Graduated driver licensing

Graduated driver licensing systems (GDLS) are designed to provide new drivers of motor vehicles with driving experience and skills gradually over time in low-risk environments. There are typically three steps or stages through which new drivers pass. They begin by acquiring a learner's permit, progress to a restricted, probationary or provisional license, followed by receipt of a full driver's license.[1] Graduated drivers' licensing generally restricts nighttime, expressway, and unsupervised driving during initial stages, but lifts these restrictions with time and further testing of the individual, eventually concluding with the individual attaining a full driver's license.

Overview

Acquiring a learner’s permit typically requires a minimum age and passing vision and knowledge (written) tests. These tests usually assess the participant's knowledge of road signs and how to deal with hypothetical situations (e.g. junctions) while on the road. Parental or guardian permission may be required if below a specified age. Those who hold a learner’s permit must generally drive under the supervision of a licensed driver that is aged 21 or above, not be affected by alcohol or other drugs, and there may be restrictions imposed on maximum speed that a learner driver can drive, the types of road that can be driven, and even on the use of mobile phones (cell phones). There may also be limits imposed on the number of passengers in the vehicle, and learner drivers may be required to be free of moving violations and at-fault accidents or crashes for a minimum period of time before moving to the next stage. In many jurisdictions a learner driver is required to display an L sign clearly on the vehicle to indicate to other road users that training and supervised driving is being undertaken. Learner drivers may also be required to complete a logbook of their driving experience, which must be certified or countersigned by a supervising driver or driver trainer.[2]

The transition for a learner license to an intermediate, provisional or probationary license typically requires a minimum age and usually requires the learner driver to pass an on-road driving test, although in some jurisdictions there may be alternative licensing paths offered involving a continuous process of competency based training and assessment under the guidance and instruction of an accredited driver trainer.

Those who receive an intermediate, provisional or probationary license may drive without supervision, although driving at certain times (typically after midnight until around sunrise) and driving with passengers in the vehicle may require the presence of a supervising driver who is fully licensed. Drivers typically must remain free of moving violations and at-fault accidents for a specified period of time. In some places, drivers with these licenses must have no alcohol or other drugs in their blood while they are driving, and may be restricted to certain maximum speeds and from using mobile phones. In some jurisdictions, an intermediate, provisional or probationary driver is required to display a P sign on the outside of the vehicle to indicate to other road users and police of their license status (and hence of restrictions that may apply).

Receipt of a full drivers license typically requires a specific minimum age, a minimum time period of driving experience, and may require the passing of a final road test of driving skills or the passing of a hazard perception test.

The first graduated driver licensing systems involving a learner licensing phase, an intermediate, provisional or probationary licensing phase, and full licensing were developed in Australia in the 1960s, but the advocacy of graduated driver licensing in North America is associated with Professor Patricia Waller, of the University of North Carolina Injury Prevention Research Center and later the University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute, commencing in the 1970s.

North American graduated driver licensing systems emerged in the late 1980s and 1990s (and were heavily influenced by a revamped graduated licensing system introduced in New Zealand in the 1980s, itself based on Waller's writings), and have now been adopted in almost all US and Canadian jurisdictions. These systems place particular emphases on passenger restrictions and night time driving curfews for young drivers.

In contrast, the approach of European graduated driver licensing systems places much greater emphasis on the training experiences of learner drivers prior to solo driving, with a lesser focus on license restrictions at the intermediate, provisional or probationary licensing phase. Young drivers in European graduated driver licensing systems are typically older, as minimum licensing ages are older than most other countries. As well, most learner driver experience is obtained through professional driving instructors rather than through ad hoc supervision.

The Australian approaches to graduated driver licensing reflect and extend the thinking underpinning the North American and European approaches, combining restrictions on young drivers with intensive training requirements but also adding significant enforcement (zero tolerance with regard to speeding, driving while impaired by alcohol or other drugs, and the use of mobile telephones by young drivers) and penalty components (particularly the suspension of a drivers license for offenses, the impounding of motor vehicles, and opportunities to attend traffic offender intervention programs as part of the penalty process). As in Europe, minimum licensing ages in Australian graduated driver licensing systems are older than in the North American graduated driver licensing systems, and most learner drivers in Australia also receive driver training from professional driving instructors as well as practice under informal driving supervision. Critical features of the Australian graduated driver licensing systems are the mandatory display of L and P plates on the front and back of vehicles driven by learner drivers and provisionally licensed drivers, and the compulsory carriage of a drivers license which facilitates police identification of young drivers and their vehicles.

