Grapefruit

The grapefruit (Citrus × paradisi) is a subtropical citrus tree known for its relatively large sour to semi-sweet, somewhat bitter fruit. Grapefruit is a citrus hybrid originating in Barbados as an accidental cross between two introduced species – sweet orange (C. sinensis), and pomelo (or shaddock) (C. maxima) – both of which were introduced from Asia in the seventeenth century.[1] When found, it was nicknamed the "forbidden fruit".[2] Frequently, it is misidentified as the very similar parent species, pomelo.[3]

The grape part of the name alludes to clusters of fruit on the tree that often appear similar to grape clusters.[4] The interior flesh is segmented and varies in color from white to yellow to red to pink.

Grapefruit
Grapefruit-Whole-&-Split
Pink grapefruit
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Rosids
Order: Sapindales
Family: Rutaceae
Genus: Citrus
Species:
C. × paradisi
Binomial name
Citrus × paradisi
Macfad.

Description

Grapefruit.ebola.jpeg
Grapefruit growing in the grape-like clusters from which their name derives

The evergreen grapefruit trees usually grow to around 5–6 meters (16–20 ft) tall, although they may reach 13–15 m (43–49 ft). The leaves are glossy, dark green, long (up to 15 centimeters (5.9 in)), and thin. It produces 5 cm (2 in) white four-petaled flowers. The fruit is yellow-orange skinned and generally, an oblate spheroid in shape; it ranges in diameter from 10–15 cm (3.9–5.9 in). The flesh is segmented and acidic, varying in color depending on the cultivars, which include white, pink, and red pulps of varying sweetness (generally, the redder varieties are the sweetest). The 1929 U.S. Ruby Red (of the Redblush variety) has the first grapefruit patent.[5]

History

The genetic origin of the grapefruit is a hybrid mix.[6] One ancestor of the grapefruit was the Jamaican sweet orange (Citrus sinensis), itself an ancient hybrid of Asian origin; the other was the Indonesian pomelo (C. maxima). One story of the fruit's origin is that a certain "Captain Shaddock"[7] brought pomelo seeds to Jamaica and bred the first fruit,[8] however, it probably originated as a naturally occurring hybrid between the two plants some time after they had been introduced there.[1]

The hybrid fruit, then called "the forbidden fruit", was first documented in 1750 by a Welshman, Rev. Griffith Hughes, who described specimens from Barbados in The Natural History of Barbados.[9][10] Currently, the grapefruit is said to be one of the "Seven Wonders of Barbados".[11]

The grapefruit was brought to Florida by Count Odet Philippe in 1823 in what is now known as Safety Harbor. Further crosses have produced the tangelo (1905), the Minneola tangelo (1931), and the oroblanco (1984).

The grapefruit was known as the shaddock or shattuck until the nineteenth century.[7] Its current name alludes to clusters of the fruit on the tree, which often appear similar to that of grapes.[4] Botanically, it was not distinguished from the pomelo until the 1830s, when it was given the name Citrus paradisi. Its true origins were not determined until the 1940s. This led to the official name being altered to Citrus × paradisi, the "×" identifying its hybrid origin.[12][13]

KC Atwood
Kimball Atwood

An early pioneer in the American citrus industry was Kimball Atwood, a wealthy entrepreneur who founded the Atwood Grapefruit Company in the late nineteenth century. The Atwood Grove became the largest grapefruit grove in the world, with a yearly output of 80,000 boxes of fruit.[14] It was there that pink grapefruit was first discovered in 1906.[15]

Ruby Red

The 1929 Ruby Red patent was associated with real commercial success, which came after the discovery of a red grapefruit growing on a pink variety. Using radiation to trigger mutations, new varieties were developed to retain the red tones which typically faded to pink.[16] The Rio Red variety is the current (2007) Texas grapefruit with registered trademarks Rio Star and Ruby-Sweet, also sometimes promoted as "Reddest" and "Texas Choice". The Rio Red is a mutation bred variety that was developed by treatment of bud sticks with thermal neutrons. Its improved attributes of mutant variety are fruit and juice color, deeper red, and wide adaptation.[17]

Star Ruby

The Star Ruby is the darkest of the red varieties. Developed from an irradiated Hudson grapefruit,[18] it has found limited commercial success because it is more difficult to grow than other varieties.[19][20]

Varieties

The varieties of Texas and Florida grapefruit include: Oro Blanco, Ruby Red, Pink, Rio Star, Thompson, White Marsh, Flame, Star Ruby, Duncan, and Pummelo HB.[21]

Citrus paradisi (Grapefruit, pink) white bg
Citrus paradisi

Production

China is the top producer of grapefruit and pomelo. It is followed by The United States and Mexico.

