The Great Lakes Megalopolis consists of the group of metropolitan areas in North America largely in the Great Lakes region and along the Saint Lawrence Seaway. It extends from the Midwestern United States in the south and west to western Pennsylvania and Upstate New York in the east and northward through Southern Ontario into southwestern Quebec in Canada. It is the most populated and largest megalopolis in North America.
At its most inclusive, in the United States the region cuts a wide swath from the Twin Cities in Minnesota to Rochester, New York, while on the Canadian side, it extends northeast to Quebec City. Further south, the region is commonly considered to include Cincinnati, Indianapolis, and Columbus, Ohio. Within the broad region, there is a core area that includes Chicago, Milwaukee, Grand Rapids, Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburgh, Buffalo, Rochester, and Windsor to Toronto. The total region, extending from Minneapolis to Chicago to Quebec City had an estimated population of 59,144,461 as of 2011, making it the most populous megalopolis on the continent. It is projected to reach a population of approximately 65 million by 2025.
Great Lakes Megalopolis
|Countries|| United States |
|Largest city|| Toronto (2,731,571)
|Largest metropolitan area||Chicago metropolitan area (9,812,676)|
The region was partially outlined as an emergent megalopolis in the 1961 book Megalopolis: The Urbanized Northeastern Seaboard of the United States by French geographer Jean Gottmann. Gottmann envisaged the development of other megalopolises in the U.S.: from Boston to Washington, D.C., from Chicago to Pittsburgh, and from San Francisco to San Diego. In 1965, futurist Herman Kahn speculated about the future of the three megalopoleis in the year 2000. In the 1960s and 1970s, urban planner and architect Constantinos Doxiadis authored books, studies, and reports regarding the growth potential of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. Doxiadis envisioned Detroit (on the US-Canada border across from Windsor) as the central urban area in the Great Lakes Megalopolis. According to him, the megalopolis extended "from Milwaukee and Chicago to Detroit, Pittsburgh and Buffalo and into Canada from Windsor to Montreal and Quebec."
In 2005, the Virginia Tech Metropolitan Institute's Beyond Megalopolis, an attempt to update Gottmann's work, outlined a similar "Midwest" megapolitan area as one of ten such areas in the United States (Canada is discussed tangentially). Over 200 million tons of cargo are shipped annually through the Great Lakes. The America 2050 project identified eleven Megaregions of the United States, including the Great Lakes Megalopolis.[A] The Canadian part of the region is also referred to as the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor.
There are multiple government jurisdictions throughout the megalopolis. In addition to the federal governments of the United States and Canada, there are multiple U.S. state and two Canadian province jurisdictions, and there are many county and local governments. Most of the states have joined the provinces in forming the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers to coordinate economic and environmental strategies throughout most of the region.
According to the Brookings Institution, if it stood alone as a country, the economy of the Great Lakes region which includes most of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, would be one of the largest economic units in the world (with a $4.5-trillion gross regional product), roughly equal to that of Japan. The five Great Lakes contain one-fifth of the world's surface fresh water and have a combined shoreline of 10,210 miles (17,017 km). About 200 million tons of cargo are shipped by way of the Great Lakes each year.
Tourism is an important economic factor in and around the Great Lakes. The Great Lakes Cruising Coalition supports passenger ship cruises through a joint U.S-Canadian venture to Great Lakes Ports and the Saint Lawrence Seaway.
The Great Lakes Megalopolis includes the following major inter-urban corridors that are provided with freeway and passenger rail service in both the core and fringe areas of the mega-region. Major waterways for shipping and cruising are also indicated where applicable. Amtrak in the United States and Via Rail in Canada offer rail passenger service, while most Class I freight rail services also connect these areas. A major rail shipping service in both Canada and the United States is provided on tracks owned by Canadian National Railway Company.
This corridor occupies the northwestern fringe of the megalopolis. Interstate highway 94 (I-94) and Amtrak rail run roughly parallel from Chicago, IL to Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN by way of Milwaukee, WI and Madison, WI.
