In the United States, a governor serves as the chief executive officer and commander-in-chief in each of the fifty states and in the five permanently inhabited territories, functioning as both head of state and head of government therein.[nb 1] As such, governors are responsible for implementing state laws and overseeing the operation of the state executive branch. As state leaders, governors advance and pursue new and revised policies and programs using a variety of tools, among them executive orders, executive budgets, and legislative proposals and vetoes. Governors carry out their management and leadership responsibilities and objectives with the support and assistance of department and agency heads, many of whom they are empowered to appoint. A majority of governors have the authority to appoint state court judges as well, in most cases from a list of names submitted by a nominations committee.
All but five states (Arizona, Maine, New Hampshire, Oregon, and Wyoming) have a lieutenant governor. The lieutenant governor succeeds to the gubernatorial office (the powers and duties but not the office, in Massachusetts and West Virginia), if vacated by the removal from office, death, or resignation of the previous governor. Lieutenant governors also serve as unofficial acting state governors in case the incumbent governors are unable to fulfill their duties, and they often serve as presiding officers of the upper houses of state legislatures. But in such cases, they cannot participate in political debates, and they have no vote whenever these houses are not equally divided.
States are the primary subdivisions of the United States, and possess a number of powers and rights under the United States Constitution, such as regulating intrastate commerce, running elections, creating local governments, and ratifying constitutional amendments. Each state has its own constitution, grounded in republican principles, and government, consisting of three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Also, due to the shared sovereignty between each state and the federal government, Americans are citizens of both the federal republic and of the state in which they reside.
The governor heads the government's executive branch in each state or territory and, depending on the individual jurisdiction, may have considerable control over government budgeting, the power of appointment of many officials (including many judges), and a considerable role in legislation. The governor may also have additional roles, such as that of commander-in-chief of the state's National Guard (when not federalized) and of that state's respective defense force (which is not subject to federalization). In many states and territories the governor also has partial or absolute power to commute or pardon a criminal sentence. All U.S. governors serve four-year terms except those in New Hampshire and Vermont, who serve two-year terms.
In all states, the governor is directly elected, and in most cases has considerable practical powers, though this may be moderated by the state legislature and in some cases by other elected executive officials. In the five extant U.S. territories, all governors are now directly elected as well, though in the past many territorial governors were historically appointed by the President of the United States. Governors can veto state bills, and in all but seven states they have the power of the line-item veto on appropriations bills (a power the President does not have). In some cases legislatures can override a gubernatorial veto by a two-thirds vote, in others by three-fifths.
In Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, and Tennessee, the governor's veto can be overridden by a simple majority vote, making it virtually useless. In Arkansas, a gubernatorial veto may be overridden by an absolute majority. The Governor of North Carolina had no veto power until a 1996 referendum. In 47 of the 50 states, whenever there is a vacancy of one of the state's U.S. Senate seats, that state's governor has the power to appoint someone to fill the vacancy until a special election is held; the governors of Oregon, Alaska, and Wisconsin do not have this power.
A state governor may give an annual State of the State address in order to satisfy a constitutional stipulation that a governor must report annually (or in older constitutions described as being "from time to time") on the state or condition of the state. Governors of states may also perform ceremonial roles, such as greeting dignitaries, conferring state decorations, issuing symbolic proclamations or attending the state fair. The governor may also have an official residence (see Governor's Mansion).
In a ranking of the power of the governorship in all 50 states, University of North Carolina political scientist Thad Beyle makes the distinction between "personal powers" of governors, which are factors that vary from person to person, season to season - and the "institutional powers" that are set in place by law. Examples of measurable personal factors are how large a governor's margin of victory was on election day, and where he or she stands in public opinion polls. Whether a governor has strong budget controls, appointment authority, and veto powers are examples of institutional powers.
In colonial North America, governors were chosen in a variety of ways, depending on how the colony was organized. In the crown colonies of Great Britain, France, and Spain, the governor was chosen by the ruling monarch of the colonizing power, or his designees; in British colonies, the Board of Trade was often the primary decision maker. Colonies based on a corporate charter, such as the Connecticut Colony and the Massachusetts Bay Colony, elected their own governors based on rules spelled out in the charter or other colonial legislation. In proprietary colonies, such as the Province of Carolina before it became a crown colony (and was divided into North and South), governors were chosen by the Lords Proprietor who controlled the colony. In the early years of the American Revolutionary War, eleven of the Thirteen Colonies evicted (with varying levels of violence) royal and proprietary governors. The other two colonies (Connecticut and Rhode Island) had corporate charters; Connecticut Governor Jonathan Trumbull was governor before and during the war period, while in Rhode Island, Governor Joseph Wanton was removed from office in 1775 for failing to support the rebel war effort.
