Governor-General of India

The Governor-General of India (from 1858 to 1947 the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was the representative of the Monarch of the United Kingdom and after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state. The office was created in 1773, with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William. The officer had direct control only over Fort William, but supervised other East India Company officials in India. Complete authority over all of British India was granted in 1833, and the official came to be known as the "Governor-General of India".

In 1858, as a consequence of the Indian Mutiny the previous year, the territories and assets of the East India Company came under the direct control of the British Crown; as a consequence the Company Raj was succeeded by the British Raj. The Governor-General (now also the Viceroy) headed the central government of India, which administered the provinces of British India, including the Punjab, Bengal, Bombay, Madras, the United Provinces, and others.[1] However, much of India was not ruled directly by the British Government; outside the provinces of British India, there were hundreds of nominally independent princely states or "native states", whose relationship was not with the British Government or the United Kingdom, but rather one of homage directly with the British Monarch as sovereign successor to the Mughal Emperors. From 1858, to reflect the Governor-General's new additional role as the Monarch's representative in re the fealty relationships vis the princely states, the additional title of Viceroy was granted, such that the new office was entitled Viceroy and Governor-General of India. This was usually shortened to Viceroy of India.

The title of Viceroy was abandoned when British India split into the two independent dominions of India and Pakistan, but the office of Governor-General continued to exist in each country separately—until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1956, respectively.

Until 1858, the Governor-General was selected by the Court of Directors of the East India Company, to whom he was responsible. Thereafter, he was appointed by the Sovereign on the advice of the British Government; the Secretary of State for India, a member of the UK Cabinet, was responsible for instructing him or her on the exercise of their powers. After 1947, the Sovereign continued to appoint the Governor-General, but thereafter did so on the advice of the newly-sovereign Indian Government.

Governors-General served at the pleasure of the Sovereign, though the practice was to have them serve five-year terms. Governors-General could have their commission rescinded; and if one was removed, or left, a provisional Governor-General was sometimes appointed until a new holder of the office could be chosen. The first Governor-General of British India was Lord William Bentinck, and the first Governor-General of the Dominion of India was Louis, Lord Mountbatten.

Viceroy and Governor-General of India
Flag of the Governor-General of India (1885–1947)
Standard of the Viceroy and Governor-General of India (1885-1947)
Flag of the Governor-General of India (1947–1950)
Flag of the Governor-General of the Dominion of India (1947-1950)
Admiral of the Fleet Earl Mountbatten of Burma TR1228
Lord Mountbatten, the
last Viceroy of British India & the first Governor-General of the Dominion of India

C Rajagopalachari 1944

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari, the last Governor-General of the Dominion of India
StyleHis Excellency
ResidenceGovernment House (1858-1931)
Viceroy's House (1931-1950)
Appointer
Formation20 October 1774
First holderWilliam Bentinck
Final holderChakravarthi Rajagopalachari
Abolished26 January 1950

History

Warren Hastings greyscale
Warren Hastings, the first Governor-General of Fort William from 1773 to 1785.

Many parts of the Indian subcontinent were governed by the East India Company, which nominally acted as the agent of the Mughal Emperor. In 1773, motivated by corruption in the Company, the British government assumed partial control over the governance of India with the passage of the Regulating Act of 1773. A Governor-General and Supreme Council of Bengal were appointed to rule over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The first Governor-General and Council were named in the Act.

The Charter Act 1833 replaced the Governor-General and Council of Fort William with the Governor-General and Council of India. The power to elect the Governor-General was retained by the Court of Directors, but the choice became subject to the Sovereign's approval.

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the East India Company's territories in India were put under the direct control of the Sovereign. The Government of India Act 1858 vested the power to appoint the Governor-General in the Sovereign. The Governor-General, in turn, had the power to appoint all lieutenant governors in India, subject to the Sovereign's approval.

India and Pakistan acquired independence in 1947, but Governors-General continued to be appointed over each nation until republican constitutions were written. Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma remained Governor-General of India for some time after independence, but the two nations were otherwise headed by native Governors-General. India became a secular republic in 1950; Pakistan became an Islamic one in 1956.

