Grant (money)

Grants are non-repayable funds or products disbursed or given by one party (grant makers), often a government department, corporation, foundation or trust, to a recipient, often (but not always) a nonprofit entity, educational institution, business or an individual. In order to receive a grant, some form of "Grant Writing" often referred to as either a proposal or an application is required.

Most grants are made to fund a specific project and require some level of compliance and reporting. The grant writing process involves an applicant submitting a proposal (or submission) to a potential funder, either on the applicant's own initiative or in response to a Request for Proposal from the funder. Other grants can be given to individuals, such as victims of natural disasters or individuals who seek to open a small business. Sometimes grant makers require grant seekers to have some form of tax-exempt status, be a registered nonprofit organization or a local government.

For example, tiered funding for a freeway are very large grants negotiated at government policy level. However smaller grants may be provided by a government agency (e.g. municipal government).

Project-related funding involving business, communities, and individuals is often arranged by application either in writing or online.

United States

In the United States, grants are $1 public and private trusts and foundations. According to the Foundation Center[1] these trusts and foundations number in excess of 88,000 and disperse in excess of $40 billion every year. Trusts and Foundations are a little more complex to research and can be found through subscription-based directories.

Most often, education grants are issued by the government to students attending post-secondary education institutions. In certain cases, a part of a government loan is issued as a grant, particularly pertaining to promising students seeking financial support for continuing their educations.[2]

Grant compliance and reporting requirements vary depending upon the type of grant and funding agency. In the case of research grants involving human or animal subjects, additional involvement with the Institutional Review Boards (IRB) and/or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) is required.

  • National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) : NASA receives and evaluates both solicited and unsolicited grant proposals. The NASA Shared Services Center (NSSC) currently awards all new grants for NASA HQ, GSFC, NMO, Stennis and Dyrden. Awards are made in accordance with the NASA Grants and Cooperative Agreement Handbook[3]
  • National Institutes of Health (NIH)
    • The Center for Scientific Review (CSR) is the focal point at NIH for the conduct of initial peer review of grant and fellowship applications. It implements ways to conduct referral and review.
    • The Office of Extramural Research (OER) provides guidance to institutes in research and training programs conducted through extramural (grant, contract, cooperative agreement) programs.
  • National Science Foundation (NSF)
    • Most NSF grants go to individuals or small groups of investigators who carry out research at their home campuses. Other grants provide funding for mid-scale research centers, instruments and facilities that serve researchers from many institutions. Still others fund national-scale facilities that are shared by the research community as a whole.
    • The NSF receives about 40,000 proposals each year, and funds about 10,000 of them. Those funded are typically the projects that are ranked highest in a merit review process. These reviews are carried out by panels of independent scientists, engineers and educators who are experts in the relevant fields of study, and who are selected by the NSF with particular attention to avoiding conflicts of interest. (For example, the reviewers cannot work at the NSF itself, nor for the institution that employs the proposing researchers.) All proposal evaluations are confidential (the proposing researchers may see them, but they do not see the names of the reviewers).

European Union

The European Commission of the EU provides financing through numerous specific calls for project proposals. These may be within Framework Programmes. Although there are many 7 year programmes that are renewed that provide money for various purposes. These may be structural funds, Youth programmes and Education programmes. There are also occasional one off grants to deal with unforeseen aspects or special projects and themes. Most of these are administered through what are called National Agencies, but some are administered directly through the EU Commission in Brussels. Due to the complexity of the funding mechanisms involved and especially the high competitiveness of the grant application processes (14%) professional Grant Consulting firms are gaining importance in the grant writing process.[4]

Another funding body in Europe is the Council of Europe. This is separate from the EU. Similarly there are calls and various projects that are funded by this Council.

Ireland

Grant-giving organizations in Ireland include the Irish Research Council for Science, Engineering and Technology and Science Foundation Ireland for research grants.