Top eleven grapefruit (inc. pomelos) producers — 2012
Country Production (metric tons) Footnote
 People's Republic of China 3,800,000 F
 United States 1,046,890
 Mexico 415,471
 Thailand 328,000 F
 South Africa 304,559
 Israel 246,618
 Turkey 243,267
 Argentina 200,000 F
 India 200,000 F
 Sudan 196,000
 Ghana 192,000
 World 8,040,038 A
No symbol = official figure, P = official figure, F = FAO estimate, * = Unofficial/Semi-official/mirror data, C = Calculated figure A = Aggregate (may include official, semi-official or estimates);

Source: Food And Agricultural Organization of United Nations: Economic And Social Department: The Statistical Division

Colors and flavors

Grapefruit-mercaptan-2D-skeletal-vertical
Grapefruit mercaptan

Grapefruit comes in many varieties. One way to differentiate between varieties is by the flesh color of fruit they produce.[22] The most popular varieties currently cultivated are red, white, and pink hues, referring to the internal pulp color of the fruit. The family of flavors range from highly acidic and somewhat sour, to sweet and tart.[22] Grapefruit mercaptan, a sulfur-containing terpene, is one of the substances which has a strong influence on the taste and odor of grapefruit, compared with other citrus fruits.[23]

Drug interactions

Grapefruit and grapefruit juice have been found to interact with numerous drugs and in many cases, to result in adverse direct and/or side effects (if dosage is not carefully adjusted.)[24]

This happens in two very different ways. In the first, the effect is from bergamottin, a natural furanocoumarin in both grapefruit flesh and peel that inhibits the CYP3A4 enzyme, (among others from the P450 enzyme family responsible for metabolizing 90% of drugs). The action of the CYP3A4 enzyme itself is to metabolize many medications.[25][26] If the drug's breakdown for removal is lessened, then the level of the drug in the blood may become too high or stay too long, leading to adverse effects.[26] On the other hand, some drugs must be broken down to become active, and inhibiting CYP3A4 may lead to reduced drug effects.

The other effect is that grapefruit can block the absorption of drugs in the intestine.[26] If the drug is not absorbed, then not enough of it is in the blood to have a therapeutic effect.[26] Each affected drug has either a specific increase of effect or decrease.

One whole grapefruit, or a glass of 200 mL (6.8 US fl oz) of grapefruit juice may cause drug overdose toxicity.[27] Typically, drugs that are incompatible with grapefruit are so labeled on the container or package insert.[26] People taking drugs should ask their health care provider or pharmacist questions about grapefruit and drug interactions.[26]

Nutritional properties

Grapefruit, raw, white, all areas
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy138 kJ (33 kcal)
8.41 g
Sugars7.31 g
Dietary fiber1.1 g
0.10 g
.8 g
VitaminsQuantity %DV
Thiamine (B1)
3%
0.037 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
2%
0.020 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.269 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
6%
0.283 mg
Vitamin B6
3%
0.043 mg
Folate (B9)
3%
10 μg
Choline
2%
7.7 mg
Vitamin C
40%
33.3 mg
Vitamin E
1%
0.13 mg
MineralsQuantity %DV
Calcium
1%
12 mg
Iron
0%
0.06 mg
Magnesium
3%
9 mg
Manganese
1%
0.013 mg
Phosphorus
1%
8 mg
Potassium
3%
148 mg
Zinc
1%
0.07 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water90.48 g

Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Grapefruit is a rich source of vitamin C (>20% of the Daily Value, DV in a 100 gram serving),[22][28] contains the fiber pectin,[29] and the pink and red hues contain the beneficial antioxidant lycopene.[22][30] Studies have shown grapefruit helps lower cholesterol,[22][31] and there is evidence that the seeds have antioxidant properties.[32] Grapefruit forms a core part of the "grapefruit diet", the theory being that the fruit's low glycemic index is able to help the body's metabolism burn fat.[33]

Although grapefruit seed extract (GSE) is promoted as a plant-based preservative by some natural personal care manufacturers, studies have shown that the apparent antimicrobial activity associated with GSE preparations is merely due to contamination with synthetic preservatives such as parabens.[34][35][36][37][38]