Graduated licensing and insurance

The automobile insurance industry generally supports graduated licensing. However, some youth rights advocates have accused insurance companies of charging premiums to new and young drivers in GDL jurisdictions that are not substantially less than premiums in non-GDL jurisdictions, even though graduated licensing supposedly reduces the risk of accidents. This issue is generally restricted to jurisdictions with private auto insurance. Most state-run automobile insurance schemes do not discriminate on account of age or driving experience.

Africa

South Africa

In South Africa, a time-based graduated licensing system is used. To attain a full driving license, an individual must first attain a 'Learner's license'. The individual must be 16 to obtain a motor cycle learner's licence; 17 years old to be able to attain a learner's license to operate a 'light motor vehicle', and 18 years old to be able to attain a learner's license to operate a heavy duty motor vehicle. Once the learner's license is issued, the individual has two years to attain their full license. The K53 system is the correct standard. The K53 manuals may be located on the Arrive Alive website. It is recommended that learner drivers secure the assistance of a qualified, professional driving instructor.

There are three different categories of learner licenses:

  • Code 1: motorcycles with an engine capacity below 125cc
  • Code 2: motor vehicles (except motorcycles) with gross vehicle mass of 3 500 kilograms or less
  • Code 3: all vehicles (except motorcycles) with a gross vehicle mass exceeding 3500 kg, you will need to be 18 years of age or older

Asia

Hong Kong

Hong Kong uses a graduated licensing system regardless of the driver's age. A new license of private cars(No.1), mini vans(No.2) and motorcycles(No.3) uses provisional license system called Probationary Driving Licence. While the others have extra requirements upon licensing.

However, drivers already having No.2 licenses for at least 3 years, with no less than two years of non-provisional driving license may be exempted from the probation or No.1 license (but not vice versa).

Driver on probation must comply with a 12-month minimum restricted period. They must comply the following rule while driving on the respected vehicles

  • Placing a proper white plate with red letter "P" in front and rear of the vehicle
  • The speed limit is 70 km/h or the road's speed limit, lower if applicable
  • Cannot drive on the overtaking lane on highways
  • Cannot carry passengers (for motorcyclists only)

Probation period will be extended for 6 months if mild driving regulations are violated, and the probation license voided for severe violation or 2 mild violation. This rule also applies while driving on vehicles not on probation.

For the licenses other than 1,2,3, the applicant must comply all of the requirements below upon application, which are:

  • Over the age of 21
  • Is a Hong Kong permanent resident, or not subjected to any condition of stay
  • Have been driven in Hong Kong or recognized area for 3 years for cars or mini vans, and should have no less than 2 years for non-provisional driving license
  • Have no designated traffic offence record for past 5 years
  • Are fulfilled with other extra requirements, if any.

Europe

Germany

In Germany there are two elements of the graduated driver licensing:

  • At the age of 17 it’s allowed, after a normal procedure for the drivers license to drive accompanied by an experienced driver. The persons who are allowed to accompany the driver, typically the parents, are listed in the preliminary license. When the driver becomes 18 the normal license is send to the driver without any additional tests.[3] The german term is "Begleitetes Fahren".
  • Within the first two years of holding the license there is a zero alcohol limit and a stricter penalisation of traffic rule violations. Some violations will extend the probation time to four years.[4] The German term is "Führerschein auf Probe"

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, one may apply for a provisional driver's licence from the age of 15 years 9 months, provided one is a legal resident of Great Britain. There is no requirement to sit a theory test before applying for a licence. Residents in Northern Ireland must apply through a separate system. Those holding a provisional driver's licence are permitted to learn to drive a car from age 17, and 16 for a moped or light quad bike.[5]