Before achieving statehood, many of the 50 states were territories or parts of territories. Administered by the federal government, they had governors who were appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate rather than elected by the resident population. Election of territorial governors began in Puerto Rico in 1948. The last appointed territorial governor, Hyrum Rex Lee in American Samoa, left office in 1978.
There are currently 27 Republicans and 23 Democrats. Four Democrats (including the mayor of DC), one Republican, and one New Progressive also occupy territorial governorships. No independent and other third parties hold a Governorship.
The longest-serving governor is Gary Herbert of Utah, who was elected to his second full term in 2016, having ascended to the governorship in 2009 after Jon Huntsman, Jr. resigned after being appointed Ambassador to China.
The longest-serving governor of all time is Terry Branstad of Iowa, who was elected to his sixth non-consecutive term in 2014. On December 14, 2015, he became the longest serving governor in US history, breaking the record held by George Clinton of New York, who served 21 years from 1777 to 1795, and from 1801 to 1804. Governor Branstad resigned on May 24, 2017, to become the United States Ambassador to China.
In the majority of states, term limits cap a governor's tenure.
The oldest current governor is Kay Ivey of Alabama, born on October 15, 1944 . The youngest current state Governor is Ron DeSantis of Florida who was born on September 14, 1978 . Among territorial governors, Ricardo Rosselló of Puerto Rico is youngest, born on March 7, 1979 .
The youngest person to ever serve as a governor in the United States was Stevens T. Mason of the Michigan Territory, elected in 1835 having just turned 24. Mason would later become the first governor of the state of Michigan when it was admitted to the Union in January 1837, when he was 25. Mason was re-elected in November 1837, then age 26.
The second youngest governor ever elected was J. Neely Johnson of California, when he was elected in 1855 at the age of 30, and the third youngest governor was Harold Stassen of Minnesota, when he was elected in 1938 at age 31. When future President Bill Clinton was elected Governor of Arkansas in 1978 at age 32, he became the youngest governor since Stassen.
In 35 states, the minimum age requirement of the governor is 30, though in some it is 25 (7), 21 (1), or 18 (5). Oklahoma is the only state with an older age, 31. Some states require the governor to be a qualified elector/voter, implying a minimum age of 18. Vermont requires candidates to be residents of the state for at least four years as of Election Day, which would preclude small children from running, but has no other implicit or explicit age limit. Kansas has no explicit or implicit age or residency requirements whatsoever.
There are currently 41 male state governors. There are 9 female governors: Kate Brown of Oregon, Kay Ivey of Alabama, Kim Reynolds of Iowa, Laura Kelly of Kansas, Janet Mills of Maine, Gretchen Whitmer of Michigan, Michelle Lujan Grisham of New Mexico, Gina Raimondo of Rhode Island, and Kristi Noem of South Dakota. Of those, Ivey, Noem, and Reynolds are Republicans, while Brown, Kelly, Mills, Whitmer, Grisham, and Raimondo are Democrats.
Four territorial governors are male; one territorial governor and the mayor of Washington, D.C. are female.
Thirty-eight women have been or are currently serving as the governor, including two in an acting capacity.
The first female governor was Nellie Tayloe Ross of Wyoming (widow of the late Wyoming Governor William B. Ross) who was elected on November 4, 1924 and sworn in on January 5, 1925 succeeding Frank Lucas. Also elected on November 4, 1924 was Miriam A. Ferguson of Texas (wife of former Texas Governor James E. Ferguson), succeeding Pat Morris Neff on January 21, 1925. The first female governor elected without being the wife or widow of a past state governor was Ella T. Grasso of Connecticut, elected in 1974 and sworn in on January 8, 1975.
Connecticut, Arizona and New Mexico are the only three states to have elected female governors from both major parties. New Hampshire has also had female governors from two parties, but Republican Vesta M. Roy served only in the acting capacity for a short time. Arizona was the first state where a woman followed another woman as governor (they were from different parties). Arizona also has had the most female governors with a total of four, and is the first state to have three women in a row serve as governor. Washington was the first state to have both a female governor and female U.S. Senators serving at the same time (Christine Gregoire; Patty Murray; Maria Cantwell, respectively). New Hampshire was the first and currently only state to have a female governor and entirely female Congressional delegation serving at the same time.