Functions

George Curzon2
Lord Curzon in his robes as Viceroy of India, a post he held from 1899 to 1905.
Lord Mountbatten addressing the Chamber of Princes
Lord Mountbatten addressing the Chamber of Princes as Crown Representative in the 1940s

The Governor-General originally had power only over the Presidency of Fort William in Bengal. The Regulating Act, however, granted them additional powers relating to foreign affairs and defence. The other Presidencies of the East India Company (Madras, Bombay and Bencoolen) were not allowed to declare war on or make peace with an Indian prince without receiving the prior approval of the Governor-General and Council of Fort William.

The powers of the Governor-General, in respect of foreign affairs, were increased by the India Act 1784. The Act provided that the other Governors under the East India Company could not declare war, make peace or conclude a treaty with an Indian prince unless expressly directed to do so by the Governor-General or by the Company's Court of Directors.

While the Governor-General thus became the controller of foreign policy in India, he was not the explicit head of British India. That status came only with the Charter Act 1833, which granted him "superintendence, direction and control of the whole civil and military Government" of all of British India. The Act also granted legislative powers to the Governor-General and Council.

After 1858, the Governor-General (now usually known as the Viceroy) functioned as the chief administrator of India and as the Sovereign's representative. India was divided into numerous provinces, each under the head of a governor, Lieutenant Governor or Chief Commissioner or Administrator. Governors were appointed by the British Government, to whom they were directly responsible; Lieutenant Governors, Chief Commissioners, and Administrators, however, were appointed by and were subordinate to the Viceroy. The Viceroy also oversaw the most powerful princely rulers: the Nizam of Hyderabad, the Maharaja of Mysore, the Maharaja (Scindia) of Gwalior, the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir and the Gaekwad (Gaekwar) Maharaja of Baroda. The remaining princely rulers were overseen either by the Rajputana Agency and Central India Agency, which were headed by representatives of the Viceroy, or by provincial authorities.

The Chamber of Princes was an institution established in 1920 by a Royal Proclamation of King-Emperor George V to provide a forum in which the princely rulers could voice their needs and aspirations to the government. The chamber usually met only once a year, with the Viceroy presiding, but it appointed a Standing Committee, which met more often.

Upon independence in August 1947, the title of Viceroy was abolished. The representative of the British Sovereign became known once again as the Governor-General. C. Rajagopalachari became the only Indian Governor-General. However, once India acquired independence, the Governor-General's role became almost entirely ceremonial, with power being exercised on a day-to-day basis by the Indian cabinet. After the nation became a republic in 1950, the President of India continued to perform the same functions.

Council

Rashtrapati Niwas, Shimla
The Viceregal Lodge in Simla, built in 1888, was the summer residence of the Viceroy of India
Delhiuni
Viceregal Lodge, Delhi, where Viceroy Lord Hardinge stayed (1912–31), now the main building of the University of Delhi[2]

The Governor-General was always advised by a Council on the exercise of his legislative and executive powers. The Governor-General, while exercising many functions, was referred to as the "Governor-General in Council."

The Regulating Act 1773 provided for the election of four counsellors by the East India Company's Court of Directors. The Governor-General had a vote along with the counsellors, but he also had an additional vote to break ties. The decision of the Council was binding on the Governor-General.

In 1784, the Council was reduced to three members; the Governor-General continued to have both an ordinary vote and a casting vote. In 1786, the power of the Governor-General was increased even further, as Council decisions ceased to be binding.

The Charter Act 1833 made further changes to the structure of the Council. The Act was the first law to distinguish between the executive and legislative responsibilities of the Governor-General. As provided under the Act, there were to be four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated.

In 1858, the Court of Directors ceased to have the power to elect members of the Council. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

The Indian Councils Act 1861 made several changes to the Council's composition. Three members were to be appointed by the Secretary of State for India, and two by the Sovereign. (The power to appoint all five members passed to the Crown in 1869). The Viceroy was empowered to appoint an additional six to twelve members (changed to ten to sixteen in 1892, and to sixty in 1909). The five individuals appointed by the Sovereign or the Indian Secretary headed the executive departments, while those appointed by the Viceroy debated and voted on legislation.