Holders of a provisional licence must be supervised by someone who is over 21 and has held their licence for over 3 years. When a provisional licence holder is driving a car, they must display a red 'L' plate on the front and back of the car (or a 'D' plate in Wales). Learner drivers of cars (but not motorcycles) may drive on motorways.[6]

To progress to holding a full licence, a driver must pass a multiple choice theory test on the Highway Code and a video Hazard Perception Test.[7] Once they have passed these tests, the driver must take and pass a practical test.[8] There is no minimum hours requirement for learning to drive, nor a minimum time to hold a licence. Once a learner has passed their driving test, there is currently no probationary period.[9]

An optional scheme called Pass Plus is available in the UK for new drivers which is aimed at improving general driving skills. This requires driving in a range of conditions and on a variety of roads. It is not a legal requirement, but it can reduce insurance premiums for new drivers.[10]

Sweden

In Sweden, one may apply for a provisional driver's license for personal automobiles from the age of 16 years, providing one has obtained and provided a report on one's medical status, filled out by oneself, and completed and provided an optical exam to the governing body of Transportstyrelsen. While one doesn't need to sit through a theoretical test to qualify, one must sit through a lecture at a licensed driver's school. If and when both the Student and supervisor are licensed, the student may drive on public roads with both the superviser and student having proof of them being licensed with them, and the car having a sign in the back saying "Övningskör" meaning roughly practice driving, a greeen one if you're driving privately most often with ones parent or guardian, or a red sign if the student is driving with an instructor from a licensed driver's school.

While driving the student must be accomplished by another fully licensed driver, who must be 24 years or older, must have had completed an introductions course that is good for personal automobiles within the last 5 years, their student must also have completed this course, and they must have had a fully fledged driver's license for at least 5 years within the last 10 years. [11]

North America

Canada

In Canada, each province is responsible for the transportation laws. Most provinces not listed have a system that resembles one of the following graduated licensing programs.

Alberta

In Alberta, the GDL program is first employed when an individual acquires at Class 7 Learner's License and lasts a minimum of 3 years if the individual obtains their class 7 when 15 instead of 14 and earns a class 5 non-GDL license at the age of 18. The point of the GDL program is to impose certain restrictions on new drivers and to have them earn enough road experience before becoming fully licensed.

British Columbia

The Graduated Licensing Program (GLP) was introduced in British Columbia in 1998 and is based on driving experience. A driver who is at least 16 years old and has never driven before must first take a knowledge test and vision screening test to attain their Class 7L (Learners) permit. Upon achieving this, they must be supervised by a full licensed driver of at least 25 years of age when driving. After a minimum of one year, they can take a practical driver's exam (road test). Upon succeeding the driver's exam, they receive their Class 7 N (Novice) licence, which allows them to drive alone, but with several restrictions. After a minimum of two years of safe driving, they may take another practical driver’s exam (Class 5 road test), and upon passing, they become a full licensed Class 5 driver.

Novice drivers may even be able to take their Class 5 road test after only 18 months, if they’ve taken an ICBC approved graduated licensing program during the L stage and have met all other requirements (no at-fault accidents, tickets or driving prohibitions). By successfully completing this ICBC approved driving course, drivers are also eligible to receive two High School credits.

Drivers who have had experience driving outside the province must take the knowledge test and get their learner's permit, but they are allowed to upgrade their status to Novice after a minimum of one day. However, they must similarly wait a period of two years before attempting to gain their full licence. This can apply even if the applicant currently holds an unrestricted licence from another jurisdiction.

Ontario

In Ontario, the graduated licensing system is a time-based process. Once an individual turns 16, he/she is eligible to acquire a class G1 licence, which is the beginning stage. This is done by passing both a knowledge test as well as a vision test. The G1 licence is required by law to be held for 12 months unless he/she takes an approved Driver's Education course, by which the waiting time is dropped to 8 months. A holder of a G1 licence may drive only with a G level driver who has 4 years' experience, including time as a G2 driver and with a BAC of under .05 (the passenger driver). At the end of that period, he/she can take a G1 exit test which tests basic driving skills. Passing this grants him/her a G2 licence which enables him/her to drive alone with a limited number of passengers in the vehicle unless certain requirements are met. G2 licences are kept for 12 months and then he/she can take the G2 exit test, which tests highway driving as well as city driving skills. Passing this grants the Class G licence which is a full license. This can apply even if the applicant currently holds an unrestricted licence from another jurisdiction.