Nine women have been serving as chief executive of their states since January 5, 2019, when Kristi Noem was inaugurated as the first female governor of South Dakota. This ties the record previously set on two different occasions: first, between December 4, 2006, when Sarah Palin was inaugurated as the first female governor of Alaska, and January 14, 2008, when Kathleen Blanco left office as governor of Louisiana; and second, between January 10, 2009, when Beverly Perdue was inaugurated as governor of North Carolina, and January 20, 2009, when Ruth Ann Minner retired as governor of Delaware.
Ethnic minorities as defined by the United States Census currently constitute around 37% of the total population of the U.S. as of 2012. There are currently 47 state governors who are non-Hispanic whites of European American background. There are 3 minority governors: Michelle Lujan Grisham of New Mexico, who is of Hispanic descent; Chris Sununu of New Hampshire, who is of Lebanese, Palestinian, Latin American, Irish and British descent; and David Ige of Hawaii, who is of Japanese descent. Sununu is a Republican while Grisham and Ige are Democrats.
Among the five U.S. territories, one Hispanic (Ricardo Rosselló of Puerto Rico), one Black (Albert Bryan of the U.S. Virgin Islands), and two Pacific Islander Americans (Lou Leon Guerrero of Guam and Lolo Letalu Matalasi Moliga of American Samoa) currently serve as governor. African-American Muriel Bowser is the current Mayor of the District of Columbia, an office equivalent to a governor.
15 of the current state governors were born outside the state they are serving: Mike Dunleavy of Alaska (born in Pennsylvania), Doug Ducey of Arizona (born in Ohio), Ned Lamont of Connecticut (born in Washington, D.C.), J. B. Pritzker of Illinois (born in California), Laura Kelly of Kansas (born in New York), Matt Bevin of Kentucky (born in Colorado), Larry Hogan of Maryland (born in Washington, D.C.), Charlie Baker of Massachusetts (born in New York), Tim Walz of Minnesota (born in Nebraska), Steve Sisolak of Nevada (born in Wisconsin), Phil Murphy of New Jersey (born in Massachusetts), Kevin Stitt of Oklahoma (born in Florida), Kate Brown of Oregon (born in Spain), and Mark Gordon of Wyoming (born in New York).
State constitutions have varying requirements for the length of citizenship and residency of the governor but unlike the President, state governors do not need to be natural-born citizens. There is some ambiguity in some state constitutions if a governor must be a citizen or just a resident.
The current governor of Texas, Greg Abbott, has been paraplegic since an accident in 1984; he has used a wheelchair ever since. Governor of New York Franklin D. Roosevelt was paraplegic; he later became the first wheelchair-using president.
The average salary of a state governor in 2009 was $124,398. The highest salary currently being accepted is that of California Governor Gavin Newsom at $202,000. The lowest salaries are those of Maine Governor Janet Mills and of Puerto Rico Ricardo Rosselló at $70,000.
There have been several instances where the governor of a state has either refused their salary in its entirety or instead only taken $1.00 per year. Alabama Governor Robert J. Bentley refused his yearly salary of $119,950.00 until the state reached full employment. Michigan Governor Rick Snyder took a $1.00 yearly salary. Texas Governor Greg Abbott has returned his salary to the state during each year he has held office. During his tenure as Governor of California, Arnold Schwarzenegger also did not accept his salary of $170,000.00 per year. However, several governors instead have decided to take a reduction in their salary instead of refusing it entirely. New York Governor Andrew Cuomo took a 5 percent reduction in his salary in 2015, and Kentucky Governor Steve Beshear reduced his salary by 10 percent during the same year.
Only six states (California, New York, New Jersey, Michigan, Pennsylvania and Virginia) currently offer their governors a higher salary than the $174,000 paid to members of Congress. In many states, the governor is not the highest-paid state employee; most often, that distinction is held by the head football or men's basketball coach at a major state university.