In 1919, an Indian legislature, consisting of a Council of State and a Legislative Assembly, took over the legislative functions of the Viceroy's Council. The Viceroy nonetheless retained significant power over legislation. He could authorise the expenditure of money without the Legislature's consent for "ecclesiastical, political [and] defense" purposes, and for any purpose during "emergencies." He was permitted to veto, or even stop debate on, any bill. If he recommended the passage of a bill, but only one chamber cooperated, he could declare the bill passed over the objections of the other chamber. The Legislature had no authority over foreign affairs and defence. The President of the Council of State was appointed by the Viceroy; the Legislative Assembly elected its President, but the election required the Viceroy's approval.

Style and title

Until 1833, the title of the position was "Governor-General of Bengal". The Government of India Act 1833 converted the title into "Governor-General of India." The title "Viceroy and Governor-General" was first used in the queen's proclamation appointing Viscount Canning in 1858.[3] It was never conferred by an act of parliament, but was used in warrants of precedence and in the statutes of knightly orders. In usage, "viceroy" is employed where the governor-general's position as the monarch's representative is in view.[4] The viceregal title was not used when the sovereign was present in India. It was meant to indicate new responsibilities, especially ritualistic ones, but it conferred no new statutory authority. The governor-general regularly used the title in communications with the Imperial Legislative Council, but all legislation was made only in the name of the Governor-General-in-Council (or the Government of India).[5]

The Governor-General was styled Excellency and enjoyed precedence over all other government officials in India. He was referred to as 'His Excellency' and addressed as 'Your Excellency'. From 1858 to 1947, the Governor-General was known as the Viceroy of India (from the French roi, meaning 'king'), and wives of Viceroys were known as Vicereines (from the French reine, meaning 'queen'). The Vicereine was referred to as 'Her Excellency' and was also addressed as 'Your Excellency'. Neither title was employed while the Sovereign was in India. However, the only reigning British Sovereign to visit India during the period of British rule was King George V, who accompanied by his consort Queen Mary attended the Delhi Durbar in 1911.

When the Order of the Star of India was founded in 1861, the Viceroy was made its Grand Master ex officio. The Viceroy was also made the ex officio Grand Master of the Order of the Indian Empire upon its foundation in 1877.

Most Governors-General and Viceroys were peers. Frequently, a Viceroy who was already a peer would be granted a peerage of higher rank, as with the granting of a marquessate to Lord Reading and an earldom and later a marquessate to Freeman Freeman-Thomas. Of those Viceroys who were not peers, Sir John Shore was a baronet, and Lord William Bentinck was entitled to the courtesy title 'Lord' because he was the son of a Duke. Only the first and last Governors-General – Warren Hastings and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari – as well as some provisional Governors-General, had no honorific titles at all.

Flag

Flag of the Governor-General of India (1885–1947)
Flag of the Viceroy and Governor General of India (1885-1947)
Flag of the Governor-General of India (1947–1950)
Flag of the Governor General of India (1947–50)

From around 1885, the Viceroy of India was allowed to fly a Union Flag augmented in the centre with the 'Star of India' surmounted by a Crown. This flag was not the Viceroy's personal flag; it was also used by Governors, Lieutenant Governors, Chief Commissioners and other British officers in India. When at sea, only the Viceroy flew the flag from the mainmast, while other officials flew it from the foremast.

From 1947 to 1950, the Governor-General of India used a dark blue flag bearing the royal crest (a lion standing on the Crown), beneath which was the word 'India' in gold majuscules. The same design is still used by many other Commonwealth Realm Governors-General. This last flag was the personal flag of the Governor-General only.

Residence

FraserCalcuttaGovernmentHouse
Government House served as the Governor-General's residence during most of the nineteenth century.