I-90 and Amtrak run approximately parallel through the core area of the megalopolis from Chicago to Cleveland OH via South Bend IN and Toledo OH, then into the eastern fringe area comprising Buffalo and Rochester NY. Amtrak also has a passenger rail link from Cleveland to Pittsburgh PA which is roughly paralleled by I-76. The main water route deviates well to the north of the land route from Chicago to Detroit. It runs north along Lake Michigan, east through the Straits of Mackinac, then south along Lake Huron, the St. Clair River, and Lake St Clair to the Detroit River. From this point, the water route roughly parallels the land route to Rochester by way of Lake Erie, the Welland Canal, and Lake Ontario.
I-94 takes a more northerly route than I-90 through the megalopolis core area east of Chicago. It extends from that city to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor by way of Kalamazoo, Ann Arbor, Detroit, and Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON. This interstate freeway is also paralleled by Amtrak rail service. The main water route is the same as for the western part of the Chicago-Rochester water corridor from Lake Michigan to the Detroit River.
The core area of the Great Lakes megalopolis extends as far northeast as Toronto in Ontario, Canada. The remainder of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor northeast of Toronto lies along the northeastern fringe of the megaregion. The entire Canadian section of the broader megaregion is sometimes considered a separate megalopolis. Key freeways include Highway 401 and Highway 417 in Ontario which connect with Autoroute 20 and Autoroute 40 respectively in Quebec. Highway 416 and Autoroute 50 link the National Capital Region with Highway 401 and the Montreal area respectively, but the two freeways do not link directly with each other across the Ontario-Quebec border. Passenger rail service is provided in both provinces by the Via Rail Corridor Service. Intermediate points along the corridor include London, Kitchener, Hamilton, St. Catharines, Toronto, Kingston, Ottawa, and Montreal. The main water shipping route is the same as for the eastern part of the Chicago-Rochester corridor, starting at the Detroit River but continuing east beyond Lake Ontario along the St. Lawrence Seaway to Quebec City and the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Toronto, Hamilton, St. Catharines, and Niagara Falls, Ontario in Canada and Niagara Falls, New York and Buffalo in the United States also form an almost continuous urban area.
Several corridors have interstate highways but no comprehensive passenger rail service. These highway routes pass through both core and fringe areas of the Great Lakes megalopolis. The upper Great lakes region has a marine corridor that connects Lakes Superior, Huron, and Michigan. However, this route does not include parallel Amtrak passenger rail or interstate highway service.
I-69 extends from Evansville IN to Bloomington IN. From there, the route is temporarily an arterial highway, Indiana state route 37, to the I-465 ring-road around Indianapolis IN. From there, I-69 resumes and continues to the west end of the Windsor-Quebec City Corridor which carries the route into southern Ontario and southern Quebec provinces. Intermediate points include Fort Wayne IN, Lansing, Flint, and Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON.
The waterway connecting Duluth MN and western Lake Superior to points east and south includes the Soo Locks connecting to Lake Huron, then south to Port Huron MI/Sarnia ON or through the Straits of Mackinac to the metropolitan areas around Lake Michigan.
|Projected % increase|
|5||Minneapolis – Saint Paul||Minnesota
|6||Cleveland – Akron – Canton||Ohio||3,515,646||3,469,943||-45,703||-1.3|
|14||Ottawa – Gatineau||Ontario
|28||Kitchener – Waterloo||Ontario||492,400||635,196||142,796||29.1|
|31||St. Catharines – Niagara||Ontario||404,400||521,676||117,276||29.0|
|Total CSA/CMA of major metro areas||60,323,653||65,735,336||6,234,698||10.0|
Along the Great Lakes, there are 27 United States statistical areas - 10 Combined Statistical Areas, 7 Metropolitan Statistical Areas (independent of the Combined Statistical Areas), and 3 Micropolitan Statistical Areas (independent of the Combined Statistical Areas), as defined by the Office of Management and Budget.