Denmark

Denmark has an educational universal grant system, SU (Statens Uddannelsesstøtte, the State Education Fund). It is available to all students from 18 years of age and all age groups currently taking courses. There are two systems of SU.[5]

  • Youth Education (Ungdomsuddannelse), available to all students in pre-university education (upper secondary education).
  • Higher Education (Videregående Uddannelse), available to all students in post-secondary (higher education). This system is a coupon grant valid for 5 years and 10 months from beginning higher education.

In addition to the government grant scheme, more than 35.000 grants in Denmark exists, which is the second largest number of foundations in Europe by country. These foundations are estimated to possess 400 DKK billion ($60bn) in accessible funds.

Poland

In Poland there exist two major grant organisations, both founded by the government:

Foundation for Polish Science also offers different kinds of scientific grants for distinguished scholars, both Polish citizens and foreigners.

United Kingdom

Grants are made available in the United Kingdom for a variety of business, charitable and research purposes. The biggest grant distributors are government departments and agencies which offer grants to third party organisations (often a charitable organisation) to carry out statutory work on their behalf.

Other major grant distributors in the United Kingdom are the National Lottery, charitable trusts and corporate foundations (through Corporate Social Responsibility policies). For example, Google contributes to the grants process through its Google Grants programme, where any charitable organization can benefit financially from free AdWords advertising if they share Google's social responsibility outcomes.

Grants are time limited (usually between one and three years) and are offered to implement existing government policies, to pilot new ways of doing things or to secure agreed outcomes. A grant will usually only be given for a specific project or use and will not usually be given for projects that have already begun.[6]

Over the years the discipline of writing grant bids has developed into a specialised activity. Many organisations employ fundraising professionals to carry out this work. In the United Kingdom the fundraising profession is governed by The Institute of Fundraising. The grant writing process generally includes search, proposal and accounting for competitive grant funds. Traditional search methods - for example referring to the Charities Aid Foundation Directory of Grant Making Trusts - are quickly becoming replaced by online fundraising tools.

See also

References

  1. ^ "Foundation Center". Foundation Center. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2013-01-09.
  2. ^ "Government Grants for College". School Grants Guide. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  3. ^ "NASA Grants and Cooperative Agreement Handbook". NASA. Retrieved 17 September 2015.
  4. ^ "Horizon 2020 statistics - Horizon 2020 - European Commission". Horizon 2020. Retrieved 2016-10-22.
  5. ^ "Danish Education Support Agency". Statens Uddannelsesstøtte. Retrieved 9 June 2012.
  6. ^ "Small business finance". Bexfinance.com. 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2013-01-09.

External links

American Society of Civil Engineers

The American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) is a tax-exempt professional body founded in 1852 to represent members of the civil engineering profession worldwide. Headquartered in Reston, Virginia, it is the oldest national engineering society in the United States. Its constitution was based on the older Boston Society of Civil Engineers from 1848.The American Society of Civil Engineers represents more than 150,000 members of the civil engineering profession in 177 countries. Through the expertise of its active membership, ASCE is a leading provider of technical and professional conferences and continuing education, the world’s largest publisher of civil engineering content, and an authoritative source for codes and standards that protect the public.

Councils of governments in Connecticut

Councils of governments in Connecticut are organizations that bring together the chief elected officials and/or professional managers from member municipalities in Connecticut. The bodies are meant to aid coordination among neighboring cities and towns, and between the towns and the state government, on issue including land use, zoning, and transportation. They serve some functions analogous to county governments in other states, but have no independent taxing authority (Connecticut disbanded county governments in the late 1950's). They also host some intermunicipal services based on the needs and voluntary participation of member or client municipalities. Councils, or COGs, receive funding through membership dues, state grants, and federal grants. Connecticut state law permits Councils of Government to apply for any grant money offered to county governments or their equivalents.

As of 2018, Connecticut has 9 regional councils following a series of mergers and realignments between 2013-2015. Populations are from the 2010 census. For current membership, see: List of towns in Connecticut. Some COGs also serve as either federal metropolitan planning organizations (MPO), rural planning organizations (RPO), or share staff with one or more MPOs/RPOs within their borders; the Western Connecticut COG, for example, supports both the Housatonic Valley MPO and the South Western CT MPO.