All states except Louisiana hold gubernatorial elections on the first Tuesday following the first Monday in November. The earliest possible date for the election is therefore November 2 (if that date falls on a Tuesday), and the latest possible date is November 8 (if November 1 falls on a Tuesday). Louisiana holds its gubernatorial primary on the third or fourth Saturday of October and the general election (commonly referred to as the runoff within the state) on the third Saturday of November, but the general election is cancelled if one candidate wins the primary outright (see primary section below).
The other 48 states hold gubernatorial elections every four years.
All states, except for California, Louisiana, and Washington, hold primaries in which each political party holds a primary election, and the winner of the primary election moves on to compete in a general election. In California, Louisiana, and Washington, all the candidates run in a blanket primary against each other. Regardless of political party, the top two candidates move on to the general election. In Louisiana, the general election is cancelled if one of the candidates receives more than 50% of the votes cast. In California and Washington, the top two vote getters proceed to the general election regardless of how many votes the top vote getter received in the primary, and California prohibits write-in candidates from competing in the general election.
The type of relationship between the governor and the lieutenant governor greatly varies by state. In some states the governor and lieutenant governor are completely independent of each other, while in others the governor gets to choose (prior to the election) who would be his or her lieutenant governor.
The 1968 United States Senate election in Oklahoma was held November 3, 1968. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Mike Monroney was running for re-election to a fourth term, but was defeated by Republican Henry Bellmon.1970 Arizona gubernatorial election
The 1970 Arizona gubernatorial election took place on November 3, 1970. Incumbent Governor Jack Williams ran for reelection to a third term as Governor. United States Ambassador to Bolivia Raúl Héctor Castro won the Democratic nomination, and narrowly lost the general election to Williams by 1.78%. Williams was sworn into his third and final term as Governor on January 5, 1971.
Due to a constitutional amendment approved by the voters in 1968, the length of the term of Governor of Arizona was changed from two years to four years, effective with the 1970 gubernatorial election. Thus, Williams became the first Arizona Governor to serve a 4-year term.1976 United States Senate election in Rhode Island
The 1976 United States Senate election in Rhode Island took place on November 2, 1976. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator John O. Pastore did not seek re-election. Republican John Chafee won the seat, defeating Democrat Richard P. Lorber. Chafee was the first Republican to win a U.S. Senate race in Rhode Island since 1930.1986 United States Senate election in Missouri
The 1986 United States Senate election in Missouri was held on November 3, 1986. Incumbent Democratic U.S. Senator Tom Eagleton decided to retire instead of seeking a fourth term. Republican Governor Kit Bond won the open seat.1992 United States Senate election in New Hampshire
The 1992 United States Senate election in New Hampshire was held November 3, 1992. Incumbent Republican U.S. Senator Warren Rudman decided to retire. Republican Judd Gregg won the open seat. It was his most competitive election, as he has been able to easily defeat his opponents in other elections.1998 United States Senate election in Ohio
The 1998 United States Senate election in Ohio was held November 3, 1998. It was concurrent with elections to the United States House of Representatives. Incumbent Democratic U.S Senator John Glenn decided to retire, instead of seeking a fifth term. Republican Governor George Voinovich won the open seat.2014 United States Virgin Islands general election
The United States Virgin Islands general election was held on 4 November 2014. Voters chose the non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives, all fifteen seats in the Legislature of the Virgin Islands, and the Governor of the United States Virgin Islands.Alexander H. Graham
Alexander H. (Sandy) Graham (August 9, 1890 – 1977) was a North Carolina attorney and politician who served as the 17th Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina from 1933 to 1937 under Governor John C. B. Ehringhaus.
Graham was born in Hillsborough, North Carolina on August 9, 1890. His father, Major John Washington Graham, was a five-term state senator. His grandfather, William Alexander Graham, had served as governor, United States senator, and Secretary of the Navy.
A. H. Graham, a graduate of Harvard Law School, served in the U.S. Army during World War I and later was elected to the North Carolina House of Representatives (1921–30). He was elected Speaker of the House in 1929. In 1930, Graham chaired the search committee that hired Frank Porter Graham (no known relation) as president of the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
Limited to one term as lieutenant governor by the state constitution of the time, Graham ran for governor in 1936, but came in third in the Democratic primary, behind winner Clyde R. Hoey and runner-up Ralph W. McDonald.Graham later served as head of the State Highway and Public Works Commission (1945–1949 and 1953–1957).Floresville, Texas
Floresville is a city in Wilson County, Texas, United States. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the population was estimated at 7,572 in 2017. It is the county seat of Wilson County. The city is also part of the San Antonio Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Floresville was the birthplace and hometown of former Secretary of the Navy, Democratic Texas Governor, United States Secretary of the Treasury (In 1973 he switched parties to become a Republican), and Republican presidential contender John Bowden Connally, Jr. (1917–1993), and his seven siblings, including actor Merrill Connally (1921–2001) and Wayne Connally (1923–2000), a former member of both houses of the Texas State Legislature. The Connally Memorial Medical Center in Floresville is named for John, Merrill, and Wayne Connally.