The following sortable table lists the 27 statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes with the following information:
|Rank||Map Reference Number||Census Statistical Area||2017 Population||Lake(s)|
|1||16||Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City, IL-IN-WI CSA||9,745,165||Lake Michigan|
|2||15||Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA||5,405,918||Lake Erie and Lake Huron|
|3||21||Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH CSA||2,896,968||Lake Erie|
|4||13||Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA||1,739,497||Lake Michigan|
|5||14||Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI CSA||1,323,095||Lake Michigan|
|6||24||Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA||1,208,270||Lake Erie and Lake Ontario|
|7||25||Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA||1,122,845||Lake Ontario|
|8||26||Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA||725,359||Lake Ontario|
|9||19||Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA||711,952||Lake Erie|
|10||17||Kalamazoo-Battle Creek-Portage, MI CSA||524,030||Lake Michigan|
|11||12||Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA||309,785||Lake Huron|
|12||9||Green Bay, WI MSA||301,131||Lake Michigan|
|13||22||Erie, PA MSA||279,092||Lake Erie|
|14||1||Duluth, MN-WI MSA||274,308||Lake Superior|
|15||18||Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA||159,589||Lake Michigan|
|16||7||Traverse City, MI μSA||142,075||Lake Michigan|
|17||23||Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA||133,945||Lake Erie|
|18||27||Watertown-Fort Drum, NY μSA||117,201||Lake Ontario|
|19||11||Sheboygan, WI MSA||114,504||Lake Michigan|
|20||10||Manitowoc, WI μSA||80,928||Lake Michigan|
|21||20||Sandusky, OH MSA||77,323||Lake Erie|
|22||6||Marinette, WI-MI μSA||66,820||Lake Michigan|
|23||3||Marquette, MI μSA||65,216||Lake Superior|
|24||4||Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA||38,922||Lake Huron and Lake Superior|
|25||5||Escanaba, MI μSA||37,367||Lake Michigan|
|26||2||Houghton, MI μSA||37,352||Lake Superior|
|27||8||Alpena, MI μSA||29,707||Lake Huron|
The following four sortable tables list the 27 census statistical areas of the United States located on the Great Lakes, by lake, with the following information:
|Rank||Map Reference Number||Census Statistical Area||2007 Population||Comment|
|1||15||Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA||5,405,918||Also located on Lake Huron.|
|2||12||Cleveland-Akron-Elyria, OH CSA||2,896,968|
|3||24||Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA||1,208,270||Also located on Lake Ontario.|
|4||19||Toledo-Fremont, OH CSA||711,952|
|5||22||Erie, PA MSA||279,092|
|6||23||Jamestown-Dunkirk-Fredonia, NY μSA||133,945|
|7||20||Sandusky, OH MSA||77,323|
|Rank||Map Reference Number||Census Statistical Area||2007 Population||Comment|
|1||15||Detroit-Warren-Flint, MI CSA||5,405,918||Also located on Lake Erie|
|2||12||Saginaw-Bay City-Saginaw Township North, MI CSA||309,785|
|3||4||Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA||38,922||Also located on Lake Superior|
|4||8||Alpena, MI μSA||29,707|
|Rank||Map Reference Number||Census Statistical Area||2007 Population||Comment|
|1||16||Chicago-Naperville-Michigan City, IL-IN-WI CSA||9,745,165|
|2||13||Milwaukee-Racine-Waukesha, WI CSA||1,739,497|
|3||14||Grand Rapids-Muskegon-Holland, MI CSA||1,323,095|
|4||17||Kalamazoo-Battle Creek-Portage, MI CSA||524,030|
|5||9||Green Bay, WI MSA||301,131|
|6||18||Niles-Benton Harbor, MI MSA||159,589|
|7||7||Traverse City, MI μSA||142,075|
|8||11||Sheboygan, WI MSA||114,504|
|9||10||Manitowoc, WI μSA||80,928|
|10||6||Marinette, WI-MI μSA||66,820|
|11||5||Escanaba, MI μSA||37,367|
|Rank||Map Reference Number||Census Statistical Area||2007 Population||Comment|
|1||24||Buffalo-Niagara-Cattaraugus, NY CSA||1,208,270||Also located on Lake Erie|
|2||25||Rochester-Batavia-Seneca Falls, NY CSA||1,122,845|
|3||26||Syracuse-Auburn, NY CSA||725,359|
|4||27||Watertown-Fort Drum, NY μSA||117,201|
|Rank||Map Reference Number||Census Statistical Area||2007 Population||Comment|
|1||1||Duluth, MN-WI MSA||274,308|
|2||3||Marquette, MI μSA||65,216|
|3||4||Sault Ste. Marie, MI μSA||38,922||Also located on Lake Michigan|
|4||2||Houghton, MI μSA||37,352|
The Buffalo–Niagara Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area is a metropolitan area, designated by the United States Census Bureau, encompassing two counties — Erie and Niagara — in Western New York, with a population, as of the 2010 census, of 1,135,509 inhabitants. It is the second-largest metropolitan area in the state of New York, centering on the urbanized area of Buffalo.