Greenline (Pennsylvania)

The Greenline was a proposed $138 million mass transit line for the Upper Schuylkill Valley region in southeastern Pennsylvania in the United States. The line was advocated by the group Citizens for the Train. Grant money needed to fund a feasibility study was not successfully obtained. Since 2014, there have been no plans to move forward with the project.

Holland Theater

The Holland Theatre was a movie theater that operated in Bellefontaine, Ohio, United States. Like many historic theaters, the Holland ultimately went out of business after a newer, more technologically advanced cinema, was introduced to the town.

Built in 1931, the Holland originally had the capability for both cinema and stage plays, but it was known for large depictions of a 17th-century Dutch landscape that lined both interior sidewalls of the theater. The displays included windmills that slowly turned.

The Holland was eventually converted to a 5 screen multiplex, with the "main" screen remaining in the auditorium in front of the stage. The theater's balcony was split in half and converted into two screens, and two additional screens were constructed in the rear of the cinema where the stage previously existed.

Although the original theater was closed in 1998, the building is open and hosts various fine arts events, while a preservation group works to restore the theater. In 2010, the theater received a grant from the Ohio Cultural Facilities Commission; the theater board has installed a new lighting system with the grant money.Individuals associated with the theater believe that it is the only atmospheric theater in the United States built in a primarily Dutch style of architecture.

Institute for Cancer Prevention

The Institute for Cancer Prevention (IFCP) in Valhalla, NY, formerly the American Health Foundation, was the only National Cancer Institute designated cancer center described as focusing solely on prevention.

It declared bankruptcy in 2004, three months after federal auditors determined that the institute had improperly sought grant money to cover unrelated expenses.

Interactive Autism Network

Interactive Autism Network (IAN) is a research registry which matches researchers and their studies to families who qualify to participate in and benefit from the research. Furthermore, IAN facilitates ongoing research in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). The goal is to accomplish research that advances understanding and treatment of ASDs. IAN Community and IAN Research support and define this process. IAN was established in 2006 at the Kennedy Krieger Institute, and is funded by Autism Speaks and the Simons Foundation.IAN is an online (research registry) database that connects family members of autistic people with researchers in an effort to help solve the many problems associated with autism. Today there are over 30,000 individuals registered on IAN. On April 2, 2007 the Interactive Autism Network was founded by Drs. Paul and Kiely Law at the Kennedy Krieger Institute in Baltimore, Maryland. The IAN project is supported by grant money from a non-profit organization called Autism Speaks.

Joel Alme

Joel Alme (born 1980) is a musician and artist from Gothenburg, Sweden. Alme released his debut album A Master of Ceremonies on April 22, 2008 with "Queen's Corner" being the single. In 2010 he released his second studio album called Waiting for the Bells. He is the former lead singer for Spring in Paris.When Alme received grant money from the Swedish Arts Council (Kulturrådet) for his second album Waiting for the Bells he said, “it enabled me to use a real strings orchestra and I could spend more time in a very good studio with a good producer, Mattias Glavå.”In 2009, Alme altered the lyrics to his song "A young summer's youth" and produced the song "Snart skiner Poseidon" to be played before and after all IFK Göteborg's home matches where it is performed by a massed chorus of supporters.

In 2015, Alme released "Flyktligan" – his first album in Swedish. Most of the songs on that album are about his background and upbringing.

Koasati language

Koasati (also Coushatta) is a Native American language of Muskogean origin. The language is spoken by the Coushatta people, most of whom live in Allen Parish north of the town of Elton, Louisiana, though a smaller number share a reservation near Livingston, Texas, with the Alabama people. In 1991, linguist Geoffrey Kimball estimated the number of speakers of the language at around 400 people, of whom approximately 350 live in Louisiana. The exact number of current speakers is unclear, but Coushatta Tribe officials claim that most tribe members over 20 speak Koasati. In 2007, the Coushatta Tribe of Louisiana, in collaboration with McNeese State University and the College of William and Mary, began the Koasati (Coushatta) Language Project as a part of broader language revitalization efforts with National Science Foundation grant money under the Documenting Endangered Languages program.Koasati is most closely related to the Alabama language but, though the Coushatta and Alabama have historically lived near each other, their languages are no longer mutually intelligible without extensive exposure. The language is also related to the Mikasuki language; some native speakers of Coushatta report they can understand Mikasuki without previous exposure to the language.

