Governor-General of the Philippines

The Governor-General of the Philippines (Spanish: Gobernador-General de Filipinas; Filipino: Gobernador-Heneral ng Pilipinas; Japanese: フィリピン総督 (Firipin sōtoku);) was the title of the government executive during the colonial period of the Philippines, governed mainly by Spain (1565–1898) and the United States (1898–1946), and briefly by Great Britain (1762–1764) and Japan (1942–1945). They were also the representative of the executive of the ruling power.

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence from the American control. The governor-general was replaced by an elected Filipino "President of the Philippine Commonwealth", as the chief executive of the Philippines, taking over many of the duties of the Governor-General. The former American Governor-General then became known as the High Commissioner to the Philippines.

Governor-General of the Philippines
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant
Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801)
Great Seal of the United States (obverse)
Imperial Seal of Japan
ResidenceFort San Pedro (1565–1572)
Palacio del Gobernador (1572–1863)
Malacañang Palace (1863–1945)
Mansion House (1942–1945)
Appointer
Viceroy of New Spain
Monarch of Spain
Monarch of Great Britain
President of the United States
Emperor of Japan
PrecursorVarious,
the barangay system
Formation27 April 1565
First holderMiguel López de Legazpi
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Wesley Merritt
(under the United States)
Masaharu Homma
(under Japan)
Final holderDiego de los Ríos
(under Spain)
Dawsonne Drake
(under Great Britain)
Frank Murphy
(under the United States)
Tomoyuki Yamashita
(under Japan)
Abolished6 October 1945
Succession President of the Philippines

Under New Spain (1565–1761)

From 1565 to 1898, the Philippines was under Spanish rule. From 1565–1821, The governor and captain-general was appointed by the Viceroy of New Spain upon recommendation of the Spanish Cortes and governed on behalf of the Monarch of Spain to govern the Captaincy General of the Philippines. When there was a vacancy (e.g. death, or during the transitional period between governors), the Real Audiencia in Manila appoints a temporary governor from among its members.

After 1821, the country was no longer under the Viceroyalty of New Spain (present-day Mexico) and administrative affairs formerly handled by New Spain were transferred to Madrid and placed directly under the Spanish Crown.

  Ad interim   Real Audiencia

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
1 Miguel López de Legazpi, en La Hormiga de Oro Miguel López de Legazpi April 27, 1565 August 20, 1572 Portrait of Philip II of Spain by Sofonisba Anguissola - 002b
Philip II
(25 July 1554 – 13 September 1598)
2 Guido de Lavezares Guido de Lavezaris August 20, 1572 August 25, 1575
3 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580) Francisco de Sande August 25, 1575 April 1580
4 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1504-1580) Gonzalo Ronquillo de Peñalosa April 1580 March 10, 1583
5 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Diego Ronquillo March 10, 1583 May 16, 1584
6 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Santiago de Vera May 16, 1584 May 1590
7 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Gómez Pérez Dasmariñas June 1, 1590 October 25, 1593
8 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Pedro de Rojas October 1593 December 3, 1593
9 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Luís Pérez Dasmariñas December 3, 1593 July 14, 1596
10 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Francisco de Tello de Guzmán July 14, 1596 May 1602
Diego Velázquez - Philip III on Horseback (detail) - WGA24408

Philip III
(13 September 1598 – 31 March 1621)
11 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Pedro Bravo de Acuña May 1602 June 24, 1606
12 Sangelys, detail from Carta Hydrographica y Chorographica de las Yslas Filipinas (1734) Cristóbal Téllez de Almanza
(Real Audiencia)
June 24, 1606 June 15, 1608
13 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Rodrigo de Vivero y Aberrucia June 15, 1608 April 1609
14 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Juan de Silva April 1609 April 19, 1616
15 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Andrés Alcaraz
(Real Audiencia)
April 19, 1616 July 3, 1618
16 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Alonso Fajardo de Entenza July 3, 1618 July 1624
PhilipIV01