As of the April 1, 2010, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had a population of 1,135,509; the combined statistical area (CSA), which adds Cattaraugus, had a population of 1,215,826 inhabitants. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, which contains an estimated 54 million people. The larger Buffalo Niagara Region is an economic zone consisting of eight counties in Western New York.
In 2010, the Buffalo – Niagara Falls metropolitan statistical area was ranked the 10th best place in the U.S. for working mothers by ForbesWoman magazine.Cincinnati metropolitan area
The Cincinnati metropolitan area, informally known as Greater Cincinnati or the Greater Cincinnati Tri-State Area, is a metropolitan area that includes counties in the U.S. states of Ohio, Kentucky, and Indiana around the Ohio city of Cincinnati. The United States Census Bureau's formal name for the area is the Cincinnati–Middletown, OH–KY–IN Metropolitan Statistical Area. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, this MSA had a population of 2,114,580, making Greater Cincinnati the 29th most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the first largest metro area entirely in Ohio, followed by Cleveland (2nd) and Columbus (3rd).The Census also lists the Cincinnati–Wilmington–Maysville, OH–KY–IN Combined Statistical Area, which adds Clinton County, Ohio (defined as the Wilmington, OH micropolitan area) and Mason County, Kentucky (defined as the Maysville, KY micropolitan area) for a 2014 estimated population of 2,208,450.The Cincinnati metropolitan area is considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.Columbus metropolitan area, Ohio
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the Columbus, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area is the metropolitan area centered on the U.S. city of Columbus, Ohio. It includes the counties of Delaware, Fairfield, Franklin, Hocking, Licking, Madison, Morrow, Perry, Pickaway, and Union. The population of the MSA is 2,078,725 according to 2017 census estimates, making Greater Columbus the 32nd most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the largest metro area entirely in Ohio, and the second largest in Ohio behind the Cincinnati Metropolitan Statistical Area which includes areas of Kentucky and Indiana.
The larger combined statistical area (the Columbus–Marion–Zanesville, Ohio, combined statistical area) adds the counties of Fayette, Guernsey, Knox, Logan, Marion, Muskingum, and Ross. It includes the Micropolitan Statistical Areas of Bellefontaine, Cambridge, Chillicothe, Marion, Mount Vernon, Washington Court House, and Zanesville, due to strong ties with Columbus. The population of the CSA is 2,508,498 according to the 2016 census estimates, 24th largest in the nation and ranking second in Ohio behind the Cleveland Combined Statistical Area.
It is the second largest metropolitan statistical area in the state of Ohio, behind Greater Cincinnati. It is also one of the largest metropolitan areas in the Midwestern United States. It is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, containing an estimated 54 million people. It is also one of the fastest growing metro areas outside the Sun Belt.East North Central states
The East North Central states form one of the nine geographic subdivisions within the United States which are officially recognized by the United States Census Bureau. These states are near the Great Lakes.
The division contains five states: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, and Wisconsin. It is one of two divisions used to categorize the region of the U.S. generally called the "Midwest"; the other such division is the West North Central states (The Great Plains States). The region closely matches the area of the Northwest Territory, excepting a portion of Minnesota.
The East North Central division is a large part of the Great Lakes region, although the latter also includes Minnesota, New York, Pennsylvania, and the Canadian province of Ontario. It has a low rate of population growth and the estimated population as of 2015 is 46,787,011. The region is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis with an estimated 54 million people.
The Great Lakes provide access to the Atlantic Ocean via the Great Lakes Waterway and St. Lawrence Seaway, or by the Erie Canal and the Hudson River or via the Gulf of Mexico from the Mississippi River and the Illinois Waterway. Chicago and Detroit, two of the division's largest cities, are among the major ports of the United States.Economy of Illinois
The economy of Illinois is the fifth largest by GDP in the United States and one of the most diversified economies in the world. The Chicago metropolitan area is home to many of the United States' largest companies, including Allstate, Boeing, Caterpillar, Kraft Heinz, McDonald's, Motorola, United Airlines, Walgreens, and more. The Chicago area headquarters a wide variety of financial institutions, and is home to the largest futures exchange in the world, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange.