Floresville was also the birthplace of Vicente T. Ximenes (1919–2014), a former member of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and a civil rights activist.Lehman College
Lehman College is a senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY) in New York, United States. Founded in 1931 as the Bronx campus of Hunter College, the school became an independent college within CUNY in September 1967. The college is named after Herbert H. Lehman, a former New York governor, United States senator, philanthropist, and the son of Lehman Brothers co-founder Mayer Lehman. It is a public, comprehensive, coeducational liberal arts college with more than 90 undergraduate and graduate degree programs and specializations.Lieutenant governor
A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction.
Often a lieutenant governor is the deputy or lieutenant to or ranking under a governor — a "second-in-command".
In Canadian provinces or in the Dutch Caribbean, the lieutenant governor is the representative of the monarch in that jurisdiction.Lieutenant governor (United States)
In the United States, 45 of the 50 states have an office of lieutenant governor. In two of the 45 states, the speaker of the upper house of the state legislature serves in such a capacity. In most cases, the lieutenant governor is the highest officer of state after the governor, standing in for that officer when they are absent from the state or temporarily incapacitated. In the event a governor dies, resigns or is removed from office, the lieutenant governor typically becomes governor.
In 25 states, the governor and lieutenant governor are elected on the same ticket, ensuring that they come from the same political party. In the remaining 18 states, they are elected separately and, thus, may come from different parties. The lieutenant governor is also frequently the presiding officer of the upper house of the state legislature, similar to the vice president of the United States. Among the seven states without a separate, full-time office of lieutenant governor, two states have a post of lieutenant governor that is filled by the highest officer of the state Senate. In Tennessee, the full title of the leader of the Senate is "lieutenant governor and speaker of the Senate". In West Virginia, the title of lieutenant governor is assigned by statute to the Senate president. With the exception of Arkansas, Georgia, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia, every state has had a female lieutenant governor or equivalent - although Mona Pasquil briefly acted as lieutenant governor of California between Abel Maldonado and John Garamendi.
In Maine, the presiding officer of the State Senate assumes the governor's office upon a vacancy, while in New Hampshire, the presiding officer of the State Senate assumes only the governor's powers and duties (becomes acting governor) upon a vacancy. In the remaining three states – Arizona, Oregon, and Wyoming – the secretary of State becomes governor upon the office's vacancy.
The U.S. territories of American Samoa, Guam, Northern Mariana Islands and the Virgin Islands have the office of lieutenant governor. In Puerto Rico, the appointed secretary of State becomes governor upon the office's vacancy while the chief of Staff is typically the highest office after the governor(Usually the highest after the governor).
Lieutenant governors are the only officials with specific duties and powers in two branches of state government: the executive and legislative branches. More than half of the NLGA members preside over their state senate. Most pursue legislative initiatives; many testify locally and in Washington D.C. in various capacities; some serve on the governors’ cabinets; and others maintain varied portfolios of duties. In many states, the duties of lieutenant governor are increased by legislation to include the lieutenant governor on state boards, commissions and task forces. "
Since Alaska, Hawaii, and Utah do not have a secretary of State, the lieutenant governor performs the duties generally granted to that office. In New Jersey, the governor must appoint the lieutenant governor to head a cabinet-level department or administrative agency within the state government's executive branch—but not to the post of state attorney general, Lieutenant Governor Kim Guadagno also served as secretary of State from 2010 to 2018. The lieutenant governor of Texas plays an active role as presiding officer of the State Senate and is often rumored to be more powerful than the state governor. The lieutenant governor of Virginia also serves as the president of the Senate, as do about half the lieutenant governors.The positions are sometimes criticized for lacking duties and power and described by political insiders as "get up, read the paper, see if the governor is dead, if not, go back to sleep". In the 2010 election for the lieutenant governor of Rhode Island, 40% of the vote was won by a perennial candidate who wanted to abolish the office, saying "If you open up the dictionary to ‘sinecure,’ you have a picture of the lieutenant governor of Rhode Island".List of United States governors
The following is a list of current governors of U.S. states and territories.
