Great Lakes Megalopolis

The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of metropolitan areas in North America largely in the Great Lakes region and along the Saint Lawrence Seaway. It extends from the Midwestern United States in the south and west to western Pennsylvania and Upstate New York in the east and northward through Southern Ontario into southwestern Quebec in Canada. It is the most populated and largest megalopolis in North America.

At its most inclusive, in the United States the region cuts a wide swath from the Twin Cities in Minnesota to Rochester, New York, while on the Canadian side, it extends northeast to Quebec City. Further south, the region is commonly considered to include Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and Columbus, Ohio. Within the broad region, there is a core area that includes Chicago, Milwaukee, Grand Rapids, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Rochester, and Windsor to Toronto. The total region, extending from Minneapolis to Chicago to Quebec City had an estimated population of 59,144,461 as of 2011, making it the most populous megalopolis on the continent. It is projected to reach a population of approximately 65 million by 2025.

Great Lakes Megalopolis
Chicago
Chicago
Toronto
Toronto
Detroit
Detroit
Countries United States
 Canada
States Illinois
 Indiana
 Iowa
 Kansas
 Kentucky
 Michigan
 Minnesota
 Missouri
 New York
 Ohio
 Pennsylvania
 West Virginia
 Wisconsin
Provinces Ontario
 Quebec
Largest city Toronto (2,731,571)
Largest metropolitan area Chicago metropolitan area (9,812,676)
Population
59,144,461

History of the concept

Railway and shipping routes for the Georgian Bay Ship Canal
1907 Canadian major internal and cross border shipping routes
MapofEmergingUSMegaregions
Map of the emerging American-Canadian megaregions as defined by America 2050.[1] This interpretation excludes the eastern part of the Windsor-Quebec City urban corridor from the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

The region was partially outlined as an emergent megalopolis in the 1961 book Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States by French geographer Jean Gottmann. Gottmann envisaged the development of other megalopolises in the U.S.: from Boston to Washington, D.C., from Chicago to Pittsburgh, and from San Francisco to San Diego. In 1965, futurist Herman Kahn speculated about the future of the three megalopoleis in the year 2000.[2] In the 1960s and 1970s, urban planner and architect Constantinos Doxiadis authored books, studies, and reports regarding the growth potential of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[3] Doxiadis envisioned Detroit (on the US-Canada border across from Windsor) as the central urban area in the Great Lakes Megalopolis. According to him, the megalopolis extended "from Milwaukee and Chicago to Detroit, Pittsburgh and Buffalo and into Canada from Windsor to Montreal and Quebec."[3][4]

In 2005, the Virginia Tech Metropolitan Institute's Beyond Megalopolis, an attempt to update Gottmann's work, outlined a similar "Midwest" megapolitan area as one of ten such areas in the United States (Canada is discussed tangentially).[5] Over 200 million tons of cargo are shipped annually through the Great Lakes.[6][7][8] The America 2050 project identified eleven Megaregions of the United States, including the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[9][A] The Canadian part of the region is also referred to as the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor.

Governments

There are multiple government jurisdictions throughout the megalopolis. In addition to the federal governments of the United States and Canada, there are multiple U.S. state and two Canadian province jurisdictions, and there are many county and local governments. Most of the states have joined the provinces in forming the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers to coordinate economic and environmental strategies throughout most of the region.[10]

Economy

According to the Brookings Institution, if it stood alone as a country, the economy of the Great Lakes region which includes most of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, would be one of the largest economic units in the world (with a $4.5-trillion gross regional product), roughly equal to that of Japan. The five Great Lakes contain one-fifth of the world's surface fresh water and have a combined shoreline of 10,210 miles (17,017 km). About 200 million tons of cargo are shipped by way of the Great Lakes each year.[7][11][12]

Tourism is an important economic factor in and around the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes Cruising Coalition supports passenger ship cruises through a joint U.S-Canadian venture to Great Lakes Ports and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.[13][14]

The Chicago metropolitan area, also called Chicagoland is the largest metro economy in the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Chicago has one of the largest global urban area economies.[15]

Major land and marine transportation corridors

The Great Lakes Megalopolis includes the following major inter-urban corridors that are provided with freeway and passenger rail service in both the core and fringe areas of the mega-region. Major waterways for shipping and cruising are also indicated where applicable. Amtrak in the United States and Via Rail in Canada offer rail passenger service, while most Class I freight rail services also connect these areas. A major rail shipping service in both Canada and the United States is provided on tracks owned by Canadian National Railway Company.