There are a few other graduated licensing systems in Ontario, including motorcycles (M1, M2, M) and since 2005, mopeds (for a non-class M license holder) (LM1, LM2).

United States

In the United States, transportation laws are the responsibility of the state governments. The federal government does, however, try to encourage graduated driver licensing through its National Priority Safety Programs fund. The National Transportation Safety Board reported in 2017 that zero dollars were expended on graduated driver licensing through this fund in 2016 (compared to more than $230 million for impaired driving campaigns).[12]

In 2011, the Safe Teen and Novice Driver Uniform Protection (STANDUP) Act (S. 528, H.R. 1515) was introduced in the US Senate on March 9 by Senator Kirsten Gillibrand (D-NY) and in the US House of Representatives on April 14 by Representatives Tim Bishop (D-NY) and Randy Hultgren (R-IL). This legislation would establish minimum federal requirements for state graduated licensing laws.[13]

New Jersey

New Jersey residents who have never had a driver license must follow New Jersey’s Graduated Driver License (GDL) program to get their first unrestricted basic driver license. The GDL is designed to give new drivers increased, step-by-step instruction and driving experience on the road to obtaining a basic driver license. The GDL has been proven to save lives among new drivers and their passengers. [14]

Alabama

The State of Alabama uses an age-based graduated licensing system. A new driver over the age of 18 does not need to go through the graduated licensing process; they receive their full license after fulfilling requirements (tests and fees). A 15-year-old licensee must be accompanied by a licensed driver of 21 years of age or older. A 16-year-old licensee may be able to drive unsupervised with permission. However, between 12 am and 6 am, 16-year-olds need supervision unless performing necessary activities. According to the National Safety Council, other states follow similar types of restrictions.[15]

Oceania

Australia

Graduated Driver Licensing (GDL) first commenced in Australia in the mid-1960s with New South Wales introducing provisional licences on 4 January 1966. Learner licences had been in use since 1952. The provisional phase was for 12 months and had 40 mph speed restriction. Today in all Australian states, newly licensed drivers are required by law to display P-plates for varying lengths of time. The P is usually a red or green letter on a white background or a white letter on a red or green background (Victoria & Western Australia only). In New South Wales and Victoria there are two classes of provisional licence, red P-plates are for the first year after passing the Learner test and then after passing a computerised test, they are green for two to three years. Western Australia requires six months of red P-plates, where provisional drivers are under a 12 am – 5 am curfew, and one and a half years of green P-plates.

On 1 July 2000, New South Wales introduced a three-stage Graduated Licensing Scheme (GLS).

  • Stage one is a learner licence with the requirement to complete 50 hours of supervised driving (increased to 120 hours 1 July 2007).
  • Stage two is a one-year P1 probationary licence (with red P plates).
  • Stage three is a three-year P2 probationary licence (with green P plates).

On 1 July 2010, Victoria introduced the Graduated Licensing Systems (GLS).

  • Stage one is a one-year P1 probationary licence (with red P plates).
  • Stage two is a three-year P2 probationary licence (with green P plates).
  • P1 drivers are prohibited from using a mobile phone of any kind, are banned from towing, except for work or when supervised and can carry no more than one passenger aged between 16 years of age and less than 22 years, unless the passengers are immediate family members.

A good driving record will be necessary to progress to the next licence stage.

As of July 2007, newly issued Queensland drivers licences have new restrictions for those under 25. Learners must first log 100 hours of driving experience (of which 10 must be undertaken at night) before taking their practical driving examination. Learners can boost this experience by taking professional lessons which count for 3 times the hours, for up to 10 hours (or 30 logbook hours.) After a period of one year, provisional drivers must then pass a hazard-perception test to move from red to green P-Plates where previously only a 3-year duration was required. New restrictions also prevent any under-25, Queensland provisional licence-holder from carrying more than one passenger under the age of 21, who is not an immediate family member, between the hours of 11 pm and 5 am.