Citrus fruits show high amounts of putrescine, they contain very little spermidine.[39]

Grapefruit juice contains about half the citric acid of lime or lemon juice (which contain about 47 g/l), and about two-and-a-half times the amount of citric acid found in orange juice.[40]

Grapefruit Sweets

In Costa Rica, especially in Atenas, grapefruit are often cooked to remove their sourness, rendering them as sweets; they are also stuffed with dulce de leche, resulting in a dessert called toronja rellena (stuffed grapefruit).[41] In Haiti, grapefruit is used primarily for its juice (jus de Chadèque), but also is used to make jam (confiture de Chadèque).[42][43]

Other uses

Grapefruit has also been investigated in cancer medicine pharmacodynamics. Its inhibiting effect on the metabolism of some drugs may allow smaller doses to be used, which can help to reduce costs.[44]

Lifestyle magazines and websites sometimes recommend grapefruit as a stain remover for porcelain and enamel.[45][46]

Grapefruit relatives

Grapefruit is a pomelo backcross, a hybrid of pomelo × sweet orange, with sweet orange itself being a pomelo × mandarin hybrid.

The grapefruit is a parent to many hybrids:

The grapefruit's cousins include:

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Carrington, Sean; Fraser, HenryC (2003). "Grapefruit". A~Z of Barbados Heritage. Macmillan Caribbean. pp. 90–91. ISBN 978-0-333-92068-8. One of many citrus species grown in Barbados. This fruit is believed to have originated in Barbados as a natural cross between sweet orange (C. sinesis) and Shaddock (C. grandis), both of which originated in Asia and were introduced by Europeans in the seventeenth century. The grapefruit first appeared as an illustration entitled "The Forbidden Fruit Tree" in The Natural History of Barbados (1750) by Rev. Griffith Hughes. This accords with the scientific name which literally is "citrus of paradise". The fruit seems to have been fairly commonly available around that time, since George Washington in his Barbados Journal (1750-1751) mentions "the Forbidden Fruit" as one of the local fruit available at a dinner party he attended. The plant was later described in the 1837 Flora of Jamaica as the Barbados Grapefruit. The historical arguments and experimental work on leaf enzymes and oils from possible parents all support a Barbadian origin for the fruit.
  2. ^ Dowling, Curtis F.; Morton, Julia Frances (1987). Fruits of warm climates. Miami, FL: J. F. Morton. ISBN 978-0-9610184-1-2. OCLC 16947184.
  3. ^ Li, Xiaomeng; Xie R.; Lu Z.; Zhou Z. (July 2010). "The Origin of Cultivated Citrus as Inferred from Internal Transcribed Spacer and Chloroplast DNA Sequence and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism Fingerprints". Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science. 135 (4): 341. Retrieved 27 February 2013.
  4. ^ a b "How did the grapefruit get its name?" Library of Congress. Science Reference Service, Everyday Mysteries. Retrieved August 2, 2009.
  5. ^ Texas grapefruit history Archived 2010-11-28 at the Wayback Machine, TexaSweet. Retrieved 2 July 2008.
  6. ^ Xiaomeng, Rangjin, Zhenhua, and Zhiqin, Li, Xie, Lu, and Zhou. "Genetic origin of cultivated citrus determined: Researchers find evidence of origins of orange, lime, lemon, grapefruit, other citrus species". Science Daily. Retrieved 21 September 2017.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  7. ^ a b Kumamoto, J.; Scora, R. W.; Lawton, H. W.; Clerx, W. A. (1987-01-01). "Mystery of the forbidden fruit: Historical epilogue on the origin of the grapefruit, Citrus paradisi (Rutaceae)". Economic Botany. 41 (1): 97–107. doi:10.1007/BF02859356. ISSN 0013-0001.