Chicago-Minneapolis/St. Paul

This corridor occupies the northwestern fringe of the megalopolis. Interstate highway 94 (I-94) and Amtrak rail run roughly parallel from Chicago, IL to Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN by way of Milwaukee, WI and Madison, WI.

Chicago-St. Louis

I-55, Amtrak, and the Illinois Waterway connect Chicago, IL to St. Louis, MO.

Chicago-Indianapolis-Cincinnati

I-65 extends from the Chicago area southeast to Indianapolis IN, where I-74 travels through to Cincinnati, OH. Amtrak runs regular service along this same route.

Chicago-Buffalo-Rochester

I-90 and Amtrak run approximately parallel through the core area of the megalopolis from Chicago to Cleveland OH via South Bend IN and Toledo OH, then into the eastern fringe area comprising Buffalo and Rochester NY. Amtrak also has a passenger rail link from Cleveland to Pittsburgh PA which is roughly paralleled by I-76. The main water route deviates well to the north of the land route from Chicago to Detroit. It runs north along Lake Michigan, east through the Straits of Mackinac, then south along Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, and Lake St Clair to the Detroit River. From this point, the water route roughly parallels the land route to Rochester by way of Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, and Lake Ontario.

Chicago-Detroit

I-94 takes a more northerly route than I-90 through the megalopolis core area east of Chicago. It extends from that city to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor by way of Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Detroit, and Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON. This interstate freeway is also paralleled by Amtrak rail service. The main water route is the same as for the western part of the Chicago-Rochester water corridor from Lake Michigan to the Detroit River.

Windsor-Quebec City

The core area of the Great Lakes megalopolis extends as far northeast as Toronto in Ontario, Canada. The remainder of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor northeast of Toronto lies along the northeastern fringe of the megaregion. The entire Canadian section of the broader megaregion is sometimes considered a separate megalopolis. Key freeways include Highway 401 and Highway 417 in Ontario which connect with Autoroute 20 and Autoroute 40 respectively in Quebec. Highway 416 and Autoroute 50 link the National Capital Region with Highway 401 and the Montreal area respectively, but the two freeways do not link directly with each other across the Ontario-Quebec border. Passenger rail service is provided in both provinces by the Via Rail Corridor Service. Intermediate points along the corridor include London, Kitchener, Hamilton, St. Catharines, Toronto, Kingston, Ottawa, and Montreal. The main water shipping route is the same as for the eastern part of the Chicago-Rochester corridor, starting at the Detroit River but continuing east beyond Lake Ontario along the St. Lawrence Seaway to Quebec City and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines, and Niagara Falls, Ontario in Canada and Niagara Falls, New York and Buffalo in the United States also form an almost continuous urban area.

Secondary land or marine transportation corridors

Several corridors have interstate highways but no comprehensive passenger rail service. These highway routes pass through both core and fringe areas of the Great Lakes megalopolis. The upper Great lakes region has a marine corridor that connects Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. However, this route does not include parallel Amtrak passenger rail or interstate highway service.

Kansas City-Pittsburgh

I-70 follows the southern fringe of the megaregion. It runs from Kansas City MO to just south of Pittsburgh PA by way of St. Louis MO, Indianapolis IN, and Columbus OH.

Detroit-Grand Rapids

Interstate 96 serves traffic between the Detroit and Grand Rapids metro areas. The route passes through Lansing on the way and extends to Muskegon to the northwest of Grand Rapids

Evansville-Indianapolis-Port Huron

I-69 extends from Evansville IN to Bloomington IN. From there, the route is temporarily an arterial highway, Indiana state route 37, to the I-465 ring-road around Indianapolis IN. From there, I-69 resumes and continues to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor which carries the route into southern Ontario and southern Quebec provinces. Intermediate points include Fort Wayne IN, Lansing, Flint, and Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON.

Cincinnati-Saginaw

I-75 runs from Saginaw MI to Cincinnati OH by way of Detroit MI, Toledo OH, and Dayton OH.

Duluth-Lake Huron

The waterway connecting Duluth MN and western Lake Superior to points east and south includes the Soo Locks connecting to Lake Huron, then south to Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON or through the Straits of Mackinac to the metropolitan areas around Lake Michigan.

