1.00–4.99%
Gray = 0.99% or less
Pink = No data available

Black population % change by U.S. state 1900 1990

A map showing the change in the total Black population (in percent) between 1900 and 1990 by U.S. state.
Light purple = Population decline
Very light green = Population growth of 0.01–9.99%
Light green = Population growth of 10.00–99.99%
Green = Population growth of 100.00–999.99%
Dark green = Population growth of 1,000.00–9,999.99%
Very dark green (or Black) = Population growth of 10,000.00% or more
Gray = No data available

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ Great Migration – Black History – HISTORY.com, History.com, retrieved April 9, 2017
  2. ^ Gibson, Campbell; Jung, Kay (September 2002). HISTORICAL CENSUS STATISTICS ON POPULATION TOTALS BY RACE, 1790 TO 1990, AND BY HISPANIC ORIGIN, 1970 TO 1990, FOR THE UNITED STATES, REGIONS, DIVISIONS, AND STATES (PDF) (Report). Population Division Working Papers. 56. United States Census Bureau.
  3. ^ a b Taeuber, Karl E.; Taeuber, Alma F. (1966), "The Negro Population in the United States", in Davis, John P. (ed.), The American Negro Reference Book, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, p. 122
  4. ^ "The Second Great Migration", The African American Migration Experience, New York Public Library, retrieved January 17, 2017
  5. ^ "The Second Great Migration", The African American Migration Experience, New York Public Library, retrieved March 23, 2016
  6. ^ Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 6. ISBN 0-394-56004-3.
  7. ^ William H. Frey, "The New Great Migration: Black Americans' Return to the South, 1965–2000", The Brookings Institution, May 2004, pp. 1–3 Archived 2013-06-17 at the Wayback Machine, accessed 19 March 2008.
  8. ^ a b Reniqua Allen (July 8, 2017). "Racism Is Everywhere, So Why Not Move South?". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  9. ^ Dan Bilefsky (June 21, 2011). "For New Life, Blacks in City Head to South". The New York Times. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  10. ^ Dave Sheingold via The Record (February 27, 2011). "North Jersey black families leaving for lure of new South". Charleston Gazette-Mail. Retrieved July 9, 2017.
  11. ^ a b c Gregory, James N. (2009) "The Second Great Migration: An Historical Overview," African American Urban History: The Dynamics of Race, Class and Gender since World War II, eds. Joe W. Trotter Jr. and Kenneth L. Kusmer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, p. 22.
  12. ^ Gordon Marshall, "Sharecropping," Encyclopedia.com, 1998.
  13. ^ a b Gregory, James N. (2005)The Southern Diaspora: How the Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, pp. 12–17.
  14. ^ a b Kopf, Dan (January 28, 2016). "The Great Migration: The African American Exodus from The South". Priceonomics. Retrieved February 2, 2016.
  15. ^ a b Census, United States Bureau of the (July 23, 2010). "Migrations – The African-American Mosaic Exhibition – Exhibitions (Library of Congress)". www.loc.gov.
  16. ^ "Exodus to Kansas". August 15, 2016.
  17. ^ Broussard, Albert S. (Spring 2011). "New Perspectives on Lynching, Race Riots, and Mob Violence". Journal of American Ethnic History. 30 (3): 71–75 – via EBSCO.
  18. ^ a b Chicago Commission on Race Relations. The Negro in Chicago: A Study in Race Relations and a Race Riot in 1919. Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1922.
  19. ^ a b "Chicago Race Riot of 1919." Encyclopedia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., n.d. Web. 20 May 2017.<https://www.britannica.com/event/Chicago-Race-Riot-of-1919>.
  20. ^ "Lynchings: By State and Race, 1882–1968". University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Law. Archived from the original on June 29, 2010. Retrieved July 26, 2010. Statistics provided by the Archives at Tuskegee Institute.
  21. ^ a b Hine, Darlene; Hine, William; Harrold, Stanley (2012). African Americans: A Concise History (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson Education, Inc. pp. 388–389. ISBN 978-0-205-80627-0.