Philip IV
(31 March 1621 – 17 September 1665)
17 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Jeronimo de Silva
(Real Audiencia)
July 1624 June 1625
18 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Fernándo de Silva July 1624 June 29, 1626
19 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Juan Niño de Tabora June 29, 1626 July 22, 1632
20 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Lorenzo de Olaza y Lecubarri
(Real Audiencia)
July 22, 1632 1633
21 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Juan Cerezo de Salamanca August 29, 1633 June 25, 1635
22 Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera Sebastián Hurtado de Corcuera June 25, 1635 August 11, 1644
23 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Diego Fajardo Chacón August 11, 1644 July 25, 1653
24 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Sabiniano Manrique de Lara July 25, 1653 September 8, 1663
25 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch (1580-c.1668) Diego de Salcedo September 8, 1663 September 28, 1668
Juan de Miranda Carreno 002

Charles II
(17 September 1665 – 1 November 1700)
26 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Juan Manuel de la Peña Bonifaz September 28, 1668 September 24, 1669
27 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Manuel de León September 24, 1669 September 21, 1677
28 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Francisco Coloma y Maceda
(Real Audiencia)
April 11, 1677 September 25, 1677
29 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Francisco Sotomayor y Mansilla
(Real Audiencia)
September 21, 1677 September 28, 1678
30 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Juan de Vargas y Hurtado September 28, 1678 August 24, 1684
31 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Gabriel de Curuzealegui y Arriola August 24, 1684 April 1689
32 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Alonso de Avila Fuertes
(Real Audiencia)
April 1689 July 1690
33 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (c.1668-1700) Fausto Cruzat y Gongora July 25, 1690 December 8, 1701
Felipe V de España

Philip V

November 1700 – 15 January 1724

34 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Domingo Zabálburu de Echevarri December 8, 1701 August 25, 1709
35 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Martín de Urzúa y Arizmendi, count of Lizárraga August 25, 1709 February 4, 1715
36 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant José Torralba
(Real Audiencia)
February 4, 1715 August 9, 1717
37 Governor General Fernando Bustamante Fernando Manuel de Bustillo Bustamante y Rueda August 9, 1717 October 11, 1719
- Francisco de la Cuesta Archbishop Francisco de la Cuesta
(acting)
October 11, 1719 August 6, 1721
38 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Toribio José Cosio y Campo August 6, 1721 August 14, 1729
Luis I, rey de España

Louis I

(15 January – 31 August 1724)

Felipe V de España

Philip V

(6 September 1724 – 9 July 1746)

39 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Fernándo Valdés y Tamon August 14, 1729 July 1739
40 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Gaspar de la Torre y Ayala July 1739 September 21, 1745
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Archbishop Juan Arrechederra
(acting)
September 21, 1745 July 20, 1750
Ferdinand VI 2
Ferdinand VI

(9 July 1746 – 10 August 1759)

41 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Francisco José de Ovando, 1st Marquis of Brindisi July 20, 1750 July 26, 1754
42 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Pedro Manuel de Arandía Santisteban July 26, 1754 May 31, 1759
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Bishop Miguel Lino de Ezpeleta
(acting)
June 1759 May 31, 1761
Charles III of Spain high resolution

Charles III

(10 August 1759 – 14 December 1788)

- Manuel Antonio Rojo del Rio Vera Archbishop Manuel Rojo del Río y Vieyra
(acting)
July 1761 October 6, 1762 Charles III of Spain high resolution
Charles III

British Occupation of Manila (1761–1764)

After the Battle of Manila on 1762, on a terrible loss, the Philippines was occupied by 2 Governors-General of the United Kingdom or the British Empire.

Great Britain occupied Manila and the naval port of Cavite as part of the Seven Years' War.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
43 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Simón de Anda y Salazar
(Provisional Government in Bacolor, Pampanga)
October 6, 1762 February 10, 1764 Charles III of Spain high resolution
Charles III
44 Coat of Arms of Great Britain (1714-1801) Dawsonne Drake November 2, 1762 May 31, 1764 Allan Ramsay - King George III in coronation robes - Google Art Project
George III

Under New Spain (1764–1821)

After the British Government replaced their incumbent Governor-General of the Philippines and they have given the nation to Spain one more time, Spanish Governor-General Francisco Javier de la Torre ascended to the Seat.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
45 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Francisco Javier de la Torre March 17, 1764 July 6, 1765 Charles III of Spain high resolution
Charles III
46 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez July 6, 1765 July 1770
(43) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Simón de Anda y Salazar July 1770 October 30, 1776
47 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Pedro de Sarrio October 30, 1776 July 1778
48 José Basco y Vargas José Basco y Vargas July 1778 September 22, 1787
(47) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Pedro de Sarrio September 22, 1787 July 1, 1788
49 Felix Berenguer Félix Berenguer de Marquina July 1, 1788 September 1, 1793
Carlos IV de rojo