The Governor-General of Fort William resided in Belvedere House, Calcutta, until the early nineteenth century, when Government House was constructed. In 1854, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal took up residence there. Now, the Belvedere Estate houses the National Library of India.

Lord Wellesley, who is reputed to have said that ‘India should be governed from a palace, not from a country house’, constructed a grand mansion, known as Government House, between 1799 and 1803. The mansion remained in use until the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi in 1912. Thereafter, the Lieutenant Governor of Bengal, who had hitherto resided in Belvedere House, was upgraded to a full Governor and transferred to Government House. Now, it serves as the residence of the Governor of the Indian state of West Bengal, and is referred to by its Bengali name Raj Bhavan.

After the capital moved from Calcutta to Delhi, the Viceroy occupied the newly built Viceroy's House, designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens. Though construction began in 1912, it did not conclude until 1929; the palace was not formally inaugurated until 1931. The final cost exceeded £877,000 (over £35,000,000 in modern terms) – more than twice the figure originally allocated. Today the residence, now known by the Hindi name of 'Rashtrapati Bhavan', is used by the President of India.

Throughout the British administration, Governors-General retreated to the Viceregal Lodge (Rashtrapati Niwas) at Shimla each summer to escape the heat, and the government of India moved with them. The Viceregal Lodge now houses the Indian Institute of Advanced Study.

Insignia

Badge of the Viceroy of India

Badge of the Viceroy and Governor-General (1885–1947)

Flag of the Governor-General of India (1885–1947)

Standard of the Viceroy and Governor-General (1885–1947)

Flag of the Governor-General of India (1947–1950)

Standard of the Governor-General (1947–50)

See also

References

  1. ^ The term British India is mistakenly used to mean the same as the British Indian Empire, which included both the provinces and the Native States.
  2. ^ "Imperial Impressions". Hindustan Times. 20 July 2011. Archived from the original on 17 July 2012.
  3. ^ Queen Victoria's Proclamation
  4. ^ H. Verney Lovett, "The Indian Governments, 1858–1918", The Cambridge History of the British Empire, Volume V: The Indian Empire, 1858–1918 (Cambridge University Press, 1932), p. 226.
  5. ^ Arnold P. Kaminsky, The India Office, 1880–1910 (Greenwood Press, 1986), p. 126.

Further reading

1856 in India

Events in the year 1856 in India.

1866 Birthday Honours

The 1866 Birthday Honours were appointments by Queen Victoria to various orders and honours to reward and highlight good works by citizens of the British Empire. The appointments were made to celebrate the official birthday of the Queen, and were published in The London Gazette on 25 May and 29 May 1866.The recipients of honours are displayed here as they were styled before their new honour, and arranged by honour, with classes (Knight, Knight Grand Cross, etc.) and then divisions (Military, Civil, etc.) as appropriate.

1911 Delhi Durbar Honours

The 1911 Delhi Durbar was held in December 1911 following the coronation in London in June of that year of King George V and Queen Mary. The King and Queen travelled to Delhi for the Durbar. For the occasion, the statutory limits of the membership of the Order of the Star of India and the Order of the Indian Empire were increased and many appointments were made to these and other orders. These honours were published in a supplement to the London Gazette dated 8 December 1911.In the lists below, names of recipients of honours are shown as they were styled before their new honours. Archaic transliterations of personal and place names are retained as shown in the London Gazette. Similarly, place names are given as shown in the Gazette, e.g. Madras (now Chennai), Bombay (now Mumbai), etc. The term "India" refers to British India as it was in 1911, comprising territories which are now the nations of Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, Bhutan and Myanmar.

Baron Hardinge of Penshurst

Baron Hardinge of Penshurst, in the County of Kent, is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. It was created in 1910 for the diplomat the Hon. Sir Charles Hardinge, Viceroy and Governor-General of India from 1910 to 1916. He was the second son of Charles Hardinge, 2nd Viscount Hardinge. His son, the second Baron, served as private secretary to both King Edward VIII and King George VI.

As of 2014 the title is held by the latter's grandson, the fourth Baron, who succeeded his father in 1997. As a descendant of the second Viscount Hardinge he is also in remainder to this peerage as well as to the baronetcy of Lurran.