  22. ^ "Review: The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration". Publishers Weekly. September 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
  23. ^ www.sbctc.edu (adapted). "Module 1: Introduction and Definitions" (PDF). Saylor.org. Retrieved April 2, 2012.
  24. ^ Cotter, Holland (June 10, 2000). "Jacob Lawrence Is Dead at 82; Vivid Painter Who Chronicled Odyssey of Black Americans". The New York Times. Retrieved June 15, 2018.
  25. ^ David P. Szatmary, Rockin' in Time, 8th ed. (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, 2014), p. 8
  26. ^ a b Gregory (2005), p. 18.
  27. ^ a b Gibson, Campbell and Kay Jung (September 2002). Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States. Archived 2014-12-24 at the Wayback Machine U.S. Bureau of the Census – Population Division.
  28. ^ a b James Gilbertlove, "African Americans and the American Labor Movement", Prologue, Summer 1997, Vol. 29.
  29. ^ Gibson, Campbell (June 1998). Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990 Archived 2007-03-14 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Bureau of the Census – Population Division.
  30. ^ a b Gibson, Campbell, and Kay Jung. "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals by Race, 1790 to 1990, and by Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, for Large Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States." U.S. Census Bureau, February 2005.
  31. ^ A Brief Look at The Bronx, Bronx Historical Society. Accessed September 23, 2007. Archived August 7, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  32. ^ Miller, Aurelia Toyer (1980), "The Social and Economic Status of the Black Population in the U.S.: An Historical View, 1790–1978", The Review of Black Political Economy, 10 (3): 314–318
  33. ^ Ashenfelter, Orley (1970), "Changes in Labor Market Discrimination Over Time", The Journal of Human Resources, 5 (4): 403
  34. ^ Historical Statistics of the United States: From Colonial Times to 1957, Washington, D.C.: U.S. Census Bureau, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1960, p. 72
  35. ^ Thernstrom, Stephan; Thernstrom, Abigail (1997), America in Black and White: One Nation, Indivisible, New York: Simon & Schuster, p. 232
  36. ^ Gotham, Kevin Fox (2000). "Racialization and the State: The Housing Act of 1934 and the Creation of the Federal Housing Administration". Sociological Perspectives. 43 (2): 291–317. JSTOR 1389798.
  37. ^ Black exodus : the great migration from the American South. Harrison, Alferdteen. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi. 1991. ISBN 9781604738216. OCLC 775352334.CS1 maint: others (link)
  38. ^ "History". The Renaissance Collaborative.
  39. ^ Poe, Tracy N. (1999). "The Origins of Soul Food in Black Urban Identity: Chicago, 1915-1947," American Studies International. XXXVII No. 1 (February)
  40. ^ a b 'Ruralizing' the City: Theory, Culture, History, and Power in the Urban Environment Archived September 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine
  41. ^ a b c Reich, Steven A.: The Great Black Migration: A Historical Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic
  42. ^ Anderson, Talmadge and Stewart, James Benjamin: Introduction to African American Studies: Transdisciplinary Approaches and Implications
  43. ^ Elaine),, Anderson, Carol (Carol. White rage : the unspoken truth of our racial divide. New York, NY. ISBN 9781632864123. OCLC 945729575.
  44. ^ a b Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For The United States, Regions, Divisions, and States Archived 2014-12-24 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ a b "The Black Population: 2000" (PDF).
  46. ^ a b "The Black Population: 2010" (PDF).
  47. ^ a b Population Division Working Paper – Historical Census Statistics On Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990 – U.S. Census Bureau Archived 2012-08-06 at WebCite
  48. ^ a b Yax, Population Division, Laura K. "Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places In The United States: 1790 to 1990". www.census.gov.