MIT $100K Entrepreneurship Competition

The MIT $100K Entrepreneurship Competition is one of the largest and most famous business plan competitions in the world. Entirely student-managed, students from all programs and levels at MIT organize and enter the $100K. Teams must include at least 1 full-time MIT student, but membership is not restricted to the MIT community. The Competition is supported by the MIT Entrepreneurship Center at the MIT Sloan School of Management.

Every year - a total of $300,000 is distributed as non-dilutive grant money. Since 1990 the MIT $100K has given birth to over 160 companies, generating 4,600 jobs, receiving over $1.3 billion in venture capital funding and have a cumulative market value of over $15 billion

Throughout the academic year, the teams take part in a process that includes:

Industry & legal mentorship

Multiple live judging rounds

Prototyping & pitch workshops

Expense accounts for venture development

Networking events with sponsors & alumni

Non-dilutive prize money (~300K annually)The competition started in 1990 as the $10K competition, and continued to grow throughout the 1990s. In 1996 the $10K evolved into the $50K with $30K going to the winner and $10K to each of two runners-up. In 2006, the $50K added another competition focused on business plans for low-income communities to complement the traditional business venture competition. Subsequently, the competition has rebranded as the MIT $100K.

Marven Gardens

Marven Gardens is a neighborhood in Margate City, Atlantic County, New Jersey, United States, located two miles (3 km) south of Atlantic City.

The name Marven Gardens is a portmanteau derived from Margate City and Ventnor City, because it lies on the border of Margate City and Ventnor City. Marven Gardens is surrounded by Ventnor Avenue, Winchester Avenue, Fredericksburg Avenue and Brunswick Avenue. The streets within it are Circle Drive, East Drive and West Drive. Most of the homes were built in the 1920s and 1930s.

For many years, houses in the neighborhood fell into disrepair. During the housing boom of the 2000s, many houses changed ownership and have been returned to their former beauty. Some of the homes have been raised to flood heights as well. In the past ten years, a group of residents used grant money from the City of Margate to restore the numerous landscaped garden areas throughout the development by planting hundreds of rose bushes, junipers and hydrangeas. Marven Gardens is one of the most expensive areas in Margate. It has some of the highest price per square foot rates in New Jersey.

Mesquite Metro Airport

Mesquite Metro Airport (ICAO: KHQZ, FAA LID: HQZ) is a public use airport located in Dallas County, Texas, United States. It is three nautical miles (6 km) east of the central business district of the city of Mesquite. The airport is located west of the border of Dallas County and Kaufman County.The airport was built with private funding in 1975. In 1983, the city of Mesquite purchased the airport using grant money from the FAA. In 1992, the runway underwent a refurbishment and was lengthened by 1,000 feet.Although most U.S. airports use the same three-letter location identifier for the FAA and IATA, this airport is assigned HQZ by the FAA but has no designation from the IATA.

New York and Lake Erie Railroad

The New York & Lake Erie (reporting mark NYLE) is a class III railroad operating in Western New York. The NYLE was formed in 1978 to operate a portion of former Erie trackage that Conrail no longer wanted. Today, the railroad operates between Gowanda to Conewango Valley, New York. The main branch of the trackage once connected with the now-WNYP owned (NS-leased) Southern Tier Line in Waterboro. However, that portion of the line (south of Conewango Valley) and the junction at Waterboro were decommission several years ago. The NYLE also operated a branch between Dayton and Salamanca, also connecting with the Southern Tier Line there, until 1990; the portion south of Cattaraugus was torn out and eventually replaced with the Pat McGee Trail in the early 2000s, while the portion north of Cattaraugus was damaged by floods and landslides in the 2010s and is also no longer operational.