  8. ^ Grapefruit: a fruit with a bit of a complex in Art Culinaire (Winter, 2007)
  9. ^ "World Wide Words: Grapefruit". World Wide Words. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
  10. ^ Admin (2010). "Welchman Hall Gully, Barbados". Barbados National Trust. Archived from the original on 16 August 2010. Retrieved 11 July 2010. The Development of the Gully - The Gully was once part of a plantation owned by a Welshman called General William Asygell Williams over 200 years ago. Hence the name "Welchman Hall" gully. It was this man who first developed the gully with exotic trees and an orchard. Interestingly, the grapefruit is originally from Barbados and is rumoured to have started in Welchman Hall Gully.
  11. ^ Barbados Seven Wonders: The Grapefruit Tree. Abstract
  12. ^ Texas Citrus: Puzzling Beginnings. Article Archived 2007-01-25 at the Wayback Machine
  13. ^ University of Florida: IFAS Extension; The Grapefruit. "Fact Sheet" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-06-28.
  14. ^ "Manatee County a big part of citrus history". HeraldTribune.com. 2004-08-16. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  15. ^ "Grapefruit". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
  16. ^ William J Broad (28 August 2007). "Useful Mutants, Bred With Radiation". New York Times.
  17. ^ "MVD". mvgs.iaea.org. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
  18. ^ Ahloowalia, B.S.; Maluszynski, M.; Nichterlein, K. (2004). "Global impact of mutation-derived varieties". Euphytica. 135 (2): 187–204. doi:10.1023/B:EUPH.0000014914.85465.4f.
  19. ^ Sauls, Julian W. (1998). "Home fruit Production-Grapefruit". Retrieved 2013-07-22.
  20. ^ Citrus Variety Collection. "Star Ruby grapefruit". Retrieved 2013-07-22.
  21. ^ "Go Florida Grapefruit". Go Florida Grapefruit. Archived from the original on 2011-09-10. Retrieved 2011-12-17.
  22. ^ a b c d e The World's Healthiest Foods; Grapefruit. The George Mateljan Foundation. Article
  23. ^ A. Buettner; P. Schieberle (1999). "Characterization of the Most Odor-Active Volatiles in Fresh, Hand-Squeezed Juice of Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfayden)". J. Agric. Food Chem. 47 (12): 5189–5193. doi:10.1021/jf990071l. PMID 10606593.
  24. ^ Bailey DG, Dresser G, Arnold JM (March 2013). "Grapefruit-medication interactions: forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?". CMAJ. 185 (4): 309–16. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. PMC 3589309. PMID 23184849.
  25. ^ Renee, Janet. "Does Grapefruit Inhibit Liver Enzymes?". sfgate.com. SF Gate. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
  26. ^ a b c d e f Mitchell, Steve (19 February 2016). "Why Grapefruit and Medication Can Be a Dangerous Mix". Consumer Reports. Retrieved 4 May 2016.
  27. ^ Bailey, D. G.; Dresser, G.; Arnold, J. M. O. (2012). "Grapefruit-medication interactions: Forbidden fruit or avoidable consequences?". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 185 (4): 309–316. doi:10.1503/cmaj.120951. ISSN 0820-3946. PMC 3589309. PMID 23184849.
  28. ^ Fellers PJ, Nikdel S, Lee HS (August 1990). "Nutrient content and nutrition labeling of several processed Florida citrus juice products". J Am Diet Assoc. 90 (8): 1079–84. PMID 2380455.
  29. ^ Cerda JJ, Robbins FL, Burgin CW, Baumgartner TG, Rice RW (September 1988). "The effects of grapefruit pectin on patients at risk for coronary heart disease without altering diet or lifestyle". Clin Cardiol. 11 (9): 589–94. doi:10.1002/clc.4960110902. PMID 3229016.
  30. ^ Lee HS (May 2000). "Objective measurement of red grapefruit juice color". J. Agric. Food Chem. 48 (5): 1507–11. doi:10.1021/jf9907236. PMID 10820051.