The 2018 total gross state product for Illinois was $857 billion, placing it fifth in the nation. The 2015 median household income was $59,588. In 2016, the nine counties of the Chicago metropolitan area accounted for 77.3% of the state's total wages, with the remaining 93 counties at 22.7%. The state's industrial outputs include machinery, food processing, electrical equipment, chemical products, publishing, fabricated metal products and transportation equipment. Corn and soybeans are important agricultural products. Service industries of note are financial trading, higher education, logistics, and medicine.Fort Wayne, IN Metropolitan Statistical Area
The Fort Wayne, IN Metropolitan Statistical Area is a federally designated metropolitan area consisting of three counties in northeastern Indiana (Allen, Wells, and Whitley counties), anchored by the city of Fort Wayne. As of the 2010 census, the MSA had a population of 416,257 (though a July 1, 2011 estimate placed the population at 419,453). The Fort Wayne metropolitan area is part of the Northern Indiana region, containing about 2.2 million people, and is considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, which contains an estimated 59 million people.Golden Horseshoe
The Golden Horseshoe is a secondary region of Southern Ontario, Canada which lies at the western end of Lake Ontario, with outer boundaries stretching south to Lake Erie and north to Lake Scugog. The region is the most densely populated and industrialized in Canada. With a population of 7,826,367 people in its core and 9,245,438 in its greater area, the Golden Horseshoe accounts for over 21 per cent of the population of Canada and more than 55 per cent of Ontario's population. It is part of the Quebec City–Windsor Corridor and the Great Lakes Megalopolis.
The core of the Golden Horseshoe starts from Niagara Falls at the eastern end of the Niagara Peninsula and extends west, wrapping around the western end of Lake Ontario at Hamilton and then turning northeast to Toronto (on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario), before finally terminating at Oshawa. The term Greater Golden Horseshoe is also used to describe a broader region that stretches inland from the core to the area of the Trent–Severn Waterway, such as Peterborough in the northeast, to Barrie and Lake Simcoe in the north, and to the Grand River area, including centres such as Brantford, Waterloo Region, and Guelph to the west. The extended region's area covers approximately 33,500 km2 (13,000 sq mi), out of this, 7,300 km2 (2,800 sq mi) or approximately 22 per cent of the area is covered by the environmentally protected Greenbelt. The Greater Golden Horseshoe forms the neck of the Ontario Peninsula.Great Lakes
The Great Lakes (French: les Grands-Lacs), also called the Laurentian Great Lakes and the Great Lakes of North America, are a series of interconnected freshwater lakes primarily in the upper mid-east region of North America, on the Canada–United States border, which connect to the Atlantic Ocean through the Saint Lawrence River. They consist of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie, and Ontario. Hydrologically, there are only four lakes, because Lakes Michigan and Huron join at the Straits of Mackinac. The lakes form the Great Lakes Waterway.
The Great Lakes are the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth by total area, and second-largest by total volume, containing 21% of the world's surface fresh water by volume. The total surface is 94,250 square miles (244,106 km2), and the total volume (measured at the low water datum) is 5,439 cubic miles (22,671 km3), slightly less than the volume of Lake Baikal (5,666 cu mi or 23,615 km3, 22–23% of the world's surface fresh water). Due to their sea-like characteristics (rolling waves, sustained winds, strong currents, great depths, and distant horizons) the five Great Lakes have also long been referred to as inland seas. Lake Superior is the second largest lake in the world by area, and the largest freshwater lake by area. Lake Michigan is the largest lake that is entirely within one country.The Great Lakes began to form at the end of the last glacial period around 14,000 years ago, as retreating ice sheets exposed the basins they had carved into the land which then filled with meltwater. The lakes have been a major source for transportation, migration, trade, and fishing, serving as a habitat to a large number of aquatic species in a region with much biodiversity.
The surrounding region is called the Great Lakes region, which includes the Great Lakes Megalopolis.Great Lakes (disambiguation)
The Great Lakes are a collection of large lakes in eastern North America.
Great Lakes or Great Lake may also refer to:
Great Lakes region, the area near the Great Lakes in the United States and CanadaGreat Lakes region
The Great Lakes region of North America is a bi-national Canadian–American region that includes portions of the eight U.S. states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin as well as the Canadian province of Ontario. The region centers on the Great Lakes and forms a distinctive historical, economic, and cultural identity. A portion of the region also encompasses the Great Lakes Megalopolis.