Selected American and Canadian population centers

Rank Area State/
Province
Image CSA/CMA
2009 population
Projected[16][17][18][19]
2025 population
Projected increase
2009-2025
Projected % increase
2009-2025
1 Chicago Illinois
Indiana
Wisconsin
2009-09-18 3060x2040 chicago skyline 9,804,845 10,216,648 411,803 4.2
2 Toronto Ontario Skyline of Toronto viewed from Harbour 5,541,400 6,682,061 1,140,661 20.5
3 Detroit Michigan DowntownDetroit 5,318,744 5,583,400 264,656 5.0
4 Montreal Quebec VuedeMontreal 3,859,300 4,246,931 387,631 10.1
5 Minneapolis – Saint Paul Minnesota
Wisconsin
Minn 3,604,460 4,031,000 426,540 11.8
6 Cleveland – Akron – Canton Ohio ClevelandSkyline 3,515,646 3,469,943 -45,703 -1.3
7 St. Louis Missouri
Illinois
St Louis night expblend 2,892,874 3,049,000 156,126 5.4
8 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania PittsburghNightSkylineCrop 2,445,117 2,868,818 367,299 15.0
9 Indianapolis Indiana The city from Wapahani Trail (5071573814) 2,386,199 2,779,921 393,722 16.5
10 Cincinnati Ohio
Kentucky
Indiana
Cincinnati Skyline from Devou Park 2,214,954 2,448,000 233,046 10.5
11 Kansas City Missouri
Kansas
Kcsky 2,038,724 2,293,564 254,840 12.5
12 Columbus Ohio ColumbusNightSkyline2 2,031,229 2,446,450 415,221 20.4
13 Milwaukee Wisconsin Milwaukeedowntown 2,025,898 2,129,949 103,706 5.1
14 Ottawa – Gatineau Ontario
Quebec
Downtown ottawa night 1,451,415 1,596,556 145,141 10.0
15 Louisville Kentucky
Indiana
Louisville skyline night 1,395,634 1,602,456 206,822 14.8
16 Grand Rapids Michigan Grdowntown 1,327,366 1,530,000 202,634 15.3
17 Buffalo New York BuffaloSkyline 1,203,493 1,251,633 48,140 6
18 Rochester New York Skyline Rochester, NY 1,149,653 1,133,558 -16,095 -1.4
19 Dayton Ohio Dayton Skyline 1,066,261 1,066,261 0 0
20 Hamilton Ontario HamiltonOntarioSkylineC 740,200 954,858 214,658 29.1
21 South Bend-Mishawaka-Elkhart Indiana
Michigan
City of South Bend, downtown skyline 720,647 NA NA NA
22 Toledo Ohio
Michigan
Skyline of Toledo, Ohio 672,220 672,220 0 0
23 Madison Wisconsin Madisonwisconsin20060813p001 628,947 820,483 191,563 30.5
24 Youngstown-Warren-Boardman Ohio
Pennsylvania
Youngstown2 036 602,964 N/A N/A N/A
25 Kalamazoo Michigan Kalamazoo 524,030 NA NA NA
26 Lansing Michigan Lansing skyline brobb 11 2009 523,609 547,325 23,716 4.6
27 London Ontario London, Ontario, Canada- The Forest City from above 510,200 634,938 142,738 29.1
28 Kitchener – Waterloo Ontario Arial photo of downtown Kitchener Ontario 492,400 635,196 142,796 29.1
29 Rockford Illinois Rockford, IL Rockford Register Star 01 455,595 499,400 43,805 9.9
30 Fort Wayne Indiana Downtown Fort Wayne, Indiana Skyline from Old Fort, May 2014 414,315 455,623 39,366 9.9
31 St. Catharines – Niagara Ontario SkylineNiagaraFalls 404,400 521,676 117,276 29.0
32 Davenport-Rock Island-Moline Iowa
Illinois
Downtown Davenport 379,690 452,565 72,875 26.1
33 Fox Cities Wisconsin Appleton Skyline, December 2012 360,000 NA NA NA
34 Oshawa Ontario Oshawa ON 356,177 419,067 62,890 17.7
35 Windsor Ontario Windsor Ontario skyline 330,900 426,861 95,961 29
36 Green Bay Wisconsin Downtown Green Bay 304,783 NA NA NA
37 Erie Pennsylvania Flagship-Niagara-Dobbins-Landing-Erie-July4-2009 280,985 N/A N/A N/A
38 Duluth-Superior Minnesota
Wisconsin
Duluth Skyline 279,771 N/A N/A N/A
Total CSA/CMA of major metro areas Great Lakes from space 60,323,653 65,735,336 6,234,698 10.0

American census urban statistical areas

CensusStatisticalAreasoftheGreatLakes
An enlargeable map of the U.S. statistical areas along the Great Lakes. The lighter area shows the Great Lakes Basin watershed

Along the Great Lakes, there are 27 United States statistical areas - 10 Combined Statistical Areas, 7 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (independent of the Combined Statistical Areas), and 3 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (independent of the Combined Statistical Areas), as defined by the Office of Management and Budget.