  31. ^ Platt R (2000). "Current concepts in optimum nutrition for cardiovascular disease". Prev Cardiol. 3 (2): 83–7. doi:10.1111/j.1520-037X.2000.80364.x. PMID 11834923.
  32. ^ Armando C, Maythe S, Beatriz NP (1997). "Antioxidant activity of grapefruit seed extract on vegetable oils". J. Sci. Food Agric. 77 (4): 463–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0010(199808)77:4<463::AID-JSFA62>3.0.CO;2-1. Archived from the original on 2012-12-16.
  33. ^ WMUR Ch. 9: New Hampshire news, weather, sports and entertainment. Researchers Put Grapefruit Diet To Test: Grapefruit Compound Lowers Cholesterol, Helps Regulate Insulin. June 11, 2003. Article Archived 2007-05-28 at the Wayback Machine
  34. ^ Sakamoto S, Sato K, Maitani T, Yamada T (1996). "[Analysis of components in natural food additive "grapefruit seed extract" by HPLC and LC/MS]". Eisei Shikenjo Hokoku (in Japanese) (114): 38–42. PMID 9037863.
  35. ^ von Woedtke T, Schlüter B, Pflegel P, Lindequist U, Jülich WD (June 1999). "Aspects of the antimicrobial efficacy of grapefruit seed extract and its relation to preservative substances contained". Pharmazie. 54 (6): 452–6. PMID 10399191.
  36. ^ Takeoka G, Dao L, Wong RY, Lundin R, Mahoney N (July 2001). "Identification of benzethonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 49 (7): 3316–20. doi:10.1021/jf010222w. PMID 11453769.
  37. ^ Takeoka GR, Dao LT, Wong RY, Harden LA (September 2005). "Identification of benzalkonium chloride in commercial grapefruit seed extracts". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (19): 7630–6. doi:10.1021/jf0514064. PMID 16159196.
  38. ^ Ganzera M, Aberham A, Stuppner H (May 2006). "Development and validation of an HPLC/UV/MS method for simultaneous determination of 18 preservatives in grapefruit seed extract". J. Agric. Food Chem. 54 (11): 3768–72. doi:10.1021/jf060543d. PMID 16719494.
  39. ^ Ali, Mohamed Atiya; Poortvliet, Eric; Strömberg, Roger; Yngve, Agneta (2011). "Polyamines in foods: development of a food database". Food Nutr Res. 55: 5572. doi:10.3402/fnr.v55i0.5572. PMC 3022763. PMID 21249159.
  40. ^ Penniston KL, Nakada SY, Holmes RP, Assimos DG (2008). "Quantitative Assessment of Citric Acid in Lemon Juice, Lime Juice, and Commercially-Available Fruit Juice Products". Journal of Endourology. 22 (3): 567–570. doi:10.1089/end.2007.0304. PMC 2637791. PMID 18290732.
  41. ^ Ben Box, ed. (1993). "Costa Rica - The Meseta Central". 1994 Mexico & Central America Handbook. Sarah Cameron, Sebastian Ballard (4 ed.). Bath, England: Trade and Travel Publications Ltd. p. 682. ISBN 978-0900751462.
  42. ^ Monrose, Gregory Salomon (ed.). "Standardisation d'une formulation de confiture de chadèque et évaluation des paramètres physico-chimiques, microbiologiques et sensoriels". Université d'Etat d'Haiti (UEH / FAMV) - Ingenieur Agronome 2009 (via Memoire Online). Retrieved 5 June 2017. (in French)
  43. ^ Bidault, Blandine; Gattegno, Isabelle, eds. (1984). Le point sur la transformation des fruits tropicaux. Paris: Groupe de recherche et d'echanges technologiques (GRET). p. 46. (in French)
  44. ^ "Medscape Log In". www.medscape.com. Retrieved 2017-03-30.
  45. ^ "How to Clean Your Bathtub with Grapefruit and Salt: 6 Steps". m.wikihow.com. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  46. ^ "How To Naturally Clean a Bathtub with Grapefruit and Salt". Apartment Therapy. Retrieved 2019-03-08.
  47. ^ Morton, J. 1987. Tangelo. p. 158–160. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL. http://www.hort.purdue.edu/newcrop/morton/tangelo.html
  48. ^ a b c d e "Tangelo". www.hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 2017-03-30.