NYLE was used as the setting for railroad scenes in the 1987 film Planes, Trains & Automobiles and the railroad tracks and depot in South Dayton, along with other portions of the village, were featured in the 1983 Robert Redford movie "The Natural". The NYLE is also the owner and operator of Oil Creek and Titusville Lines, Inc.

Due to the 2009 flooding of the Cattaraugus Creek in 2009 and the subsequent damage the flooding did to the railway, passenger service on the New York & Lake Erie Railroad was suspended until late 2012. As of late 2016, the New York and Lake Erie offers a variety of excursion opportunities throughout the year with most trips ending in either Dayton or South Dayton. Operations south of South Dayton remain suspended, with service to Cherry Creek in the process of being restored.

The NYLE was awarded a NYSDOT grant in June 2016 totaling $732,768 to be put towards a rail rehabilitation project that the railroad will embark on between South Dayton and Cherry Creek. The goal is to replace a switch at the NY&LE's southern end at Waterboro and restore full rail service between Gowanda and Jamestown by 2019, then Buffalo (through a connecting railroad) by 2020. Despite the objections of Cattaraugus County (who accused the railroad of proposing the project as a grant-money scam), the state and city of Jamestown announced its support for a feasibility study for the project in May 2017. As of June 2018, restoration plans for the southern portion of the NYLE remain in the planning stages.

Oriole Beach, Florida

Oriole Beach is an unincorporated community located in Santa Rosa County, Florida, United States on Santa Rosa Sound. It lies east of Gulf Breeze on the Fairpoint Peninsula, and about three miles north of Pensacola Beach. Oriole Beach is part of the Pensacola–Ferry Pass–Brent Metropolitan Statistical Area.

The main access road is U.S. Route 98, which runs east to west along the peninsula. The community has its roots as a beach cottage fishing retreat for the residents of Pensacola; some of the original cement block beach cottages are still standing. Permanent homes in Oriole Beach were built along Bay Street which follows an old Indian trail and, subsequently, a logging road that was used to harvest live oak trees for the construction of Civil war sailing ships by the Union Navy in the 1860s. The logging road connected to the Andrew Jackson Trail which linked Pensacola with Jacksonville. The Naval Live Oaks Reservation encompasses a portion of the land where the harvesting took place and where some of the live oak trees continue to grow.

In 1985, a homeowners' association was founded in Oriole Beach; it facilitated the construction of a new boat ramp and bicycle path. The bicycle path is part of the W.D. Childers trail that loops approximately 28 miles around Santa Rosa Sound. The only school in Oriole Beach, Oriole Beach Elementary School, is part of the Santa Rosa County School District.

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, there were 1,420 people living in Oriole Beach in 2010 and, from 2011–2015, there were 582 household with a median income of 52,208.Hurricane Ivan made landfall about 30 miles east of Oriole Beach in November 2004. The tidal surge was recorded at 12 feet and the sustained winds were in excess of 120 miles per hour. The Bay Street elevation of Oriole Beach is about 7.0 feet above mean sea level, so some homes on grade were destroyed. Most of the hurricane debris was removed by Santa Rosa County with Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) grant money. As of spring 2007, a few structures and pine trees damaged by Ivan remain to be demolished and removed.In February 2007, the Bay Street roadway was made three feet wider and about six inches higher by the Santa Rosa County Engineering Department. New home construction is now required by the County Land Development Code to be connected to a sanitary sewer force main rather than septic tanks, the practice before Hurricane Ivan. The city of Gulf Breeze supplies sanitary sewer and natural gas service to the community. Potable water is supplied by a private water system from two elevated tanks connected to local water wells.

Our Stolen Future

Our Stolen Future: Are We Threatening Our Fertility, Intelligence, and Survival? A Scientific Detective Story is a 1996 book by Theo Colborn, Dianne Dumanoski, and John Peterson Myers. The book chronicles the development of the endocrine disruptor hypothesis by Colborn. Though written for the popular press in narrative form, the book contains a substantial amount of scientific evidence. A foreword from then Vice President Al Gore increased the book's visibility. It ultimately influenced government policy through congressional hearings and helped foster the development of a research and regulation initiative within the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The authors also started a website which continues to monitor and report on endocrine disruptor scientific research.