New Zealand

New Zealand has had a graduated driver licence system since 1987. The process of obtaining a full light vehicle driver licence in New Zealand is:[16]

  1. Theory test at a minimum age of 16.
  2. Learner licence: 6 months
  3. Practical test at a minimum age of 16 years 6 months
  4. Restricted licence: 12 months (with advanced driving course) or 18 months (without advanced driving course)
  5. Practical test at a minimum age of 17 years 6 months or 18 years, depending on whether the driver passes an advanced driving course.

References

  1. ^ "Teen and Novice Drivers". GHSA. July 7, 2017.
  2. ^ Bates, Lyndel; Watson, Barry; King, Mark (2010). "Required hours of practice for learner drivers: A comparison between two Australian jurisdictions". Journal of Safety Research. 41 (2): 93–97. doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2010.02.006.
  3. ^ Autorenname (2018-10-31). "Website by the ministy for traffic". BF17. Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  4. ^ "Führerschein auf Probe | ADAC Rechtsberatung". www.adac.de (in German). Retrieved 2019-05-25.
  5. ^ "Apply for your first provisional driving licence". gov.uk. UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  6. ^ "Learner drivers on motorways from 4 June 2018". Gov.uk. UK Government. Retrieved 27 September 2018.
  7. ^ "Theory test for cars and motorcycles". Gov.uk. UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  8. ^ "The car practical driving test". Gov.uk. UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  9. ^ "Driving before you've got your full licence". Gov.uk. UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  10. ^ "Pass Plus". Gov.uk. UK Government. Retrieved 2014-09-05.
  11. ^ "Jag ska vara handledare (in Swedish)". Transportstyrelsen.se. Swedish gov't entity. Retrieved 2019-05-31.
  12. ^ National Transportation Safety Board. 2017. Reducing Speeding-Related Crashes Involving Passenger Vehicles. Safety Study NTSB/SS-17/01. Washington, DC. (Table 9, p. 51)
  13. ^ "The STANDUP Act ~ S. 528/H.R. 1515". SafeRoads4Teens. 2009. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 1 May 2013. Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  14. ^ https://www.state.nj.us/mvcbiz/pdf/About/GDLBrochure.pdf
  15. ^ National Safety Council. (2017) The State of Safety - A State-by-State Report. Itasca, IL. p. 19. accessed at: http://www.nsc.org/NSCDocuments_Advocacy/State-of-Safety/State-Report.pdf
  16. ^ "Car licence requirements". 2017-08-07. Retrieved 1 September 2017.
AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

The AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety (see also AAA) is a non-profit, charitable organization based in Washington, DC that is dedicated to saving lives through traffic safety research and education. Since its founding in 1947, the AAA Foundation has sponsored over 200 projects related to highway safety, covering topics such as distracted, impaired, and drowsy driving; road rage; graduated driver licensing; driver's education and training; and pedestrian safety. The AAA Foundation research agenda is centered on four priority areas: Driver behavior and performance, emerging technologies, roadway systems and drivers and vulnerable road users.

Research in each of these areas is intended to identify the causes and consequences of motor vehicle crashes, evaluate possible countermeasures and solutions, and offer recommendations for achieving the overarching goal of preventing injuries and fatalities on the nation's highways.

Research findings are communicated to policymakers, safety partners, and the media, and are used to develop public educational materials, such as brochures, handbooks, videos, and computer games/software. These products are designed to help drivers understand the potential hazards they will face on the road - such as work zones, railroad crossings, and inclement weather - and hone the skills needed to manage these risks and arrive at their destinations safely.

The AAA Foundation is also recognized as a leader in promoting the idea of Traffic Safety Culture; that is, a social climate in which traffic safety is highly valued and rigorously pursued. Since 2008, the AAA Foundation has published its annual Traffic Safety Culture Index in an effort to benchmark and track key indicators of the public's beliefs and attitudes toward highway safety. Information is collected through a nationally representative telephone survey that measures both attitudes and behaviors regarding, among other things, drinking and driving, cell phone use/texting behind the wheel, speeding, and seatbelt use.