The Great Lakes Commission, authorized by the region's American states and Province of Ontario, and the additional Canadian Province of Quebec, comprises a bi-national authority with specified powers to protect and preserve the water and environmental resources of the Great Lakes and surrounding waterways and aquifers. The Commission's authorities are confirmed by the Canadian and American federal governments, and by its constituent states and provinces. The states and provinces are represented in the Conference of Great Lakes and St. Lawrence Governors and Premiers.
The Great Lakes region takes its name from the corresponding geological formation of the Great Lakes Basin, a narrow watershed encompassing The Great Lakes, bounded by watersheds to the region's north (Hudson Bay), west (Mississippi), east and south (Ohio). To the east, the rivers of St. Lawrence, Richelieu, Hudson, Mohawk and Susquehanna form an arc of watersheds east to The Atlantic.
The Great Lakes region, as distinct from the Great Lakes Basin, defines a unit of sub-national political entities defined by the U.S. states and the Canadian Province of Ontario encompassing the Great Lakes watershed, and the states and Province bordering one or more of the Great Lakes.Greater Cleveland
The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States. According to 2018 United States Census estimates, the five-county Cleveland–Elyria Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) consists of Cuyahoga County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, and Medina County, and has a population of 2,057,009 making Greater Cleveland the 33rd most populous metropolitan area in the United States, the third largest metro area in Ohio, and the second largest metro area, behind Columbus, entirely in Ohio. Greater Cleveland is part of the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area and the Great Lakes Megalopolis.
Changes in house prices for Greater Cleveland are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 20-city composite index of the value of the U.S. residential real estate market.
Northeast Ohio refers to a similar but substantially larger area. This article covers the area generally considered to be Greater Cleveland, but includes some information generally applicable to the larger region, which is itself part of what is known historically as the Connecticut Western Reserve.Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area
The Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area (GTHA) is a contiguous urban region that is composed of some of the largest cities and metropolitan areas by population in Ontario, Canada. The GTHA consists of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and the city of Hamilton. The former includes the city of Toronto and the regional municipalities of Halton, Peel, York, and Durham.
The GTA population is 6,417,516 (2016 census). Beginning in the late-2000s, the term "Greater Toronto and Hamilton Area" was introduced by a few public bodiesa to refer to the GTA plus the City of Hamilton. The population of the combined area is 6,954,433 as of 2016, and is projected to grow to 8.6 million by 2031.Indianapolis metropolitan area
Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson or Indianapolis metropolitan area is an 11-county metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Indiana, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget. The metropolitan area is situated in Central Indiana, within the American Midwest.
The metropolitan area is centered on the capital and most populous city of Indiana, Indianapolis. Indianapolis–Carmel–Anderson is the 34th most populous metropolitan area in the United States, and largest in the state of Indiana. As of 2014, the population was 1,971,274. Indianapolis also anchors the larger Indianapolis–Carmel–Muncie combined statistical area (CSA), the 26th most populated, with 2,372,570.
The Indianapolis metropolitan area is part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, which contains an estimated 59 million people.List of Midwestern metropolitan areas
This is a list of the largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the American Midwest. These states are Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Ohio, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota and Wisconsin. Part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.Northern Indiana
Northern Indiana is a region of the U.S. State of Indiana, including 26 counties which border the states of Illinois, Michigan, and Ohio. Northern Indiana is also considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis. The area is generally classified into other sub-regions; Northwest Indiana (or the Calumet Region) is closely tied with Chicago economically, culturally, and politically and is part of the Chicago metropolitan area. The north central region (or Michiana) centers on South Bend metropolitan area, with economic connections to southwest Michigan. Northeast Indiana is centered on the Fort Wayne metropolitan area.
The Northern Indiana landscape is physically characterized by very flat to very rolling terrain, ranging from 600 to 1,000 feet (180 to 300 m) above sea level. Glacial kettle lakes are found throughout Northeast Indiana, with sand dunes sharing the Lake Michigan shoreline with heavy industry in the northwest. Kosciusko County is home to the largest natural lake (Wawasee) and deepest natural lake (Tippecanoe) in the state of Indiana. The Eastern Continental Divide runs through the region following the top of the Valparaiso Moraine. Besides a few urban areas, much of Northern Indiana lies in the agricultural Corn Belt.