The following sortable table lists the 27 statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes with the following information:

  1. The rank by population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  2. The census statistical area name as defined by the United States Census Bureau
  3. The census statistical area population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  4. Lakes within census statistical area
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Great Lakes
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2017 Population Lake(s)
1 16 Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City, IL-IN-WI CSA 9,745,165 Lake Michigan
2 15 Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA 5,405,918 Lake Erie and Lake Huron
3 21 Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH CSA 2,896,968 Lake Erie
4 13 Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA 1,739,497 Lake Michigan
5 14 Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI CSA 1,323,095 Lake Michigan
6 24 Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA 1,208,270 Lake Erie and Lake Ontario
7 25 Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA 1,122,845 Lake Ontario
8 26 Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA 725,359 Lake Ontario
9 19 Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA 711,952 Lake Erie
10 17 Kalamazoo-Battle Creek-Portage, MI CSA 524,030 Lake Michigan
11 12 Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA 309,785 Lake Huron
12 9 Green Bay, WI MSA 301,131 Lake Michigan
13 22 Erie, PA MSA 279,092 Lake Erie
14 1 Duluth, MN-WI MSA 274,308 Lake Superior
15 18 Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA 159,589 Lake Michigan
16 7 Traverse City, MI μSA 142,075 Lake Michigan
17 23 Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA 133,945 Lake Erie
18 27 Watertown-Fort Drum, NY μSA 117,201 Lake Ontario
19 11 Sheboygan, WI MSA 114,504 Lake Michigan
20 10 Manitowoc, WI μSA 80,928 Lake Michigan
21 20 Sandusky, OH MSA 77,323 Lake Erie
22 6 Marinette, WI-MI μSA 66,820 Lake Michigan
23 3 Marquette, MI μSA 65,216 Lake Superior
24 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 38,922 Lake Huron and Lake Superior
25 5 Escanaba, MI μSA 37,367 Lake Michigan
26 2 Houghton, MI μSA 37,352 Lake Superior
27 8 Alpena, MI μSA 29,707 Lake Huron

The following four sortable tables list the 27 census statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes, by lake, with the following information:

  1. The rank by population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  2. The census statistical area name as defined by the United States Census Bureau
  3. The census statistical area population as of 2007-07-01, as estimated by the United States Census Bureau
  4. Comment
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Erie
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 15 Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA 5,405,918 Also located on Lake Huron.
2 12 Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH CSA 2,896,968
3 24 Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA 1,208,270 Also located on Lake Ontario.
4 19 Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA 711,952
5 22 Erie, PA MSA 279,092
6 23 Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA 133,945
7 20 Sandusky, OH MSA 77,323
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Huron
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 15 Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA 5,405,918 Also located on Lake Erie
2 12 Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA 309,785
3 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 38,922 Also located on Lake Superior
4 8 Alpena, MI μSA 29,707
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on Lake Michigan
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 16 Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City, IL-IN-WI CSA 9,745,165
2 13 Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA 1,739,497
3 14 Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI CSA 1,323,095
4 17 Kalamazoo-Battle Creek-Portage, MI CSA 524,030
5 9 Green Bay, WI MSA 301,131
6 18 Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA 159,589
7 7 Traverse City, MI μSA 142,075
8 11 Sheboygan, WI MSA 114,504
9 10 Manitowoc, WI μSA 80,928
10 6 Marinette, WI-MI μSA 66,820
11 5 Escanaba, MI μSA 37,367
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Ontario
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 24 Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA 1,208,270 Also located on Lake Erie
2 25 Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA 1,122,845
3 26 Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA 725,359
4 27 Watertown-Fort Drum, NY μSA 117,201
Combined Statistical Areas, Metropolitan Statistical Areas, and Micropolitan Statistical Areas located on the American side of Lake Superior
Rank Map Reference Number Census Statistical Area 2007 Population Comment
1 1 Duluth, MN-WI MSA 274,308
2 3 Marquette, MI μSA 65,216
3 4 Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA 38,922 Also located on Lake Michigan
4 2 Houghton, MI μSA 37,352

See also

Notes

A. ^ a Various sources include Quebec City, Montreal and Ottawa in the Great Lakes Megalopolis, while excluding Minneapolis–Saint Paul, Kansas City, Cincinnati, Indianapolis, Louisville, and Columbus.[20] All these partial-consensus and non-consensus cities lie at the eastern, western, and southern fringes of the megalopolis.