AAA Foundation projects have also been used to help strengthen laws, build public awareness of safety concerns and trends, and advise transportation agencies and highway departments on roadway improvement needs. For example, a 2006 report, Safety Impacts of Pavement Edge Drop-offs documented and analyzed the effects such drop-offs have on roadway departure crashes. The study was cited by the Federal Highway Administration's Office of Safety in its promotion of a cost-effective technology known as the Safety Edge, one of nine countermeasures FHWA considers proven to reduce motor vehicle crashes and improve safety.

Alex Koroknay-Palicz

Alex Koroknay-Palicz (born July 2, 1981) is an American activist in Washington, D.C. He is the former executive director of the National Youth Rights Association serving in that post from 2000 till 2012.

American Automobile Association

The American Automobile Association (AAA – pronounced "Triple A") is a federation of motor clubs throughout North America. AAA is a privately held non-profit national member association and service organization with over 58 million members in the United States and Canada. AAA provides services to its members, including roadside assistance and others. Its national headquarters are in Heathrow, Florida.

Barbara Barlow

Barbara Barlow is an American pediatric surgeon who was the first woman to train in pediatric surgery at Babies Hospital, present day Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital. She has also reduced the amount of injuries for inner-city children through her research and efforts to educate the public on prevention of accidents.

Driving

Driving is the controlled operation and movement of a motor vehicle, including cars, motorcycles, trucks, and buses. Permission to drive on public highways is granted based on a set of conditions being met and drivers are required to follow the established road and traffic laws in the location they are driving.

Driving licence in France

In France, the driving licence (French: Permis de conduire) is a governmental right given to those who request a licence for any of the categories they desire. It is required for every type of motorized vehicle. The minimum age to obtain a driving licence is: sixteen years for a motorcycle, eighteen years for a car, and twenty-one years for buses and cargo vehicles.

Since 2013, the French driving licence format was changed from that of a pink booklet to a credit card-sized card. Some slights modifications appear on driving licenses issued by some overseas collectivities such as French Polynesia (987), Saint-Martin (978), Saint-Barthélémy (977) and Wallis and Futuna (986); where licenses are identical to the normal mainland format with the addition of the name of the Collectivity next to the “RÉPUBLIQUE FRANÇAISE” title and even, for the unique case of French Polynesia, the display of the regional flag on the bottom right part of the cards.

Emergency Nurses Association

The Emergency Nurses Association (ENA) is the American professional organization that represents emergency nursing. Consisting of 40,000 members, ENA examines issues relevant to emergency care, publishes professional guidelines, and issues a peer-reviewed journal. The organization created a certification board to administer specialty nursing certification programs for emergency nurses.

Jesse White (politician)

Jesse Clark White (born June 23, 1934) is an American educator, politician and former athlete from the State of Illinois. A member of the Democratic Party, he has served as the 37th Secretary of State of Illinois since 1999. He is the longest-serving and the first African American to hold this position. Previously, he served as the Cook County Recorder of Deeds from 1993 to 1999 and in the Illinois House of Representatives from 1975 to 1993.

On August 17, 2015, White announced that he would not seek reelection to a sixth term in 2018. Two years later in August, White reversed his decision and announced his candidacy for a sixth term. White has announced that he will not seek reelection in 2022 for what would be a seventh term that would begin just six months short of his 90th birthday.

Joshua's Law

Joshua’s Law is a Georgia state law enacted in 2007 changing the driver's license requirements for teen drivers. A teen driver must meet the new requirements to obtain a Georgia driver’s license. The law was named after Joshua Brown, who died in an accident in 2003. Joshua’s parents joined with legislators in an effort to put stronger driver training laws into effect. The end result was The Teenage and Adult Driver Responsibility Act (TADRA), a law that requires teens get specific driving experience and instruction before obtaining licensing beyond the learner's permit. The law also implemented a graduated driver licensing system, imposing time-of-day and passenger restrictions on drivers aged 16 and 17.