C. Rajagopalachari

Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972), informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer, historian and statesman. Rajagopalachari was the last Governor-General of India, as India soon became a Republic in 1950. Furthermore, he was the first Indian-born governor-general, since before him the posts were held by British nationals. He also served as leader of the Indian National Congress, Premier of the Madras Presidency, Governor of West Bengal, Minister for Home Affairs of the Indian Union and Chief Minister of Madras state. Rajagopalachari founded the Swatantra Party and was one of the first recipients of India's highest civilian award, the Bharat Ratna. He vehemently opposed the use of nuclear weapons and was a proponent of world peace and disarmament. During his lifetime, he also acquired the nickname 'Mango of Krishnagiri'.

Rajagopalachari was born in the village of Thorapalli in the Krishnagiri district of the Madras Presidency (now the Krishnagiri district of Tamil Nadu) and educated at Central College, Bangalore, and Presidency College, Madras. In 1900 he started a legal practice that in time became prosperous. On entering politics, he became a member and later President of the Salem municipality. He joined the Indian National Congress and participated in the agitations against the Rowlatt Act, joining the Non-Cooperation movement, the Vaikom Satyagraha, and the Civil Disobedience movement. In 1930, Rajagopalachari risked imprisonment when he led the Vedaranyam Salt Satyagraha in response to the Dandi March. In 1937, Rajagopalachari was elected Premier of the Madras Presidency and served until 1940, when he resigned due to Britain's declaration of war on Germany. He later advocated co-operation over Britain's war effort and opposed the Quit India Movement. He favoured talks with both Muhammad Ali Jinnah and the Muslim League and proposed what later came to be known as the C. R. formula. In 1946, Rajagopalachari was appointed Minister of Industry, Supply, Education and Finance in the Interim Government of India, and then as the Governor of West Bengal from 1947 to 1948, Governor-General of India from 1948 to 1950, Union Home Minister from 1951 to 1952 and as Chief Minister of Madras state from 1952 to 1954. In 1959, he resigned from the Indian National Congress and founded the Swatantra Party, which fought against the Congress in the 1962, 1967 and 1971 elections. Rajagopalachari was instrumental in setting up a united Anti-Congress front in Madras state under C. N. Annadurai, which swept the 1967 elections. He died on 25 December 1972 at age 94.

Rajagopalachari was an accomplished writer who made lasting contributions to Indian English literature and is also credited with composition of the song Kurai Onrum Illai set to Carnatic music. He pioneered temperance and temple entry movements in India and advocated Dalit upliftment. He has been criticised for introducing the compulsory study of Hindi and the controversial Madras Scheme of Elementary Education in Madras State. Critics have often attributed his pre-eminence in politics to his standing as a favourite of both Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru. Rajagopalachari was described by Gandhi as the "keeper of my conscience".

Dominion of India

India was an independent dominion in the British Commonwealth of Nations with King George VI as the head of state between gaining independence from the United Kingdom on 15 August 1947 and the proclamation of a republic on 26 January 1950. It was created by the Indian Independence Act 1947 and was transformed into the Republic of India by the promulgation of the Constitution of India in 1950.The King was represented by the Governor-General of India. However, the Governor-General was not designated Viceroy, as had been customary under the British Raj. The office of Viceroy was abolished on independence. Two governors-general held office between independence and India's transformation into a republic: Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma (1947–48) and Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (1948–50). Jawaharlal Nehru was Prime Minister of India throughout.

Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough

Edward Law, 1st Earl of Ellenborough, (8 September 1790 – 22 December 1871), was a British Tory politician. He was four times President of the Board of Control and also served as Governor-General of India between 1842 and 1844.