Gallery

Chicagoland night aerial, Gary through Kenosha

Chicago to Milwaukee

Saint Paul, Minnesota 9

Saint Paul

Appletonskyline

Fox Cities

Duluth Skyline

Duluth

Cleveland at a glance by Lovleet

Cleveland

Jackson Wisconsin sign WIS60

Jackson Wisconsin

References

  1. ^ "Beyond Megalopolis: Exploring America's New "Megapolitan" Geography - America 2050". america2050.org. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  2. ^ Bell, Daniel; Stephen Richards Graubard (1997). Toward the year 2000: work in progress. MIT Press. p. 87. ISBN 0-262-52237-3.
  3. ^ a b Cities: Capital for the New Megalopolis.Time magazine, November 4, 1966. Retrieved on July 16, 2010.
  4. ^ Doxiadis, Constantinos. (1970) The Great Lakes Megalopolis. Doxiadis Assoc.
  5. ^ "MegaCensusReport.indd" (PDF). America2050.org.
  6. ^ "About Our Great Lakes -Great Lakes Basin Facts- NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL)". Glerl.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-03-08. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  7. ^ a b "Economy of the Great Lakes Region". Great-lakes.net. 2012-04-13. Retrieved 2012-04-19.
  8. ^ U.S Army Corps of Engineers (January 2009).Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on April 11, 2011.
  9. ^ America 2050: Megaregions: Great Lakes. Regional Plan Association.
  10. ^ "Home - Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers". Cglslgp.org.
  11. ^ Our lakes facts Archived 2012-03-08 at the Wayback Machine. NOAA. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  12. ^ U.S Army Corps of Engineers (January 2009).Great Lakes Navigation System: Economic Strength to the Nation Archived 2011-07-18 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on July 25, 2011.
  13. ^ Great Lakes Cruising Coalition Retrieved on July 25, 2011.
  14. ^ "Forecasting 2020 U.S. County and MSA Populations" (PDF). Knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu. April 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2018.
  15. ^ Perry, Mark J. (2018-10-02). "Can You Guess Which U.S. Metro Area Has a Higher GDP than Canada?". fee.org. Retrieved 2019-03-14.
  16. ^ "Home - Federation for American Immigration Reform". fairus.org. Retrieved 8 July 2016.
  17. ^ Finance, Government of Ontario, Ministry of. "Ontario Population Projections Update". Fin.gov.on.ca.
  18. ^ Institut de la statistique Quebec Archived 2003-12-07 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ "Preliminary Population Projections to the Year 2020 in Michigan Metropolitan Areas" (PDF).
  20. ^ Example: Great Lakes Megalopolis (PDF) (Map). The Center for Urban and Regional Studies, Youngstown State University. 2005.

Coordinates: 41°N 85°W / 41°N 85°W

Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area

The Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area, designated by the United States Census Bureau, encompassing two counties — Erie and Niagara — in Western New York, with a population, as of the 2010 census, of 1,135,509 inhabitants. It is the second-largest metropolitan area in the state of New York, centering on the urbanized area of Buffalo.

As of the April 1, 2010, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had a population of 1,135,509; the combined statistical area (CSA), which adds Cattaraugus, had a population of 1,215,826 inhabitants. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, which contains an estimated 54 million people. The larger Buffalo Niagara Region is an economic zone consisting of eight counties in Western New York.

In 2010, the Buffalo – Niagara Falls metropolitan statistical area was ranked the 10th best place in the U.S. for working mothers by ForbesWoman magazine.

Cincinnati metropolitan area

The Cincinnati metropolitan area, informally known as Greater Cincinnati or the Greater Cincinnati Tri-State Area, is a metropolitan area that includes counties in the U.S. states of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana around the Ohio city of Cincinnati. The United States Census Bureau's formal name for the area is the Cincinnati–Middletown, OH–KY–IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, this MSA had a population of 2,114,580, making Greater Cincinnati the 29th most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the first largest metro area entirely in Ohio, followed by Cleveland (2nd) and Columbus (3rd).The Census also lists the Cincinnati–Wilmington–Maysville, OH–KY–IN Combined Statistical Area, which adds Clinton County, Ohio (defined as the Wilmington, OH micropolitan area) and Mason County, Kentucky (defined as the Maysville, KY micropolitan area) for a 2014 estimated population of 2,208,450.The Cincinnati metropolitan area is considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

Columbus metropolitan area, Ohio

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area is the metropolitan area centered on the U.S. city of Columbus, Ohio. It includes the counties of Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Hocking, Licking, Madison, Morrow, Perry, Pickaway, and Union. The population of the MSA is 2,078,725 according to 2017 census estimates, making Greater Columbus the 32nd most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the largest metro area entirely in Ohio, and the second largest in Ohio behind the Cincinnati Metropolitan Statistical Area which includes areas of Kentucky and Indiana.