Large goods vehicle

A heavy goods vehicle (HGV), also large goods vehicle (LGV) or medium goods vehicle, is the European Union (EU) term for any truck with a gross combination mass (GCM) of over 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb). Sub-category N2 is used for vehicles between 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) and 12,000 kilograms (26,455 lb) and N3 for all goods vehicles over 12,000 kilograms (26,455 lb) as defined in Directive 2001/116/EC. The term medium goods vehicle is used within parts of the UK government to refer to goods vehicles of between 3.5 and 7.5 tonnes which according to the EU are also "large goods vehicles".Commercial carrier vehicles of up to 3,500 kilograms (7,716 lb) are referred to as light commercial vehicles and come into category N1. Confusingly though, parts of the UK government refer to these as "large goods vehicles" (also abbreviated "LGV"), with the term LGV" appearing on tax discs for these smaller vehicles. Tax discs use the term "HGV" or "LGV" for vehicles over 3.5 tonnes.

HGV/LGVs must not exceed 44 tonnes' laden weight or 18.75 metres (61.5 ft) in length to cross boundaries in the EU, but longer and heavier vehicles (LHVs) known as Gigaliner, EuroCombi, EcoLiner, innovative commercial vehicle, mega-truck, etc., typically 25.25 metres (82.8 ft) long and weighing up to 70 tonnes are used in some countries, and the implications of allowing them to cross borders was being considered.

Learner's permit

A driver's permit, learner's permit, learner's license or provisional license, is a restricted license that is given to a person who is learning to drive, but has not yet satisfied the prerequisite to obtain a driver's license. Having a driver's permit for a certain length of time is usually one of the requirements (along with driver's education and a road test) for applying for a full driver's license. To get a learner's permit, one must typically pass a written permit test, take a basic competency test in the vehicle, or both.

National Safety Council

The National Safety Council (NSC) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit, public service organization promoting health and safety in the United States of America. Headquartered in Itasca, Illinois, NSC is a member organization, founded in 1913 and granted a congressional charter in 1953. Members include more than 55,000 businesses, labor organizations, schools, public agencies, private groups and individuals.The group focuses on areas where the greatest number of preventable injuries and deaths occur, including workplace safety, prescription medication abuse, teen driving, cell phone use while driving and safety in homes and communities.

RAC Foundation

The RAC Foundation (The Royal Automobile Club Foundation for Motoring) is a registered charity.

It is a transport policy and research organisation that explores the economic, mobility, safety and environmental issues relating to roads and their users. It publishes independent and authoritative research with which it promotes informed debate and advocates policy in the interests of the responsible motorist.

It was established as the research arm of RAC Motoring Services Ltd in 1991, when Motoring Services was owned by the Royal Automobile Club. In 1999, when Motoring Services was sold by the Club, the Foundation became an independent organisation. It later gained charitable status.

Rebecca Ivers

Rebecca Q. Ivers is an Australian academic known for her work in injury prevention research.

Safe Kids Worldwide

Safe Kids Worldwide (formerly Safe Kids USA) is a global non-profit organization working to prevent childhood injury through research, community outreach, legislative advocacy and media awareness campaigns. Safe Kids Worldwide has over 400 coalitions in 49 states, and has partners in over 30 countries. The proclaimed mission of Safe Kids Worldwide is "protecting kids from unintentional injuries, the number one cause of death for children in the United States." It is a 501(c) organization.

Thomas Dee

Thomas S. Dee is an American economist and the Barnett Family Professor of Education at Stanford University, where he also directs the John W. Gardner Center for Youth and Their Communities.

Traffic stop

A traffic stop, commonly called being pulled over, is a temporary detention of a driver of a vehicle by police to investigate a possible crime or minor violation of law.

Traffic violations reciprocity

Under traffic violations reciprocity agreements, non-resident drivers are treated like residents when they are stopped for a traffic offense that occurs in another jurisdiction. They also ensure that punishments such as penalty points on one's license and the ensuing increase in insurance premiums follow the driver home. The general principle of such interstate, interprovincial, and/or international compacts is to guarantee the rule "one license, one record."

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