Francis Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings

Francis Edward Rawdon-Hastings, 1st Marquess of Hastings, KG, PC (9 December 1754 – 28 November 1826), styled The Honourable Francis Rawdon from birth until 1762, as The Lord Rawdon between 1762 and 1783, and known as The Earl of Moira between 1793 and 1816, was an Anglo-Irish British politician and military officer who served as Governor-General of India from 1813 to 1823. He had also served with British forces for years during the American Revolutionary War and in 1794 during the French Revolutionary Wars. He took the additional surname "Hastings" in 1790 in compliance with the will of his maternal uncle, Francis Hastings, 10th Earl of Huntingdon.

George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland

George Eden, 1st Earl of Auckland, (25 August 1784 – 1 January 1849) was an English Whig politician and colonial administrator. He was thrice First Lord of the Admiralty and also served as Governor-General of India between 1836 and 1842.

Gilbert Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto

Gilbert John Elliot-Murray-Kynynmound, 4th Earl of Minto (9 July 1845 – 1 March 1914) was a British aristocrat and politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the eighth since Canadian Confederation, and as Viceroy and Governor-General of India, the country's 17th.

Imperial Legislative Council

The Imperial Legislative Council was a legislature for British India from 1861 to 1947. It succeeded the Council of the Governor-General of India, and was succeeded by the Constituent Assembly of India and after 1950, was succeeded by Parliament of India.

During the rule of the East India Company, the council of the Governor-General of India had both executive and legislative responsibilities. The council had four members of the Council elected by the Court of Directors. The first three members were permitted to participate on all occasions, but the fourth member was only allowed to sit and vote when legislation was being debated. In 1858, the British Crown took over the administration from the East India Company. The council was transformed into the Imperial Legislative Council, and the Court of Directors of the Company, which had the power to elect members of the Governor-General's Council, ceased to have this power. Instead, the one member who had a vote only on legislative questions came to be appointed by the Sovereign, and the other three members by the Secretary of State for India.

Instrument of Accession (Jammu and Kashmir)

The Instrument of Accession is a legal document executed by Maharaja Hari Singh, ruler of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, on 26 October 1947. By executing this document under the provisions of the Indian Independence Act 1947, Maharaja Hari Singh agreed to accede to the Dominion of India.In a letter sent to Maharaja Hari Singh on 27 October 1947, the then Governor-General of India, Lord Mountbatten accepted the accession with a remark, "it is my Government's wish that as soon as law and order have been restored in Jammu and Kashmir and her soil cleared of the invader the question of the State's accession should be settled by a reference to the people." Lord Mountbatten's remark and the offer made by the Government of India to conduct a plebiscite or referendum to determine the future status of Kashmir led to a dispute between India and Pakistan regarding the legality of the accession of Jammu and Kashmir to India. India claims that the accession is unconditional and final while Pakistan maintains that the accession is fraudulent.The accession to India is celebrated on Accession Day, which is held annually on 26 October.

List of governors-general of India

The Regulating Act of 1773 created the office with the title of Governor-General of the Presidency of Fort William, or Governor-General of Bengal to be appointed by the Court of Directors of the East India Company (EIC). The Court of Directors assigned a Council of Four (based in India) to assist the Governor General, and decision of council was binding on the Governor General during 1773-1784.

The Saint Helena Act 1833 (or Government of India Act 1833) re-designated the office with the title of Governor-General of India.

After the Indian Rebellion of 1857, the company rule was brought to an end, but the British India along with princely states came under the direct rule of the British Crown. The Government of India Act 1858 created the office of Secretary of State for India in 1858 to oversee the affairs of India, which was advised by a new Council of India with 15 members (based in London). The existing Council of Four was formally renamed as the Council of Governor General of India or Executive Council of India. The Council of India was later abolished by Government of India Act 1935.

Following the adoption of the Government of India Act of 1858, the Governor-General as representing the Crown became known as the Viceroy. The designation 'Viceroy', although it was most frequently used in ordinary parlance, had no statutory authority, and was never employed by Parliament. Although the Proclamation of 1858 announcing the assumption of the government of India by the Crown referred to Lord Canning as "first Viceroy and Governor-General", none of the Warrants appointing his successors referred to them as 'Viceroys', and the title, which was frequently used in Warrants dealing with precedence and in public notifications, was basically one of ceremony used in connection with the state and social functions of the Sovereign's representative. The Governor-General continued to be the sole representative of the Crown, and the Government of India continued to be vee appointments of Governor-General of India were made by the British Crown upon the advice of Secretary of State for India. The office of Governor-General continued to exist as a ceremonial post in each of the new dominions until they adopted republican constitutions in 1950 and 1957 Respectively.