The larger combined statistical area (the Columbus–Marion–Zanesville, Ohio, combined statistical area) adds the counties of Fayette, Guernsey, Knox, Logan, Marion, Muskingum, and Ross. It includes the Micropolitan Statistical Areas of Bellefontaine, Cambridge, Chillicothe, Marion, Mount Vernon, Washington Court House, and Zanesville, due to strong ties with Columbus. The population of the CSA is 2,508,498 according to the 2016 census estimates, 24th largest in the nation and ranking second in Ohio behind the Cleveland Combined Statistical Area.

It is the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state of Ohio, behind Greater Cincinnati. It is also one of the largest metropolitan areas in the Midwestern United States. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 54 million people. It is also one of the fastest growing metro areas outside the Sun Belt.

East North Central states

The East North Central states form one of the nine geographic subdivisions within the United States which are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. These states are near the Great Lakes.

The division contains five states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. It is one of two divisions used to categorize the region of the U.S. generally called the "Midwest"; the other such division is the West North Central states (The Great Plains States). The region closely matches the area of the Northwest Territory, excepting a portion of Minnesota.

The East North Central division is a large part of the Great Lakes region, although the latter also includes Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, and the Canadian province of Ontario. It has a low rate of population growth and the estimated population as of 2015 is 46,787,011. The region is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis with an estimated 54 million people.

The Great Lakes provide access to the Atlantic Ocean via the Great Lakes Waterway and St. Lawrence Seaway, or by the Erie Canal and the Hudson River or via the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River and the Illinois Waterway. Chicago and Detroit, two of the division's largest cities, are among the major ports of the United States.

Economy of Illinois

The economy of Illinois is the fifth largest by GDP in the United States and one of the most diversified economies in the world. The Chicago metropolitan area is home to many of the United States' largest companies, including Allstate, Boeing, Caterpillar, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Motorola, United Airlines, Walgreens, and more. The Chicago area headquarters a wide variety of financial institutions, and is home to the largest futures exchange in the world, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.

The 2018 total gross state product for Illinois was $857 billion, placing it fifth in the nation. The 2015 median household income was $59,588. In 2016, the nine counties of the Chicago metropolitan area accounted for 77.3% of the state's total wages, with the remaining 93 counties at 22.7%. The state's industrial outputs include machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products and transportation equipment. Corn and soybeans are important agricultural products. Service industries of note are financial trading, higher education, logistics, and medicine.

Fort Wayne, IN Metropolitan Statistical Area

The Fort Wayne, IN Metropolitan Statistical Area is a federally designated metropolitan area consisting of three counties in northeastern Indiana (Allen, Wells, and Whitley counties), anchored by the city of Fort Wayne. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 416,257 (though a July 1, 2011 estimate placed the population at 419,453). The Fort Wayne metropolitan area is part of the Northern Indiana region, containing about 2.2 million people, and is considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, which contains an estimated 59 million people.

Golden Horseshoe

The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario, Canada which lies at the western end of Lake Ontario, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Lake Scugog. The region is the most densely populated and industrialized in Canada. With a population of 7,826,367 people in its core and 9,245,438 in its greater area, the Golden Horseshoe accounts for over 21 per cent of the population of Canada and more than 55 per cent of Ontario's population. It is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

The core of the Golden Horseshoe starts from Niagara Falls at the eastern end of the Niagara Peninsula and extends west, wrapping around the western end of Lake Ontario at Hamilton and then turning northeast to Toronto (on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario), before finally terminating at Oshawa. The term Greater Golden Horseshoe is also used to describe a broader region that stretches inland from the core to the area of the Trent–Severn Waterway, such as Peterborough in the northeast, to Barrie and Lake Simcoe in the north, and to the Grand River area, including centres such as Brantford, Waterloo Region, and Guelph to the west. The extended region's area covers approximately 33,500 km2 (13,000 sq mi), out of this, 7,300 km2 (2,800 sq mi) or approximately 22 per cent of the area is covered by the environmentally protected Greenbelt. The Greater Golden Horseshoe forms the neck of the Ontario Peninsula.