Charles IV
50 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León September 1, 1793 August 7, 1806
51  
Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant
 
Mariano Fernández de Folgueras August 7, 1806 March 4, 1810
Ferdinand VII of Spain (1814) by Goya

Ferdinand VII
Joseph-Bonaparte

Joseph Bonaparte
52 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant| Manuel Gonzalez de Aguilar March 4, 1810 September 4, 1813
53 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant José Gardoqui Jaraveitia September 4, 1813 December 10, 1816
Fernando VII en un campamento, por Goya

Ferdinand VII
(51) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Mariano Fernández de Folgueras December 10, 1816 September 15, 1821

Direct Spanish control (1821–1898)

After the 1821 Mexican War of Independence, Mexico became independent and was no longer part of the Spanish Empire. The Viceroyalty of New Spain ceased to exist. The Philippines, as a result, was directly governed from Madrid, under the Crown.

# Picture Name From Until Monarch
(51) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Mariano Fernández de Folgueras September 16, 1821 October 30, 1822 Fernando VII, by López
Ferdinand VII
54 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Juan Antonio Martínez October 30, 1822 October 14, 1825
55 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Mariano Ricafort Palacín y Abarca October 14, 1825 December 23, 1830
56 Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo Pasqual Enrile y Alcedo December 23, 1830 March 1, 1835
Isabel II reina de España

Isabella II
57 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Gabriel de Torres March 1, 1835 April 23, 1835
58 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Joaquín de Crame April 23, 1835 September 9, 1835
59 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Pedro Antonio Salazar Castillo y Varona September 9, 1835 August 27, 1837
60 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Andrés García Camba August 27, 1837 December 29, 1838
61 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Luis Lardizábal December 29, 1838 February 14, 1841
62 Oraa-Calbo Marcelino de Oraá February 14, 1841 June 17, 1843
63 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Francisco de Paula Alcalá de la Torre June 17, 1843 July 16, 1844
64 El teniente general Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa, conde de Manila (Museo del Prado) Narciso Clavería, 1st Count of Manila July 16, 1844 December 26, 1849
65 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Antonio María Blanco December 26, 1849 July 29, 1850
66 Juan Antonio de Urbiztondo, marqués de la Solana Antonio de Urbistondo y Eguía July 29, 1850 December 20, 1853
67 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Ramón Montero y Blandino December 20, 1853 February 2, 1854
68 El marqués de Novaliches con el manto de la Real y Militar Orden de San Fernando Manuel Pavía, 1st Marquis of Novaliches February 2, 1854 October 28, 1854
(67) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Ramón Montero y Blandino October 28, 1854 November 20, 1854
69 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Manuel Crespo y Cebrían November 20, 1854 December 5, 1856
(67) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Ramón Montero y Blandino December 5, 1856 March 9, 1857
70 Teniente coronel Fernando Norzagaray Fernándo Norzagaray y Escudero March 9, 1857 January 12, 1860
71 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Ramón María Solano y Llanderal January 12, 1860 August 29, 1860
72 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Juan Herrera Dávila August 29, 1860 February 2, 1861
73 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant José Lemery e Ibarrola Ney y González February 2, 1861 July 7, 1862
74 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Salvador Valdés July 7, 1862 July 9, 1862
75 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Rafaél de Echagüe y Bermingham July 9, 1862 March 24, 1865
76 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez March 24, 1865 April 25, 1865
77 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Juan de Lara e Irigoyen April 25, 1865 July 13, 1866
78 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant José Laureano de Sanz y Posse July 13, 1866 September 21, 1866
79 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Juan Antonio Osorio September 21, 1866 September 27, 1866
(76) Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Joaquín del Solar e Ibáñez September 27, 1866 October 26, 1866
80 José de la Gándara y Navarro José de la Gándara y Navarro October 26, 1866 June 7, 1869
No Monarch
81 Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874) Manuel Maldonado June 7, 1869 June 23, 1869
82 Carlos Maria de la Torre Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada June 23, 1869 April 4, 1871
Amadeo I, rey de España