External links

Citrus

Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae. Plants in the genus produce citrus fruits, including important crops such as oranges, lemons, grapefruits, pomelos, and limes.

The most recent research indicates an origin in the Himalayas. Previous research indicated an origin in the part of Southeast Asia bordered by Northeast India, Burma (Myanmar), and the Yunnan province of China, and it is in this region that some commercial species such as oranges, mandarins, and lemons originated. Citrus fruit has been cultivated in an ever-widening area since ancient times.

Denison Field

Denison Field was a baseball field in Winter Haven, Florida. The stadium was built in 1928 with a wooden grandstand. It was the spring training home of the Philadelphia Phillies from 1928 to 1938, and the New York Giants in 1940.

The field was located just west of the current site of the National Guard Armory at the intersection of Avenue C and Sixth Street Southeast. and is the current site of high school football field, Denison Stadium.The Giants attracted 15,743 paying fans during sixteen games in 1940 and children were admitted free.

Ed Smith Stadium

Ed Smith Stadium is a baseball field located in Sarasota, Florida. Since 2010, it has been the spring training home of the Baltimore Orioles.

Fresca

Fresca is a diet grapefruit citrus soft drink made by The Coca-Cola Company. Borrowing the word Fresca (meaning "fresh") from Spanish, it was first introduced in the United States in 1966.

Grapefruit (book)

Grapefruit is an artist's book written by Yoko Ono, originally published in 1964. It has become famous as an early example of conceptual art, containing a series of "event scores" that replace the physical work of art – the traditional stock-in-trade of artists – with instructions that an individual may, or may not, wish to enact.

Grapefruit is one of the monuments of conceptual art of the early 1960s. She has a lyrical, poetic dimension that sets her apart from the other conceptual artists. Her approach to art was only made acceptable when white men like Kosuth and Weiner came in and did virtually the same thing as Yoko, but made them respectable and collectible.

Grapefruit juice

Grapefruit juice is the juice from grapefruits. It is rich in Vitamin C and ranges from sweet-tart to very sour. Variations include white grapefruit, pink grapefruit and ruby red grapefruit juice.Grapefruit juice is important in medicine because of its interactions with many common drugs including caffeine and medications, which can alter how they behave in the body.

Grapefruit juice is a common breakfast beverage in the United States.

Grapefruit knife

A grapefruit knife is a special type of knife designed specifically for cutting grapefruit. Grapefruit knives are small with a curved serrated blade, designed to hug the curves of the grapefruit. This is used to separate the outer edge of the segments from the rim of the fruit. The term "grapefruit knife" can refer to a type of knife with short, serrated twin blades about 2mm apart, used to separate the sides of each section from the dividing membrane. Some grapefruit knives incorporate both types, a double-sided curved blade on one side and the parallel twin blades on the other. Another type includes an angled tip and double sided serrated blade. When both types are used, the result is an intact-looking fruit with sections which lift out easily - especially if a "grapefruit spoon" is used.In the 1950 film noir movie, In a Lonely Place, Humphrey Bogart's character straightens out a grapefruit knife, unaware of the purpose of its design.

Grapefruit–drug interactions

Some fruit juices and fruits can interact with numerous drugs, in many cases causing adverse effects. The effect was first discovered accidentally, when a test of drug interactions with alcohol used grapefruit juice to hide the taste of the ethanol.It is still best-studied with grapefruit and grapefruit juice, but similar effects have been observed with some (not all) other citrus fruits. One medical review advises patients to avoid all citrus juices until further research clarifies the risks. Effects have been observed with apple juice, but their clinical significance is not yet known.One whole grapefruit, or a small glass (200 mL (6.8 US fl oz)) of grapefruit juice, can cause drug overdose toxicity. Fruit consumed three days before the medicine can still have an effect. The relative risks of different types of citrus fruit have not been systematically studied. Affected drugs typically have an auxiliary label saying “Do not take with grapefruit” on the container, and the interaction is elaborated on in the package insert. People are also advised to ask their physician or pharmacist about drug interactions.The effects are caused by furanocoumarins (and, to a lesser extent, flavonoids). These chemicals inhibit key drug metabolizing enzymes, such as cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). CYP3A4 is a metabolizing enzyme for almost 50% of drugs, and is found in the liver and small intestinal epithelial cells. As a result, many drugs are affected. Inhibition of enzymes can have two different effects, depending on whether the drug is either

metabolized by the enzyme to an inactive metabolite, or

activated by the enzyme to an active metabolite.If the active drug is metabolized by the inhibited enzyme, then the fruit will stop the drug being metabolized, leaving elevated concentrations of the medication in the body, which can cause adverse effects. Conversely, if the medication is a prodrug, it needs to be metabolised to be converted to the active drug. Compromising its metabolism lowers concentrations of the active drug, reducing its therapeutic effect, and risking therapeutic failure.

Low drug concentrations can also be caused when the fruit suppresses drug absorption from the intestine.

Grapefruit—Juicy Fruit

"Grapefruit—Juicy Fruit" is a song written and performed by American popular music singer-songwriter Jimmy Buffett. It was first released on his 1973 album A White Sport Coat and a Pink Crustacean and was his third single from that album. The single reached #23 on the Billboard Easy Listening chart in September 1973.The song appears on Songs You Know By Heart, a greatest hits compilation that includes Buffett's concert favorites ranging from 1973 to 1979. It is played very frequently in concert, but is not a concert staple.

Imperial lemon

The Imperial lemon is thought to be a lemon and grapefruit hybrid. Its fruit is slightly larger than a lemon and has a more rounded shape.