Lord William Bentinck

Lieutenant-General Lord William Henry Cavendish-Bentinck (14 September 1774 – 17 June 1839), known as Lord William Bentinck, was a British soldier and statesman. He served as Governor-General of India from 1828 to 1835. He has been credited for significant social and educational reforms in India including abolishing Sati, the suppression of female infanticide and human sacrifices, and ending lawlessness by eliminating Thuggee with the aid of his chief captain, William Henry Sleeman, which had existed for over 450 years. He along with Thomas Babington Macaulay introduced English as the language of instruction in India.

Mountbatten, Singapore

Mountbatten is a neighbourhood located in the planning area of Marine Parade, Singapore.

The neighbourhood is named after Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Supreme Allied Commander of the South East Asia Command, Governor General of India and British Military Administrator of Malaya from 1945 to 1946.

Mountbatten is served by Mountbatten MRT Station and Dakota MRT Station on the Circle MRT Line. Both stations are situated under Old Airport Road.

Mountbatten Road is a major thoroughfare that stretches all the way from the junction with Nicoll Highway, Guillemard Road and Sims Way (where Kallang Airport Way branches out from Sims Way) in Kallang to Haig Road in Katong where it continues eastward as East Coast Road.

Qutb Minar

The Qutb Minar, also spelled as Qutab Minar or Qutub Minar, is a minaret that forms part of the Qutb complex, a UNESCO World Heritage Site in the Mehrauli area of Delhi, India.

Qutb Minar is a 73-metre (239.5 feet) tall tapering tower of five storeys, with a 14.3 metres (47 feet) base diameter, reducing to 2.7 metres (9 feet) at the top of the peak. It contains a spiral staircase of 379 steps.The Minar is surrounded by several historically significant monuments of Qutb complex. The nearby pillared cupola known as "Smith's Folly" is a remnant of the tower's 19th century restoration, which included an ill-advised attempt to add some more stories.

The minar's topmost storey was damaged by lightning in 1369 and was rebuilt by Firuz Shah Tughlaq, who added another storey. In 1505, an earthquake damaged Qutub Minar; it was repaired by Sikander Lodi. On 1 September 1803, a major earthquake caused serious damage. Major Robert Smith of the British Indian Army renovated the tower in 1828 and installed a pillared cupola over the fifth storey, thus creating a sixth. The cupola was taken down in 1848, under instructions from The Viscount Hardinge, then Governor General of India. It was reinstalled at ground level to the east of Qutb Minar, where it remains. It is known as "Smith's Folly".

Repealing and Amending (Second) Act, 2017

The Repealing and Amending (Second) Act, 2017 is an Act of the Parliament of India that repealed 131 Acts, and also repealed 9 Ordinances promulgated by the Governor-General of India before independence. It also made minor amendments to The Plantations Labour Act, 1951, The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015, and The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016. The Act was the fifth such repealing act tabled by the Narendra Modi administration aimed at repealing obsolete laws.

The Wavell School

The Wavell School is a coeducational community secondary school, located in Farnborough in the English county of Hampshire.The school serves the civilian and military communities of North Camp, Farnborough and Aldershot, and is administered by Hampshire County Council which coordinates the schools admissions. It is named after Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell, a senior commander in the British Army who went on to become Viceroy and Governor-General of India.The school was opened on 23 October 1970 led by Lady Pamela Humphrys, daughter of Archibald Wavell. At the beginning of the 21st-century the school gained specialist Technology College status. The school offers GCSEs as programmes of study for pupils.

William Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst

William Pitt Amherst, 1st Earl Amherst, GCH, PC (14 January 1773 – 13 March 1857) was a British diplomat and colonial administrator. He was Governor-General of India between 1823 and 1828.

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