Amadeo I
(December 16, 1870 – February 11, 1873)
83 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant Rafael de Izquierdo y Gutíerrez April 4, 1871 January 8, 1873
84 Coat of Arms of Spain (1871-1873) Pillars of Hercules Variant Manuel MacCrohon January 8, 1873 January 24, 1873
85 Juan Alaminos y Vivar Juan Alaminos y Vivar January 24, 1873 March 17, 1874
No Monarch
- Coat of Arms of Spain (1868-1870 and 1873-1874) Manuel Blanco Valderrama
(acting)
March 17, 1874 June 18, 1874
86 José Malcampo, 3rd Marquis of San Rafael José Malcampo y Monje June 18, 1874 February 28, 1877
Retrato de Alfonso XII con uniforme de gala (Palacio de Aranjuez)

Alfonso XII
(December 29, 1874 – November 25, 1885)
87 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Domingo Moriones y Murillo February 28, 1877 March 20, 1880
88 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Rafael Rodríguez Arias March 20, 1880 April 15, 1880
89 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 15, 1880 March 10, 1883
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Emilio Molíns 1st term,
(acting)
March 10, 1883 April 7, 1883
90 General Joaquin Jovellar y Soler painting Joaquín Jovellar April 7, 1883 April 1, 1885
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Emilio Molíns 2nd term,
(acting)
April 1, 1885 April 4, 1885
91 Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Emilio Terrero y Perinat April 4, 1885 April 25, 1888
Roi Alfonso XIII

Alfonso XIII (May 17, 1886)
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Antonio Moltó y Díaz Berrio
(acting)
April 25, 1888 June 4, 1888
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Federico Lobatón y Prieto
(acting)
June 4, 1888 June 5, 1888
92 Valeriano Weyler Valeriano Wéyler June 5, 1888 November 17, 1891
93 Eulogio Despujols y Dusay Eulogio Despujol November 17, 1891 March 1, 1893
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Federico Ochando
(acting)
March 1, 1893 May 4, 1893
94 Ramon Blanco y Erenas Ramón Blanco, 1st Marquis of Peña Plata May 4, 1893 December 13, 1896
- Camilo Polavieja, en La Esfera Camilo de Polavieja, 1st Marquis of Polavieja
(acting)
December 13, 1896 April 15, 1897
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant José de Lachambre
(acting)
April 15, 1897 April 23, 1897
95 Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, de Kaulak Fernando Primo de Rivera, 1st Marquis of Estella April 23, 1897 April 11, 1898
96 Basilio Augustín y Dávila Basilio Augustín[1] April 11, 1898 July 24, 1898
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Fermín Jáudenes[1]
(acting)
July 24, 1898 August 13, 1898
- Lesser Royal Coat of Arms of Spain (1700-1868 and 1834-1930) Pillars of Hercules Variant Francisco Rizzo[1]
(acting)
August 13, 1898 September 1898
- Diego de los Ríos y Nicolau (22 de enero de 2010, La Ilustración Española y Americana, Franzen) Diego de los Rios[1]
(acting)
September 1898 June 3, 1899

United States Military Government (1898–1902)

The city of Manila was captured by American expeditionary forces on 13 August 1898.[2] On 14 August 1898 the terms of the Spanish capitulation were signed. From this date, American government in the Philippines begins.[3] General Wesley Merritt, in accordance with the instructions of the United States President, issued a proclamation announcing the establishment of United States military rule.[4]

During the transition period, executive authority in all civil affairs in the Philippine government was exercised by the military governor.

# Picture Name From Until President
1 Wesley Merritt Wesley Merritt August 14, 1898[5] August 30, 1898[6] William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896
William McKinley
2 Elwell S. Otis Elwell S. Otis August 28, 1898 May 5, 1900
3 Arthur MacArthur Jr Arthur MacArthur, Jr. May 5, 1900[7] July 4, 1901
4 AdnaChaffee Adna Chaffee [8] July 4, 1901 July 4, 1902

Insular Government (1901–1935)

On July 4, 1901, executive authority over the islands was transferred to the president of the Second Philippine Commission who had the title of Civil Governor, a position appointed by the President of the United States and approved by the United States Senate. For the first year, a Military Governor, Adna Chaffee, ruled parts of the country still resisting the American rule, concurrent with Civil Governor, William Howard Taft.[9] Disagreements between the two were not uncommon.[10] The following year, on July 4, 1902, Taft became the sole executive authority.[8] Chaffee remained as commander of Philippine Division until September 30, 1902.[11]