Jamaican tangelo

The Jamaican tangelo, also known by proprietary names ugli fruit, uglifruit, or uniq fruit, is a Jamaican form of tangelo, a citrus fruit that arose through the natural hybridization of a tangerine or orange with a grapefruit (or pomelo).Its hybrid species is usually represented as Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi.

Mandelo

A mandelo (or Mandalo, also known as a "cocktail grapefruit") is a citrus fruit that is smaller than a grapefruit, has yellow or yellow-green coloured skin and bright yellow or yellow-orange flesh, but is sweeter than a grapefruit.

Melogold

The Melogold or Melogold grapefruit (Citrus grandis Osbeck × C. Paradisi Macf.) is a citrus hybrid similar to the oroblanco; both result from a cross between the pomelo and the grapefruit and is a fruit similar to a sweet grapefruit.

Orangelo

An orangelo (Spanish chironja - C. ×paradisi × C. ×sinensis) is a hybrid citrus fruit believed to have originated in Puerto Rico. The fruit, a cross between a grapefruit and an orange, had spontaneously appeared in the shade-providing trees grown on coffee plantations in the Puerto Rican highlands.

In 1956, Carlos G. Moscoso, from the Horticulture, Agricultural Extension Service of the University of Puerto Rico noticed trees that grew fruits that were larger and a brighter yellow than those of the other trees on the plantations.

Rootstock trials led to the development of the hybrid commonly known as the chironja. In Puerto Rican Spanish, the name is a portmanteau of orange (Puerto Rican Spanish: china) and grapefruit (toronja).

Orangelos are often eaten in the same manner as grapefruit (cut in half and eaten with a grapefruit spoon), but are sweeter and brighter in color than grapefruit, as well as being easier to peel. They are round to pear-shaped, with 9-13 segments.

Oroblanco

An oroblanco, oro blanco (white gold) or sweetie (Citrus grandis Osbeck × C. Paradisi Macf.) is a sweet seedless citrus hybrid fruit similar to grapefruit. It is often referred to as oroblanco grapefruit.

Pomelo

The pomelo, Citrus maxima or Citrus grandis, is the largest citrus fruit from the Rutaceae family. It is a natural (non-hybrid) citrus fruit, similar in appearance to a large grapefruit, native to South and Southeast Asia. The pomelo is one of the original citrus species from which the rest of cultivated citrus have been hybridized. The popular fruit is used in many festive celebrations throughout Southeast Asia.

Spring training

In Major League Baseball (MLB), spring training is a series of practices and exhibition games preceding the start of the regular season. Spring training allows new players to try out for roster and position spots, and gives established players practice time prior to competitive play. Spring training has always attracted fan attention, drawing crowds who travel to the warm climates of Arizona and Florida to enjoy the weather and watch their favorite teams play, and spring training usually coincides with spring break for many US college students.

Spring training typically starts in mid-February and continues until just before Opening Day of the regular season, which falls in the last week of March. In some years, teams not scheduled to play on Opening Day will play spring training games that day. Pitchers and catchers report to spring training first because pitchers benefit from a longer training period. A few days later, position players arrive and team practice begins. Exhibition games usually begin around the first of March.

Squirt (soft drink)

Squirt is a caffeine-free, grapefruit-flavored, carbonated soft drink, created in 1938 in Phoenix, Arizona.

Tangelo

The tangelo ( TAN-jə-loh, tan-JEL-oh; C. reticulata × C. maxima or x C. paradisi), Citrus × tangelo, is a citrus fruit hybrid of a Citrus reticulata variety such as mandarin orange or a tangerine, and Citrus maxima variety, such as a pomelo or grapefruit. The name is a portmanteau of tangerine and pomelo.

Sometimes referred to as honeybells, they are the size of an adult fist, have a tart and tangy taste, and are juicy at the expense of flesh. They generally have loose skin and are easier to peel than oranges, readily distinguished from them by a characteristic "nipple" at the stem. Tangelos can be used as a substitute for mandarin oranges or sweet oranges.

True species
Major hybrids
True and hybrid
cultivars
Citrons
Mandarin oranges
Papedas
Pomelos
Australian and Papuan citrus
(Microcitrus, Eromocitrus,
Clymenia and Oxanthera subgenera)
Kumquat hybrids
(×Citrofortunella)
Related genera
(perhaps properly Citrus)
Drinks
Products
Diseases
Citrus botanists
Related topics

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