Thousands of scientific articles have since been published on endocrine disruption, demonstrating the availability of grant money for research on the hypothesis raised by Our Stolen Future. For example, a symposium at the 2007 American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) meeting explored the contribution of endocrine disruption to obesity and metabolic disorder. As is often the case, there is strong animal evidence but few epidemiological tests of predictions based on the animal experiments.A 2006 analysis of Center for Disease Control (CDC) data found an extraordinary increase in risk to type II diabetes as a function of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs), in particular synthetic organic chemicals such as organohalogens.

Pedigree Petfoods

Pedigree Petfoods is a subsidiary of the American group Mars, Incorporated specializing in pet food, with factories in England at Melton Mowbray and Birstall, Leeds; and offices at McLean, Virginia.

Pell Grant

A Pell Grant is a subsidy the U.S. federal government provides for students who need it to pay for college. Federal Pell Grants are limited to students with financial need, who have not earned their first bachelor's degree, or who are enrolled in certain post-baccalaureate programs, through participating institutions. The Pell Grant is named after Democratic U.S. Senator Claiborne Pell of Rhode Island, and was originally known as the Basic Educational Opportunity Grant. A Pell Grant is generally considered the foundation of a student's financial aid package, to which other forms of aid are added. The Federal Pell Grant program is administered by the United States Department of Education, which determines the student's financial need and through it, the student's Pell eligibility. The U.S. Department of Education uses a standard formula to evaluate financial information reported on the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA) for determining the student's expected family contribution (EFC).Pell Grants were created by the Higher Education Act of 1965. These federal funded grants are not like loans, and need not be repaid. Students may use their grants at any one of approximately 5,400 participating postsecondary institutions. These federally funded grants help about 5.4 million full-time and part-time college and vocational school students nationally. As of 2016, six of the top ten colleges (by total Pell Grant money awarded) were for-profit (proprietary) institutions.

Robert Roche (activist)

Robert Roche, also known as Bob Roche and Rob Roche, is a Native American civil rights activist. He is perhaps best known for being one of several prominent American Indians to spearhead the movement against the use of Native American imagery as sports mascots.

Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations

The Subcommittee on International Organizations of the Committee on International Relations (also known as the Fraser Committee) was a committee of the United States House of Representatives which met in 1976 and 1977 and conducted an investigation into South Korea–United States relations. It was chaired by Representative Donald M. Fraser of Minnesota. The committee's 447-page report, made public on November 29, 1977, reported on plans by the National Intelligence Service (South Korea) (KCIA) to manipulate American institutions to the advantage of South Korean government policies, overtly and covertly.Among the topics the committee's report covered were South Korean plans to plant an intelligence network in the White House and to influence the United States Congress, newsmedia, clergy, and educators. The committee found that the KCIA decided to work with the Unification Church of the United States and that some church members worked as volunteers in Congressional offices. Together they founded the Korean Culture and Freedom Foundation, a nonprofit organization which undertook a public diplomacy campaign for the Republic of Korea. The committee also investigated possible KCIA influence on the Unification Church's campaign in support of Richard Nixon during the Watergate scandal.The report of the committee also found that the KCIA planned to grant money to American universities in order to attempt to influence them for political purposes. It also said that the KCIA had harassed and intimidated South Koreans living in the United States if they protested against Republic of Korea government policies.

The Story of Colors

The Story of Colors (La Historia de los Colores) is a children's book written by Subcomandante Marcos of the Zapatista Army of National Liberation. First published in 1996, it generated controversy after the National Endowment for the Arts canceled grant money for an illustrated bilingual edition in both Spanish and English. The Lannan Foundation stepped in with support after the NEA withdrew. The bilingual version was published in 1999, translated by Anne Bar Din with illustrations by Domitilia Dominguez.

In 2000, the book received the Children's Book Award from the Firecracker Alternative Book Award. After the NEA withdrew its support, National Public Radio featured the book on All Things Considered, as did The Nation and The New York Times.

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