The Great Meteor hotspot track, also referred to as the New England hotspot track, is a vast trail of hotspot magmatism in the Northern Hemisphere. It extends over 5,800 km (3,604 mi) from Nunavut in Northern Canada to the northern Atlantic Ocean. Volcanism in the hotspot track was produced by the New England or Great Meteor hotspot, with the oldest magmatic activity dating back at least 214 million years ago during the Late Triassic period. This makes the Great Meteor track one of the oldest hotspot tracks on Earth. It contains over 80 volcanoes, with the most recognizable ones located in the Atlantic Ocean where they form seamounts.
|Great Meteor hotspot track|
|New England hotspot track|
Geological features within the hotspot track include:
In geology, the places known as hotspots or hot spots are volcanic regions thought to be fed by underlying mantle that is anomalously hot compared with the surrounding mantle. Their position on the Earth's surface is independent of tectonic plate boundaries. There are two hypotheses that attempt to explain their origins. One suggests that hotspots are due to mantle plumes that rise as thermal diapirs from the core–mantle boundary. The other hypothesis is that lithospheric extension permits the passive rising of melt from shallow depths. This hypothesis considers the term "hotspot" to be a misnomer, asserting that the mantle source beneath them is, in fact, not anomalously hot at all. Well-known examples include the Hawaii, Iceland and Yellowstone hotspots.Mont Brome
Mont Brome (aka Bromont, Bromount, Mount Brome) is part of the Monteregian Hills in southern Quebec. Its summit stands 553 m (1,814 ft) above sea level. It is near the town of Bromont, Quebec. The ski resort Ski Bromont lies on its slopes.Mont Rougemont
Mont Rougemont (Abenaki: Wigwômedenek) is part of the Monteregian Hills in southern Quebec. It is composed of igneous rock and hornfels. The summit stands 366 m (1,201 ft) above sea level. The mountain is mostly covered with sugar maple-dominated forest. Apple orchards and vineyards are cultivated on many of the lower slopes, and much of the fruit is used to make cider.Mont Saint-Bruno
Mont Saint-Bruno is part of the Monteregian Hills in southern Quebec, Canada. Its summit stands 213 m (699 ft) high and lies 23 km (14 mi) east of downtown Montreal.
This mountain has a ski resort, a natural area, and an apple orchard. Forests of beech, maple, oak, hickory, ironwood, hemlock and pine cover those slopes which have not been cleared for agriculture or skiing. The apple orchard is an agricultural research station operated by IRDA (The Research and Development Institute for the Agri-Environment of Québec).
Mont-Saint-Bruno National Park encompasses part of the mount, which also contains ski slopes Ski Mont Saint-Bruno. A quarry also occupies part of it. Mont Saint-Bruno is also home to a small Canadian Forces training camp where new recruits from the Canadian Forces Leadership and Recruit School learn navigation and topography.Mont Saint-Grégoire
Mont Saint-Grégoire (height: 251 m (823 ft)) is a mountain in the Montérégie region of southern Quebec, Canada. It is composed of essexite and syenite, strongly contrasting with the surrounding sedimentary rocks. The area around Mont Saint-Grégoire is known for its maple syrup production, as well as some wine production.
The name was changed in 1923 from Mount Johnson.Mont Saint-Hilaire
Mont Saint-Hilaire (in English: Mount Saint-Hilaire) (in Abenaki: Wigwômadenizibo), (see names of mont Saint-Hilaire for other names) is an isolated hill, 414 m (1,358 ft) high, in the Montérégie region of southern Quebec. It is about thirty kilometres east of Montreal, and immediately east of the Richelieu River. It is one of the Monteregian Hills. Around the mountains are the towns of Mont-Saint-Hilaire and Saint-Jean-Baptiste. Other nearby towns include Otterburn Park, Beloeil and McMasterville.
The area surrounding the mountain is a biosphere reserve, as one of the last remnants of the primeval forests of the Saint-Lawrence valley. Most of the mountain is currently the property of McGill University, as the Gault Nature Reserve, which is considered the third McGill campus. The University has opened the western half of the mountain to visitors (at a fee) for hiking and cross-country skiing, as the Milieu Naturel (natural area). The eastern half, or Milieu de Conservation (preservation area) is not accessible to the general public.