In the United States, a governor is the chief executive officer of a state or a territory. As of February 2019, 27 states have Republican governors and 23 have Democratic governors. Additionally, three U.S. territories (American Samoa, Guam and the U.S. Virgin Islands) have Democratic governors, while one (the Northern Mariana Islands) has a Republican governor. Gov. Ricardo Rosselló of Puerto Rico is registered with the New Progressive Party, but is affiliated with the Democratic Party.Newburgh–Beacon Bridge
The Hamilton Fish Newburgh–Beacon Bridge is a cantilever toll bridge that spans the Hudson River in New York State. The bridge carries Interstate 84 (I-84) and New York State Route 52 (NY 52) between Newburgh and Beacon. Consisting of two separate spans, the original northern span which carries westbound traffic, was opened on November 2, 1963, as a two-lane (one in each direction) bridge. A second span completed in 1980, now carries all eastbound traffic. Still often referred to by its original name, the Newburgh–Beacon Bridge, in 1997 the bridge was rededicated in honor of Hamilton Fish who was a Governor of New York, Lieutenant Governor, United States Senator from New York, U.S. Secretary of State, and a Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from New York's 6th congressional district.Paul Roudakoff
Paul P. Roudakoff (17 December 1907 – 4 December 1993) was a Lt. Colonel in the U.S. Army, serving in 1945 through 1948 as Executive Officer and Deputy Chief, and later as Chief, of the Liaison and Protocol section at OMGUS (Office of the Military Governor, United States) in Berlin, Germany. Retaining his assignment, he moved to the United States Department of State, serving through 1953.Premier (Canada)
In Canada, a premier is the head of government of a province or territory. Though the word is merely a synonym for prime minister, it is employed for provincial prime ministers to differentiate them from the Prime Minister of Canada. There are currently 10 provincial premiers and three territorial premiers. These persons are styled The Honourable only while in office, unless they are admitted to the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, in which case they retain the title even after leaving the premiership.
The prime minister – premier distinction does not exist in French, with both federal and provincial first ministers being styled premier/première ministre.Seabrook, New Hampshire
Seabrook is a town in Rockingham County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 8,693 at the 2010 census. Located at the southern end of the coast of New Hampshire on the border with Massachusetts, Seabrook is noted as the location of the Seabrook Nuclear Power Station, the third-most recently constructed nuclear power plant in the United States.State auditor
State auditors (also state comptrollers or state controllers) are executive officers of U.S. states who serve as auditors and comptrollers for state funds.
The office of state auditor is often a constitutional office (that is, it is created by the state constitution). The state auditor often heads a state agency. In 24 states the auditor is an elected office, while in others auditors are appointed by the state governor or state legislature. Some states require a gubernatorial appointment to be confirmed by the state senate. Colorado's auditor is appointed by the legislature and Tennessee's Comptroller of the Treasury is elected by the state's General Assembly.Fiscal matters are the primary business of these officers but their audit skills are frequently put into practice for other purposes such as Colorado's reports on health exchanges and on marijuana legalization. California's state auditor is involved with the redistricting process. Despite their generally positive, relatively high-profile position, auditors seldom seek higher political office. They are organized nationally in the United States as part of the National Association of State Auditors, Comptrollers and Treasurers.Wilkes University Election Statistics Project
The Wilkes University Election Statistics Project is a free online resource documenting Pennsylvania political election results dating back to 1796.Currently, the database documents Pennsylvania's county-level vote totals for President, Governor, United States Senator, and Congressional elections back to 1796. The database also contains directories for members of the Pennsylvania Provincial Assembly and the Pennsylvania General Assembly, dating back to 1682.According to the database's designer, Wilkes University Professor Harold Cox, "No other state has anything like it." The project's impetus began in 1996, when Cox inquired about 19th century election statistics, only to find that the data would cost $1,000.The project has been cataloged by the Pennsylvania State University Libraries and the Van Pelt Library at the University of Pennsylvania. It has been cited as a source in academic books about the Supreme Court of the United States, Communist politicians in Pennsylvania, and a survey of state-level political parties.
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