After his retirement as Civil Governor, Governor Taft was appointed Secretary of War and he secured for his successor the adoption by Congress[12] of the title Governor-General of the Philippine Islands thereby "reviving the high designation used during the last period of Spanish rule and placing the office on a parity of dignity with that of other colonial empires of first importance".[13] The term "insular" (from insulam, the Latin word for island)[14] refers to U.S. island territories that are not incorporated into either a state or a federal district. All insular areas were under the authority of the U.S. Bureau of Insular Affairs, a division of the US War Department.[15][16]

# Picture Name From Until President
1 William Howard Taft William Howard Taft July 4, 1901 February 1, 1904 William McKinley by Courtney Art Studio, 1896
William McKinley
To September 1901
T Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
From September 1901
2 Luke Edward Wright Luke Edward Wright February 1, 1904 November 3, 1905
T Roosevelt
Theodore Roosevelt
3 Henry Clay Ide 710x1024 Henry Clay Ide November 3, 1905 September 19, 1906
4 GenJFSmith James Francis Smith September 20, 1906 November 11, 1909
5 William Cameron Forbes William Cameron Forbes November 11, 1909 September 1, 1913 William Howard Taft
William Howard Taft
- Newton W. Gilbert Newton W. Gilbert
(Acting Governor-General)
September 1, 1913 October 6, 1913 Thomas Woodrow Wilson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1919
Woodrow Wilson
6 Francis Burton Harrison, seated Francis Burton Harrison October 6, 1913 March 5, 1921
- Charles Emmett Yeater (Philippines Governor General) Charles Yeater
(Acting Governor-General)
March 5, 1921 October 14, 1921 Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing
Warren G. Harding
To September 1923
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777
Calvin Coolidge
From September 1923
7 General Leonard Wood Rol BNF Gallica Leonard Wood October 14, 1921 August 7, 1927
- Eugene Allen Gilmore in "The badger" (1916) Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
August 7, 1927 December 27, 1927
Calvin Coolidge cph.3g10777
Calvin Coolidge
8 Henry Stimson, Harris & Ewing bw photo portrait, 1929 Henry L. Stimson December 27, 1927 February 23, 1929
- Eugene Allen Gilmore in "The badger" (1916) Eugene Allen Gilmore
(Acting Governor-General)
February 23, 1929 July 8, 1929 HerbertHoover
Herbert Hoover
9 Dwight Davis, Bain bw photo portrait Dwight F. Davis July 8, 1929 January 9, 1932
- George C. Butte (Philippines Governor) George C. Butte
(Acting Governor-General)
January 9, 1932 February 29, 1932
10 Theodore Roosevelt Jr. 1921 Theodore Roosevelt, Jr. February 29, 1932 July 15, 1933
11 Justice Frank Murphy Frank Murphy July 15, 1933 November 14, 1935
Became High Commissioner to the Philippines
FDR in 1933
Franklin D. Roosevelt

High Commissioner to the Philippines (1935–42 and 1945–46)

On November 15, 1935, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was inaugurated as a transitional government to prepare the country for independence. The office of President of the Philippine Commonwealth replaced the Governor-General as the country's chief executive. The Governor-General became the High Commissioner of the Philippines with Frank Murphy, the last governor-general, as the first high commissioner. The High Commissioner exercised no executive power but rather represented the colonial power, the United States Government, in the Philippines. The high commissioner moved from Malacañang Palace to the newly built High Commissioner's Residence, now the Embassy of the United States in Manila.

After the Philippine independence on July 4, 1946, the last High Commissioner, Paul McNutt, became the first United States Ambassador to the Philippines.

# Picture Name From Until President
1 Justice Frank Murphy Frank Murphy November 14, 1935 April 26, 1937 FDR in 1933
Franklin D. Roosevelt
2 Paul V McNutt Oct 1941 Paul V. McNutt April 26, 1937 July 12, 1939
3 Francis B Sayre Francis Bowes Sayre, Sr. April 12, 1939 October 12, 1942
4 Paul V McNutt Oct 1941 Paul V. McNutt September 14, 1945 July 4, 1946
Following Philippine independence became
1st U.S. Ambassador to the Philippines
Harry S. Truman
Harry S Truman

Japanese military governors (1942–1945)

In December 1941, the Commonwealth of the Philippines was invaded by Japan as part of World War II. The next year, the Empire of Japan sent a military governor to control the country during wartime, followed by the formal establishment of the puppet second republic.[17]