Until the late nineteenth century, the lack of information on more remote summits of Quebec, as well as the relatively high prominence (about 400 m (1,312 ft)) of Mont Saint-Hilaire, led to it being mistaken as the highest summit in Québec. In actuality, Saint-Hilaire's 414 metres falls far short of making it the highest mountain in Quebec.Mont Saint-Hilaire is home to a wide variety of fauna and flora, as well as a number of rare minerals, including some which were discovered on the mountain and some which are unique to the region. These minerals are exploited by a quarry on the north-eastern side of the mountain. In addition, the soil is ideal for the growth of apple trees, and the mountain's apple orchards draws tens of thousands of visitors each year.Mont Yamaska
Mont Yamaska (in English, Mount Yamaska) (in Abenaki, Wigwômadenek) is part of the Monteregian Hills in southern Quebec. Its summit stands 411 m (1,348 ft) above sea level. This mountain is largely covered with deciduous forest dominated by sugar maple. Some apple orchards are raised on lower slopes.Monteregian Hills
The Monteregian Hills (French: Collines Montérégiennes) is a linear chain of isolated hills in Montreal and Montérégie, between the Laurentians and the Appalachians.New England Seamounts
The New England Seamounts are an underwater chain of seamounts in the Atlantic Ocean stretching over 1,000 km from the edge of the Georges Bank off the coast of Massachusetts. The chain consists of over twenty extinct volcanic peaks, many rising over 4,000 m from the seabed. It is the longest seamount chain in the North Atlantic and harbours a diverse range of deep sea fauna. Scientists have visited the chain on various occasions to survey the geologic makeup and biota of the region. The chain forms part of the Great Meteor hotspot track, having formed by the movement of the North American Plate over the New England hotspot. The oldest volcanoes that were formed by the same hotspot are northwest of Hudson Bay, Canada. Part of the seamount chain is protected by Northeast Canyons and Seamounts Marine National Monument.
This seamount range has been known under a variety of different gazetted names, including the Kelvin Seamounts, Kelvin Seamount Group, Kelvin Banks, New England Seamount Chain and the Bermuda-New England Seamount Arc.New England hotspot
The New England hotspot, also referred to as the Great Meteor hotspot, is a long-lived volcanic hotspot in the Atlantic Ocean. The hotspot's most recent eruptive center is the Great Meteor Seamount, and it probably created a short line of mid to late-Cenozoic age seamounts on the African Plate but appears to be currently inactive.The New England hotspot track is used to estimate the movement of the North American Plate away from the African Plate from early Cretaceous period to the present.The New England hotspot has been overridden by the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.Volcanology of Canada
Volcanology of Canada includes lava flows, lava plateaus, lava domes, cinder cones, stratovolcanoes, shield volcanoes, submarine volcanoes, calderas, diatremes, and maars, along with examples of more less common volcanic forms such as tuyas and subglacial mounds. It has a very complex volcanological history spanning from the Precambrian eon at least 3.11 billion years ago when this part of the North American continent began to form.Although the country's volcanic activity dates back to the Precambrian eon, volcanism continues to occur in Western and Northern Canada where it forms part of an encircling chain of volcanoes and frequent earthquakes around the Pacific Ocean called the Pacific Ring of Fire. But because volcanoes in Western and Northern Canada are in remote rugged areas and the level of volcanic activity is less frequent than with other volcanoes around the Pacific Ocean, Canada is commonly thought to occupy a gap in the Pacific Ring of Fire between the volcanoes of western United States to the south and the Aleutian volcanoes of Alaska to the north. However, the mountainous landscape of Western and Northern Canada includes more than 100 volcanoes that have been active during the past two million years and whose eruptions have claimed many lives. Volcanic activity has been responsible for many of Canada's geological and geographical features and mineralization, including the nucleus of North America called the Canadian Shield.
Volcanism has led to the formation of hundreds of volcanic areas and extensive lava formations across Canada, indicating volcanism played a major role in shaping its surface. The country's different volcano and lava types originate from different tectonic settings and types of volcanic eruptions, ranging from passive lava eruptions to violent explosive eruptions. Canada has a rich record of very large volumes of magmatic rock called large igneous provinces. They are represented by deep-level plumbing systems consisting of giant dike swarms, sill provinces and layered intrusions. The most capable large igneous provinces in Canada are Archean (3,800–2,500 million years ago) age greenstone belts containing a rare volcanic rock called komatiite.Volcanology of Northern Canada
Volcanology of Northern Canada includes hundreds of volcanic areas and extensive lava formations across Northern Canada. The region's different volcano and lava types originate from different tectonic settings and types of volcanic eruptions, ranging from passive lava eruptions to violent explosive eruptions. Northern Canada has a record of very large volumes of magmatic rock called large igneous provinces. They are represented by deep-level plumbing systems consisting of giant dike swarms, sill provinces and layered intrusions.