Great Lakes

The Great Lakes (French: les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. They consist of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Hydrologically, there are only four lakes, because Lakes Michigan and Huron join at the Straits of Mackinac. The lakes form the Great Lakes Waterway.

The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total area, and second-largest by total volume, containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3), slightly less than the volume of Lake Baikal (5,666 cu mi or 23,615 km3, 22–23% of the world's surface fresh water). Due to their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and the largest freshwater lake by area. Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country.The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets exposed the basins they had carved into the land which then filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major source for transportation, migration, trade, and fishing, serving as a habitat to a large number of aquatic species in a region with much biodiversity.

The surrounding region is called the Great Lakes region, which includes the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

Great Lakes (disambiguation)

The Great Lakes are a collection of large lakes in eastern North America.

Great Lakes or Great Lake may also refer to:

Great Lakes region, the area near the Great Lakes in the United States and Canada

Great Lakes region

The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canadian–American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario. The region centers on the Great Lakes and forms a distinctive historical, economic, and cultural identity. A portion of the region also encompasses the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

The Great Lakes Commission, authorized by the region's American states and Province of Ontario, and the additional Canadian Province of Quebec, comprises a bi-national authority with specified powers to protect and preserve the water and environmental resources of the Great Lakes and surrounding waterways and aquifers. The Commission's authorities are confirmed by the Canadian and American federal governments, and by its constituent states and provinces. The states and provinces are represented in the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers.

The Great Lakes region takes its name from the corresponding geological formation of the Great Lakes Basin, a narrow watershed encompassing The Great Lakes, bounded by watersheds to the region's north (Hudson Bay), west (Mississippi), east and south (Ohio). To the east, the rivers of St. Lawrence, Richelieu, Hudson, Mohawk and Susquehanna form an arc of watersheds east to The Atlantic.

The Great Lakes region, as distinct from the Great Lakes Basin, defines a unit of sub-national political entities defined by the U.S. states and the Canadian Province of Ontario encompassing the Great Lakes watershed, and the states and Province bordering one or more of the Great Lakes.

Greater Cleveland

The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States. According to 2018 United States Census estimates, the five-county Cleveland–Elyria Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) consists of Cuyahoga County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, and Medina County, and has a population of 2,057,009 making Greater Cleveland the 33rd most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the third largest metro area in Ohio, and the second largest metro area, behind Columbus, entirely in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is part of the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area and the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

Changes in house prices for Greater Cleveland are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 20-city composite index of the value of the U.S. residential real estate market.

Northeast Ohio refers to a similar but substantially larger area. This article covers the area generally considered to be Greater Cleveland, but includes some information generally applicable to the larger region, which is itself part of what is known historically as the Connecticut Western Reserve.

Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area

The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) is a contiguous urban region that is composed of some of the largest cities and metropolitan areas by population in Ontario, Canada. The GTHA consists of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and the city of Hamilton. The former includes the city of Toronto and the regional municipalities of Halton, Peel, York, and Durham.

The GTA population is 6,417,516 (2016 census). Beginning in the late-2000s, the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" was introduced by a few public bodiesa to refer to the GTA plus the City of Hamilton. The population of the combined area is 6,954,433 as of 2016, and is projected to grow to 8.6 million by 2031.

Indianapolis metropolitan area

Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson or Indianapolis metropolitan area is an 11-county metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Indiana, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget. The metropolitan area is situated in Central Indiana, within the American Midwest.

The metropolitan area is centered on the capital and most populous city of Indiana, Indianapolis. Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson is the 34th most populous metropolitan area in the United States, and largest in the state of Indiana. As of 2014, the population was 1,971,274. Indianapolis also anchors the larger Indianapolis–Carmel–Muncie combined statistical area (CSA), the 26th most populated, with 2,372,570.

The Indianapolis metropolitan area is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, which contains an estimated 59 million people.

List of Midwestern metropolitan areas

This is a list of the largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the American Midwest. These states are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

Northern Indiana

Northern Indiana is a region of the U.S. State of Indiana, including 26 counties which border the states of Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio. Northern Indiana is also considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The area is generally classified into other sub-regions; Northwest Indiana (or the Calumet Region) is closely tied with Chicago economically, culturally, and politically and is part of the Chicago metropolitan area. The north central region (or Michiana) centers on South Bend metropolitan area, with economic connections to southwest Michigan. Northeast Indiana is centered on the Fort Wayne metropolitan area.