# Picture Name From Until Emperor
1 Honma Masaharu Masaharu Homma January 3, 1942 June 8, 1942 Hirohito in dress uniform
Emperor Hirohito
2 Tanaka Shizuichi Shizuichi Tanaka June 8, 1942 May 28, 1943
3 Governor General Shigenori Kuroda Shigenori Kuroda May 28, 1943 September 26, 1944
4 Yamashita Tomoyuki Yamashita September 26, 1944 September 2, 1945

On September 2, 1945, the Governor-General position of the Philippines has now been abolished and the Philippines' independence had been proclaimed helped by the United States on the 4th of July 1946 on the presidency of Manuel Roxas. The 4th President of the Philippines.

Timelines

1898–1946

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Peterson 2007, p. 11.
  2. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  3. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  4. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  5. ^ Halstead, Murat (1898). The Story of the Philippines and Our New Possessions, Including the Ladrones, Hawaii, Cuba and Porto Rico. p. 116.
  6. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish–American and Philippine–American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 457. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  7. ^ Pershing, John J. (2013). My Life Before the World War, 1860--1917: A Memoir. University Press of Kentucky. p. 547. ISBN 0-8131-4199-0.
  8. ^ a b Elliott (1917), p. 509
  9. ^ Elliott (1917), p. 4
  10. ^ Tanner (1901), p. 383
  11. ^ Philippine Academy of Social Sciences (1967). Philippine social sciences and humanities review. pp. 40.
  12. ^ Act of Congress of February 6, 1905 entitled: "An Act To amend an Act approved July first, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide for the administration of the affairs of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes," and to amend an Act approved March eighth, nineteen hundred and two, entitled "An Act temporarily to provide revenue for the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes" and to amend an Act March second, nineteen hundred and three, entitled "An Act to establish a standard of value and to provide for a coinage system in the Philippine Islands," and to provide for the more efficient administration of civil government in the Philippine Islands, and for other purposes." Section 8 thereof provided that "the civil governor of the Philippine Islands shall hereafter be known as the governor-general of the Philippine Islands.
  13. ^ David P. Barrows; The Governor-General of the Philippines under Spain and the United States; The American Historical Review, Vol. 21, No. 2 (Jan., 1916), pp. 288-311
  14. ^ "Island - from English to Latin". Google Translate. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  15. ^ "Definitions of Insular Area Political Organizations" Archived 2012-09-25 at the Wayback Machine. U.S. Department of the Interior.
  16. ^ "Insular". Merriam-Webster Dictionary. Retrieved on 2013-08-07.
  17. ^ Cahoon (2000)

References

Andrés Alcaraz

Andrés Alcaraz was an auditor licentiate taking over military affairs before becoming the 15th Governor-General of the Philippines of the Philippines under Spanish colonial rule. He is the second Governor-General of the Philippines from the Real Audiencia of Manila.

Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada

Carlos María de la Torre y Navacerrada (1809–1879) was a Spanish soldier and politician. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1869 to 1871, and is considered to be the most beloved of the Spanish Governors-General ever assigned in the Philippines.

Diego de Salcedo

Diego de Salcedo, a Spanish army officer during the Eighty Years' War, was the Governor-General of the Philippines from 1663 to 1668. He reinforced the army of the archipelago and promoted trade with America. In his participation during the Eighty Years' War, he was made Governor of Jülich after the Spanish victory at the Siege of Jülich in August 1621.

Diego de los Ríos

Diego de los Ríos y Nicolau (9 April 1850 – 4 November 1911) was the last Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines.

Emilio Terrero y Perinat

Emilio Terrero y Perinat (1827–1890) was a 33rd degree Mason who became the Governor-General of the Philippines from 1885 to 1888. He was renowned for his campaign against the Moros in Mindanao.

Fausto Cruzat y Góngora

Fausto Cruzat y Góngora was Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines from 1690 to 1701.

He is thought to be one of the most capable of the Spanish colonial officials in his day.

Fermín Jáudenes

Fermín Jáudenes y Álvarez (July 7, 1836 – February 11, 1915) was briefly a Governor-General of the Philippines, from July 24 to August 13, 1898, under the Spanish Empire during the Spanish–American War and the second phase of the Philippine Revolution.

During his term, Spanish turned over the Philippines capital, Manila, to the United States Army in the "mock" Battle of Manila and in the process the Spanish surrendered to America, ending over 330 years of rule of Spanish colonial rule.