Northern Indiana is known for having the third-highest Amish population in the U.S., especially in Allen, Adams, Elkhart, and LaGrange counties.Quad Cities metropolitan area
The Quad Cities Metropolitan Area, more formally known as the Davenport–Moline–Rock Island Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the metropolitan area associated with the Quad Cities in the U.S. states of Iowa and Illinois. The area consists of the cities of Davenport and Bettendorf in Iowa and Rock Island, Moline, and East Moline in Illinois, and their suburbs in northwest Illinois and southeast Iowa. The Quad Cities Metropolitan Area is also considered part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis, and is the largest Metropolitan Area along the Mississippi River in Iowa and between Minneapolis–Saint Paul and the St. Louis metropolitan area. The Davenport–Moline–Rock Island Metropolitan Statistical Area consists of four counties: Scott County in Iowa and Henry, Mercer, and Rock Island counties in Illinois. The Quad City Metro population as of a 2013 estimate is 383,681 and a CSA population of 474,937, making it the 90th largest CSA in the nation. In addition to the five anchor cities, the Quad Cities area comprises surrounding smaller communities. Examples include the Iowa cities of Dixon, Donahue, Eldridge, Long Grove, Park View, Blue Grass, Buffalo, Montpelier, Walcott, Maysville, McCausland, Mount Joy, New Liberty, Princeton, LeClaire, Panorama Park and Riverdale. The Illinois communities are Silvis, Milan, Andalusia, Carbon Cliff, Coal Valley, Colona, Geneseo, Hampton, Port Byron, Orion, Kewanee, Annawan, Aledo, and Rapids City.Third Coast
Third Coast is an American colloquialism used to describe coastal regions distinct from the West Coast and the East Coast of the United States. Generally, the term "Third Coast" refers to the Gulf Coast of the United States.Considering its Great Lakes coasts, Michigan has the 8th most miles of shoreline of the lower 48 states and more fresh water shoreline than any other state. Many regional businesses incorporate the term "Third Coast" in their names and products, such as Michigan's Third Coast Kite and Hobby, which has an image of the coastal dunes in its logo, and Texas-based Third Coast Coffee.
Rap and hip-hop acts from Houston, and other Gulf Coast cities in Southern states, are often referred to as emerging from the Third Coast.Toledo metropolitan area
The Toledo, Ohio, metropolitan area is a metropolitan area centered on the American city of Toledo, Ohio. As of the 2010 census, the metropolitan statistical area (MSA) had a population of 651,429. It is the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the state of Ohio, behind Cincinnati–Northern Kentucky, Cleveland, Columbus, Dayton, and Akron.
Located on the border with Michigan, the metropolitan area includes the counties of Fulton, Lucas, and Wood. The Toledo metro area has strong ties to Metro Detroit, located 40 miles north. Toledo is also part of the Great Lakes Megalopolis.
The separate micropolitan area of Port Clinton, Ohio, is included in the Toledo–Port Clinton combined statistical area, which includes Ottawa County. The wider region of Northwest Ohio adds Defiance, Hancock, Henry, Paulding, Putnam, Sandusky, Seneca, Van Wert, and Williams counties.Tourism in metropolitan Detroit
Tourism in metropolitan Detroit, Michigan is a significant factor for the region's culture and for its economy, comprising nine percent of the area's two million jobs. About 15.9 million people visit Metro Detroit annually, spending an estimated $4.8 billion. Detroit is one of the largest American cities and metropolitan regions to offer casino resort hotels. Leading multi-day events throughout Metro Detroit draw crowds of hundreds of thousands to over three million people. More than fifteen million people cross the highly traveled nexus of the Ambassador Bridge and the Detroit-Windsor Tunnel annually. Detroit is at the center of an emerging Great Lakes Megalopolis. An estimated 46 million people live within a 300-mile (480 km) radius of Metro Detroit.Detroit's unique culture, distinctive architecture, and revitalization and urban renewal efforts in the 21st century have given Detroit increased prominence as a tourist destination in recent years. The New York Times listed Detroit in its list of 52 Places to Go in 2017, while travel guide publisher Lonely Planet named Detroit the second-best city in the world to visit in 2018.
Great Lakes of North America