Further reading

  • Carl Zimmer, "Tales of African-American History Found in DNA", New York Times, 27 May 2016
  • Arnesen, Eric (2002). Black Protest and the Great Migration: A Brief History with Documents. Bedford: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-39129-3.
  • Baldwin, Davarian L. Chicago's New Negroes: Modernity, the Great Migration, & Black Urban Life (Univ of North Carolina Press, 2007)
  • DeSantis, Alan D. "Selling the American dream myth to black southerners: The Chicago Defender and the Great Migration of 1915–1919." Western Journal of Communication (1998) 62#4 pp: 474-511. online
  • Dove, Rita (1986). Thomas and Beulah. Carnegie Mellon University Press. ISBN 0-88748-021-7.
  • Gregory, James N. (2007). The Southern Diaspora: How the Great Migrations of Black and White Southerners Transformed America. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5651-7.
  • Grossman, James R. (1991). Land of Hope: Chicago, Black Southerners, and the Great Migration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0-226-30995-9.
  • Holley, Donald. The Second Great Emancipation: The Mechanical Cotton Picker, Black Migration, and How They Shaped the Modern South (University of Arkansas Press, 2000)
  • Lemann, Nicholas (1991). The Promised Land: The Great Black Migration and How It Changed America. Vintage Press. ISBN 0-679-73347-7.
  • Marks, Carole. Farewell--We're Good and Gone: the great Black migration (Indiana Univ Press, 1989)
  • Reich, Steven A. ed. The Great Black Migration: A Historical Encyclopedia of the American Mosaic (2014), one-volume abridged version of 2006 three volume set; Topical entries plus primary sources
  • Rodgers, Lawrence Richard. Canaan Bound: The African-American Great Migration Novel (University of Illinois Press, 1997)
  • Sernett, Milton (1997). Bound for the Promised Land: African Americans' Religion and the Great Migration. Duke University Press. ISBN 0-8223-1993-4.
  • Scott, Emmett J. (1920). Negro Migration during the War.
  • Sernett, Milton C. Bound for the promised land: African American religion and the great migration (Duke University Press, 1997)
  • Tolnay, Stewart E. "The African American" Great Migration" and Beyond." Annual Review of Sociology (2003): 209-232. in JSTOR
  • Tolnay, Stewart E. "The great migration and changes in the northern black family, 1940 to 1990." Social Forces (1997) 75#4 pp: 1213–1238.
  • Trotter, Joe William, ed. The Great Migration in historical perspective: New dimensions of race, class, and gender (Indiana University Press, 1991)
  • Wilkerson, Isabel (2010). The Warmth of Other Suns: The Epic Story of America's Great Migration. Random House. ISBN 978-0-679-60407-5. OCLC 741763572.

External links

Alabama

Alabama () is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama is the 30th largest by area and the 24th-most populous of the U.S. states. With a total of 1,500 miles (2,400 km) of inland waterways, Alabama has among the most of any state.Alabama is nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, after the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie" and the "Cotton State". The state tree is the longleaf pine, and the state flower is the camellia. Alabama's capital is Montgomery. The largest city by population is Birmingham, which has long been the most industrialized city; the largest city by land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile, founded by French colonists in 1702 as the capital of French Louisiana.From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many states in the southern U.S., suffered economic hardship, in part because of its continued dependence on agriculture. Similar to other former slave states, Alabamian legislators employed Jim Crow laws to disenfranchise and otherwise discriminate against African Americans from the end of the Reconstruction Era up until at least the 1970s. Despite the growth of major industries and urban centers, white rural interests dominated the state legislature from 1901 to the 1960s. During this time, urban interests and African Americans were markedly under-represented. Following World War II, Alabama grew as the state's economy changed from one primarily based on agriculture to one with diversified interests. The state's economy in the 21st century is based on management, automotive, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mineral extraction, healthcare, education, retail, and technology.

Black Belt (U.S. region)

The Black Belt is a region of the Southern United States. The term originally described the prairies and dark fertile soil of central Alabama and northeast Mississippi. Because this area in the 19th century was historically developed for cotton plantations based on enslaved African American labor, the term became associated with these conditions. It was generally applied to a much larger agricultural region in the Southern US characterized by a history of cotton plantation agriculture in the 19th century and a high percentage of African Americans outside metropolitan areas. The enslaved peoples were freed after the American Civil War, and many continued to work in agriculture afterward. Their descendants make up much of the African-American population of the United States.

During the first half of the 19th Century, as many as one million enslaved Africans were transported through sales in the domestic slave trade to the Deep South in a forced migration to work as laborers for the region's cotton plantations. After having lived enslaved for several generations in the area, many remained as rural workers, tenant farmers and sharecroppers after the Civil War and emancipation. Beginning in the early 20th century and up to 1970, a total of six million black people left the South in the Great Migration to find work and other opportunities in the industrial cities of the Northeast, Midwest, and West.

Because of relative isolation and lack of economic development, the rural communities in the Black Belt have historically faced acute poverty, rural exodus, inadequate education programs, low educational attainment, poor health care, urban decay, substandard housing, and high levels of crime and unemployment. In December 2017, the Special Rapporteur of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights declared Alabama was the most impoverished area in the developed world. Given the history of decades of racial segregation into the late 20th century, African-American residents have been disproportionately most affected, but these problems apply broadly to all ethnic groups in the rural Black Belt. The region and its boundaries have varying definitions, but it is generally considered a band through the center of the Deep South, although stretching from as far north as Delaware to as far west as East Texas.

Dance in the United States

There is great variety in dance in the United States of America. It is the home of the hip hop dance, tap dance and its derivative Rock and Roll, and modern square dance (associated with the United States of America due to its historic development in that country—twenty three U.S. states have designated it as their official state dance or official folk dance) and one of the major centers for modern dance. There is a variety of social dance and concert or performance dance forms with also a range of traditions of Native American dances.