Jáudenes was in Manila when the Spanish parliament, the Cortes, learned of Governor-General Basilio Augustín's attempt to negotiate the surrender of the army to Filipinos under Emilio Aguinaldo. This caused Augustin's removal on July 24, 1898, and the appointment of Jáudenes.

Francis Burton Harrison

Francis Burton Harrison (December 18, 1873 – November 21, 1957) was an American-born Filipino statesman who served in the United States House of Representatives and was appointed Governor-General of the Philippines by President of the United States Woodrow Wilson. Harrison was a prominent adviser to the president of the Philippine Commonwealth, as well as the next four Presidents of the Republic of the Philippines. He is the only former Governor-General of the Philippines to be awarded Philippine citizenship.

Francisco Coloma y Maceda

Francisco Coloma y Maceda, Marqués of Canales de Chozas (1617–1677) was a Spanish oidor and licentiate who served as the 29th Governor-General of the Philippines. He is the fifth Governor-General of the Philippines from the Real Audiencia of Manila. Prior to being governor, Coloma served as senior auditor (oidor) in charge of military affairs during the administrations of Governor-General Diego de Salcedo to Manuel de León.

Francisco Javier de la Torre

Francisco Javier de la Torre was the 49th governor-general of the Philippines from 1764 to 1765.

Francisco de la Cuesta

Francisco de la Cuesta (1661 – May 30, 1724), O.S.H. was the 12th Archbishop of Manila from 1707 to 1722, and Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines from 1719 to 1721.

Gilmore station (Line 2)

Gilmore station is a station on the Manila Light Rail Transit System Line 2 in the Philippines located near Gilmore Avenue, Quezon City in New Manila, Quezon City. It is named after the nearby Gilmore Avenue, which in turn is named for Eugene Allen Gilmore, Vice Governor-General of the Philippines from 1922 to 1929 who twice served as acting Governor-General of the Philippines.The station is the sixth station for trains headed to the Santolan and also the sixth station for trains headed to the Recto. It is one of the many elevated stations on the line.

Harrison Avenue

Francis Burton Harrison Avenue, more commonly known as F.B. Harrison Avenue or simply Harrison Avenue (formerly F.B. Harrison Street or Harrison Street), is a major north-south collector road in Pasay, western Metro Manila, Philippines. It is a four-lane undivided arterial running parallel to Roxas Boulevard to the west and Taft Avenue to the east, from Pasay's border with Malate district in the north to Baclaran in Parañaque in the south. The avenue is named for U.S. Governor-General of the Philippines, Francis Burton Harrison.

José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez

José Antonio Raón y Gutiérrez (c. 1700 – 4 January 1773) was a Spanish general who served as Royal Governor of Panama, and the 50th Governor-General of the Philippines. He is known as an able administrator despite being perceived as corrupt.

José Torralba

José Torralba Rios (1653-1726) was a Spanish oidor and licentiate who served as the 36th Governor-General of the Philippines. He is the eighth Governor-General of the Philippines from the Real Audiencia of Manila.

José de Lachambre

José María Julián de Lachambre y Domínguez (16 March 1846 - 13 July 1903) was the ad interim Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines after Camilo Polavieja was recalled by the Cánovas government who was displeased with Polavieja's policy. Fernando Primo de Rivera was appointed and took office for the second time as governor general (the first from 1880-1883) on April 23, 1897. De Lachambre served as the interim governor for a week from April 15–23, 1897.

Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León

Rafael María de Aguilar y Ponce de León was a Spanish military officer who served as the 56th Governor-General of the Philippines, the longest serving governor during the Spanish colonial period.

Simón de Anda y Salazar

Simón de Anda y Salazar (October 28, 1709 – October 30, 1776) was a Spanish Basque governor of the Philippines from July, 1770 to October 30, 1776.

William Cameron Forbes

William Cameron Forbes (May 21, 1870 – December 24, 1959) was an American investment banker and diplomat. He served as Governor-General of the Philippines from 1909 to 1913 and Ambassador of the United States to Japan from 1930 to 1932.

He was the son of William Hathaway Forbes, president of the Bell Telephone Company, and wife Edith Emerson, a daughter of Ralph Waldo Emerson. He was grandson of botanist Francis Blackwell Forbes. After graduating from Harvard in 1892, he embarked on a business career, eventually becoming a partner in J. M. Forbes and Company.

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