The Northern Indiana landscape is physically characterized by very flat to very rolling terrain, ranging from 600 to 1,000 feet (180 to 300 m) above sea level. Glacial kettle lakes are found throughout Northeast Indiana, with sand dunes sharing the Lake Michigan shoreline with heavy industry in the northwest. Kosciusko County is home to the largest natural lake (Wawasee) and deepest natural lake (Tippecanoe) in the state of Indiana. The Eastern Continental Divide runs through the region following the top of the Valparaiso Moraine. Besides a few urban areas, much of Northern Indiana lies in the agricultural Corn Belt.

Northern Indiana is known for having the third-highest Amish population in the U.S., especially in Allen, Adams, Elkhart, and LaGrange counties.

Quad Cities metropolitan area

The Quad Cities Metropolitan Area, more formally known as the Davenport–Moline–Rock Island Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the metropolitan area associated with the Quad Cities in the U.S. states of Iowa and Illinois. The area consists of the cities of Davenport and Bettendorf in Iowa and Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline in Illinois, and their suburbs in northwest Illinois and southeast Iowa. The Quad Cities Metropolitan Area is also considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, and is the largest Metropolitan Area along the Mississippi River in Iowa and between Minneapolis–Saint Paul and the St. Louis metropolitan area. The Davenport–Moline–Rock Island Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of four counties: Scott County in Iowa and Henry, Mercer, and Rock Island counties in Illinois. The Quad City Metro population as of a 2013 estimate is 383,681 and a CSA population of 474,937, making it the 90th largest CSA in the nation. In addition to the five anchor cities, the Quad Cities area comprises surrounding smaller communities. Examples include the Iowa cities of Dixon, Donahue, Eldridge, Long Grove, Park View, Blue Grass, Buffalo, Montpelier, Walcott, Maysville, McCausland, Mount Joy, New Liberty, Princeton, LeClaire, Panorama Park and Riverdale. The Illinois communities are Silvis, Milan, Andalusia, Carbon Cliff, Coal Valley, Colona, Geneseo, Hampton, Port Byron, Orion, Kewanee, Annawan, Aledo, and Rapids City.

Third Coast

Third Coast is an American colloquialism used to describe coastal regions distinct from the West Coast and the East Coast of the United States. Generally, the term "Third Coast" refers to the Gulf Coast of the United States.Considering its Great Lakes coasts, Michigan has the 8th most miles of shoreline of the lower 48 states and more fresh water shoreline than any other state. Many regional businesses incorporate the term "Third Coast" in their names and products, such as Michigan's Third Coast Kite and Hobby, which has an image of the coastal dunes in its logo, and Texas-based Third Coast Coffee.

Rap and hip-hop acts from Houston, and other Gulf Coast cities in Southern states, are often referred to as emerging from the Third Coast.

Toledo metropolitan area

The Toledo, Ohio, metropolitan area is a metropolitan area centered on the American city of Toledo, Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had a population of 651,429. It is the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cincinnati–Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, and Akron.

Located on the border with Michigan, the metropolitan area includes the counties of Fulton, Lucas, and Wood. The Toledo metro area has strong ties to Metro Detroit, located 40 miles north. Toledo is also part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.

The separate micropolitan area of Port Clinton, Ohio, is included in the Toledo–Port Clinton combined statistical area, which includes Ottawa County. The wider region of Northwest Ohio adds Defiance, Hancock, Henry, Paulding, Putnam, Sandusky, Seneca, Van Wert, and Williams counties.

Tourism in metropolitan Detroit

Tourism in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan is a significant factor for the region's culture and for its economy, comprising nine percent of the area's two million jobs. About 15.9 million people visit Metro Detroit annually, spending an estimated $4.8 billion. Detroit is one of the largest American cities and metropolitan regions to offer casino resort hotels. Leading multi-day events throughout Metro Detroit draw crowds of hundreds of thousands to over three million people. More than fifteen million people cross the highly traveled nexus of the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel annually. Detroit is at the center of an emerging Great Lakes Megalopolis. An estimated 46 million people live within a 300-mile (480 km) radius of Metro Detroit.Detroit's unique culture, distinctive architecture, and revitalization and urban renewal efforts in the 21st century have given Detroit increased prominence as a tourist destination in recent years. The New York Times listed Detroit in its list of 52 Places to Go in 2017, while travel guide publisher Lonely Planet named Detroit the second-best city in the world to visit in 2018.

Great Lakes of North America
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Secondary lakes
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Islands
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