The reality shows and competitions So You Think You Can Dance, America's Best Dance Crew, and Dancing with the Stars, have broadened the audience for dance.

Drawl

A drawl is a perceived feature of some varieties of spoken English, and generally indicates slower, longer vowel sounds and diphthongs. It is often perceived as a method of speaking more slowly, and may be erroneously attributed to laziness or fatigue.This particular speech pattern exists primarily in varieties of the English language, most noticeable of which are Southern American English, Broad Australian English, and Broad New Zealand English. It is believed to have its origin in the 1590-1600s Dutch or low German word "dralen /ˈdraːlə(n)/" meaning to linger. The most commonly recognized Southern Drawl features the diphthongization or triphthongization of the traditional short front vowels, as in the words pat, pet, and pit. These develop a glide up from their original starting position to [j] and, in some cases, back down to schwa.

Effie Neal Jones

Effie Neal Jones, (November 15, 1919 – April 30, 2002) was an American civil rights activist, food services provider, and counselor for the Four County Head Start Program in Laurinburg, North Carolina. In 1940 Mrs. Jones married Mr. Forest Jones, she was the daughter of Colonel and Bertha Bouldin, of Maxton, North Carolina.

Greetings from Cairo, Illinois

Greetings From Cairo, Illinois is a 2005 concept album and historical album by Stace England with songs referencing the history of Cairo, Illinois from 1858 to 2005. The project encompassed five years of research and two years of writing and recording the music.

The songs concern people, places and things throughout Cairo's history including Ulysses S. Grant, the American Civil War, blues music, lynching, the Great Migration (African American), Civil Rights struggles, vigilante groups, Jesse Jackson, political corruption, economic decline and hope for renewal.

The album was the subject of a radio documentary on VPRO Dutch National Broadcasting produced by noted musicologist and author Jan Donkers, and features a vocal performance by alternative country pioneer Jason Ringenberg of Jason & the Scorchers. The album's title and cover art are inspired by Bruce Springsteen's debut, Greetings from Asbury Park, N.J.

History of African Americans in Chicago

The history of African Americans in Chicago dates back to Jean Baptiste Point du Sable’s trading activities in the 1780s. Du Sable is the city's founder. Fugitive slaves and freedmen established the city’s first black community in the 1840s. By the late 19th century, the first black person had been elected to office.

The Great Migrations from 1910 to 1960 brought hundreds of thousands of blacks from the South to Chicago, where they became an urban population. They created churches, community organizations, important businesses, music, and literature. African Americans of all classes built a community on the South Side of Chicago for decades before the Civil Rights Movement, as well as on the West Side of Chicago. Residing in segregated communities, almost regardless of income, the Black residents of Chicago aimed to create communities where they could survive, sustain themselves, and have the ability to determine for themselves their own course in Chicago history.

List of Booknotes interviews first aired in 1991

Booknotes is an American television series on the C-SPAN network hosted by Brian Lamb, which originally aired from 1989 to 2004. The format of the show is a one-hour, one-on-one interview with a non-fiction author. The series was broadcast at 8 p.m. Eastern Time each Sunday night, and was the longest-running author interview program in U.S. broadcast history.

Maxwell Street

Maxwell Street is an east-west street in Chicago, Illinois that intersects with Halsted Street just south of Roosevelt Road. It runs at 1330 South in the numbering system running from 500 West to 1126 West. The Maxwell Street neighborhood is considered part of the Near West Side and is one of the city's oldest residential districts. It is notable as the location of the celebrated Maxwell Street Market and the birthplace of Chicago blues and the "Maxwell Street Polish", a sausage sandwich. A large portion of the area is now part of the campus of the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) and a private housing development sponsored by the university.

Migration Series

The Migration Series, originally titled The Migration of the Negro, is a group of paintings by African-American painter Jacob Lawrence which depicts the migration of African Americans to the northern United States from the South that began in the 1910s. It was published in 1941 and funded by the WPA.

Lawrence conceived of the series as a single work rather than individual paintings and worked on all of the paintings at the same time, in order to give them a unified feel and to keep the colors uniform between panels. He wrote sentence-long captions for each of the sixty paintings explaining aspects of the event. Viewed in its entirety, the series creates a narrative, in images and words that tell the story of the Great Migration.

Night Doctors

Night Doctors, also known as Night Riders, Night Witches, Ku Klux Doctors, and Student Doctors are bogeymen of African American folklore, with some factual basis. Emerging from the realities of grave robbing, enforced and punitive medical experimentation, and intimidation rumours spread maliciously by many Southern whites, the Night Doctors purpose was to further prevent slaves, Free Men, and black workers leaving for the North of the United States, in a prescient foreshadowing of the inevitable events during the early to mid 20th century, now known as The Great Migration.

African American folklore told of white doctors who would abduct, kill, and dissect, performing a plethora of experiments, referred to as "Night Doctors". These tales are difficult to verify. White slave owners disseminated scare stories of putative tortures performed by "Night Doctors" to prevent freed slaves from moving to the North. In order to augment rumours, white slave owners dressed in white sheets to represent kidnappers. Wandering the African American communities, perpetuating beliefs slaves would be abducted, taken to medical facilities and killed.

To many African Americans these "Night Doctors" weren't just fictions used as scare tactics; they were real life.

Oktibbeha County, Mississippi

Oktibbeha County is a county located in the east central portion of the U.S. state of Mississippi. As of the 2010 census the population was 47,671. The county seat is Starkville. The county's name is derived from a local Native American word meaning either "bloody water" or "icy creek".

Mississippi State University, a public research university and land-grant institution, is located in Oktibbeha County.

Oktibbeha County is conterminous with the Starkville, MS Micropolitian Statistical Area. The county is part of the Golden Triangle region of Mississippi.

Oliver Bowen

Oliver Bowen (December 21, 1942 – January 1, 2000) was a Canadian engineer who managed the design and construction of the first line of Calgary's light rail transit system: the CTrain. The City of Calgary acknowledged his engineering work by naming a Light Rail Transit (LRT) maintenance facility in his honour.

Rock and roll

Rock and roll (often written as rock & roll or rock 'n' roll) is a genre of popular music that originated and evolved in the United States during the late 1940s and early 1950s from musical styles such as gospel, jump blues, jazz, boogie woogie, and rhythm and blues, along with country music. While elements of what was to become rock and roll can be heard in blues records from the 1920s and in country records of the 1930s, the genre did not acquire its name until 1954.According to Greg Kot, "rock and roll" refers to a style of popular music originating in the U.S. in the 1950s prior to its development by the mid-1960s into "the more encompassing international style known as rock music, though the latter also continued to be known as rock and roll." For the purpose of differentiation, this article deals with the first definition.

In the earliest rock and roll styles, either the piano or saxophone was typically the lead instrument, but these instruments were generally replaced or supplemented by guitar in the middle to late 1950s. The beat is essentially a dance rhythm with an accentuated backbeat, which is almost always provided by a snare drum. Classic rock and roll is usually played with one or two electric guitars (one lead, one rhythm), a double bass or string bass or (after the mid-1950s) an electric bass guitar, and a drum kit.Beyond simply a musical style, rock and roll, as seen in movies, in fan magazines, and on television, influenced lifestyles, fashion, attitudes, and language. In addition, rock and roll may have contributed to the civil rights movement because both African-American and white American teenagers enjoyed the music. It went on to spawn various genres, often without the initially characteristic backbeat, that are now more commonly called simply "rock music" or "rock".

Second Great Migration (African American)

In the context of the 20th-century history of the United States, the Second Great Migration was the migration of more than 5 million African Americans from the South to the Northeast, Midwest, and West. It began in 1940, through World War II, and lasted until 1970. It was much larger and of a different character than the first Great Migration (1916–1940), where the migrants were mainly rural farmers from the South and only came to the Northeast and Midwest.

In the Second Great Migration, not only the Northeast and Midwest continued to be the destination of more than 5 million African Americans, but also the West as well, where cities like Los Angeles, Oakland, Phoenix, Portland, and Seattle offered skilled jobs in the defense industry. Most of these migrants were already urban laborers who came from the cities of the South. In addition, African Americans were still treated with discrimination in parts of the country, and many sought to escape this.

South Carolina's 6th congressional district

The 6th Congressional District of South Carolina is a congressional district in central and eastern South Carolina. It includes all of Allendale, Bamberg, Clarendon, Colleton, Hampton, Jasper and Williamsburg counties and parts of Beaufort, Berkeley, Calhoun, Charleston, Dorchester, Georgetown, Orangeburg, Richland and Sumter counties. The district borders were shifted south in the 2012 redistricting. It lost its share of the North Carolina border, and now takes in part of the area near the South Carolina-Georgia border.

The district was defined in the early 1990s in a deal between state Republicans (mostly white) and Democrats (mostly black) in the South Carolina General Assembly to ensure a majority-black population, known as a majority-minority district. The rural counties of the historical black belt in South Carolina make up much of the district, but it sweeps south to include most of the majority-black precincts in and around Charleston, and sweeps west to include most of the majority-black precincts in and around Columbia. In all of its configurations, its politics have been dominated by black voters in the Columbia and Charleston areas.

Following the Reconstruction era, the white Democratic-dominated legislature passed Jim Crow laws, as well as a new constitution in 1895 that effectively disfranchised blacks, crippling the Republican Party in the state. For most of the next 60 years, South Carolina was essentially a one-party state dominated by the Democrats, and blacks were nearly excluded from the political system.

Demographic and political changes have included the Great Migration (African American) of blacks out of the state during the Jim Crow era in the first half of the 20th century. At the same time, many white Democrats felt chagrin at the national party's greater support of civil rights for blacks from the 1940s onward, and began splitting their tickets in federal elections. After successes of the Civil Rights Movement in gaining passage of federal legislation in the mid-1960s to enforce their constitutional rights and ability to vote, blacks in South Carolina supported national Democratic candidates. White conservatives began moving into the Republican Party in the 1980s.

Since the late 20th century, South Carolina politics have been very racially polarized. Republicans in South Carolina have been mostly white, and most African Americans in the state continue to support the Democrats. In the 21st century, the 6th is considered the only "safe" Democratic district in the state.

Before 1993, this district included the northeastern part of the state, from Darlington to Myrtle Beach. It was a classic "Yellow Dog" Democratic district; in this configuration it only elected two Republicans, both for a single term. In 2012, the new 7th congressional district was created; it includes much of the territory that was in the 6th for most of the 20th century.

Jim Clyburn, a Democrat and the current Majority Whip, has represented this district since first being elected in 1992.

Springfield/Belmont, Newark, New Jersey

Springfield/Belmont is a neighborhood in the city of Newark in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. Part of the Central Ward, it is unofficially bounded by South Orange Avenue in the north, Avon Avenue in the south, Martin Luther King Boulevards and University Avenues on the east, and Bergen Street in the west.

At one point, this was the "shtetl" of Eastern European Jews. The Jews of Newark were distinct from the Jews of New York City in that most worked as peddlers, grocers, tailors, mechanics, technicians, artisans, jewelers, and repairmen, as opposed to factory workers. Gradually, the Jews of Newark grew in affluence, and many moved south to Weequahic and Hillside, though lower middle-class Jews were to be found in the neighborhood as late as the 1950s. From the 1940s on, many African Americans from Virginia and the Carolinas moved here during the Great Migration (African-American), attracted by the World War II boom for such local corporations as Westinghouse. By the 1967 Newark riots, this was a slum, with a high concentration of housing projects in the section east of Bergen Street.

Springfield/Belmont's projects were demolished in the 1990s and replaced by small scale public and private housing. Springfield/Belmont is close to 100% African American, and one of Newark's neighborhoods most drastically affected by white flight.

Springfield/Belmont contains many historic buildings along Martin Luther King Boulevard, formerly known as High Street. Describing the street from north to south, a visitor would see the Art-Deco extravagance of Arts High School, classically inspired St. Agnes Greek church, the magnificent Victorian architecture of the Krueger-Scott Mansion, the Beaux-Arts Feigenspan Mansion, a Neo-Classical former synagogue, and finally the Moorish Revival Prince Street Synagogue. Built for a German brewer, the Krueger-Scott mansion was the most expensive home ever built in Newark. Plans are afoot to turn it into a black cultural center.

The 1884 Prince Street Synagogue, former home of Congregation Oheb Shalom, later Metropolitan Baptist Church, at 32 Prince Street, has been restored and converted to a nature center for Newark by the Greater Newark Conservancy. The yard of the old synagogue has been turned into a beautiful community garden.

The most severe destruction from the Newark riots occurred on Bergen Street between Clinton Avenue and Springfield Avenue. Since the millennium, new construction of Society Hill and the Springfield Marketplace have replaced many abandoned lots. A Food desert a neighborhood where there is a shortage of places to buy food. Despite the closure of a new supermarket one year after its opening, several have opened or are planned to open in the city.The Springfield branch of the Newark Public Library is located in the Springfield/Belmont neighborhood.

The Springfield Avenue Marketplace is a $94 million mixed-use development expected to open in 2016.Saint Benedict's Preparatory School and he Metropoltan Baptist Church are in the neighborhood.

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