Government of the Ryukyu Islands

The Government of the Ryukyu Islands (琉球政府 Ryūkyū Seifu) was the self-government of native Okinawans during the American occupation of Okinawa.[1] It was created by proclamation of the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR) on April 1, 1952 and was abolished on May 14, 1972 when Okinawa was returned to Japan, in accordance with the 1971 Okinawa Reversion Agreement. The government consisted of an executive branch, a legislative branch, and a judicial branch. Members of legislature were elected. The legislature made its own laws, and often had conflicts with USCAR, who could overrule their decisions.

The government was headed by a Chief Executive (行政主席 Gyōsei Shuseki). From 1952 to 1960, the Chief Executive was assigned by USCAR. He was then assigned the leader of the dominant party of the legislature (1960–66), elected in the legislature (1966–68), and elected by the citizens (1968–72).

Background

In 1945, the Okinawa Advisory Council was established by order of the United States Armed Forces, to administer the Okinawa Islands, the prefecture office of which had been eliminated as a result of Battle of Okinawa. The surviving prefecture offices, including those of Miyako Subprefecture and Yaeyama Subprefecture, established their own independent administrations. On February 2, 1946, after the decision to partition Japan's territory south of the 30th parallel north, Ōshima Subprefecture (including the Amami Islands and Tokara Islands) separated from the jurisdiction of Kagoshima Prefecture and came under the command of the United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands. On August 4, 1950, after multiple reorganizations, the Government of the Okinawa Islands, Government of the Miyako Islands, Government of the Yaeyama Islands, and Government of the Amami Islands were established.

Originally, these administrative organizations were lower branches of the United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands. In 1950, this military government changed its name to the "United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands." USCAR directed and supervised these subordinate governments, with the power to unconditionally veto their decisions.

Until 1952, the island governments were headed by popularly elected governors and frequently exhibited speech and conduct contrary to the intentions of USCAR, such as demands to return to Japanese administration. In response, USCAR created the Government of the Ryukyu Islands, headed by Ryukyu residents designated by USCAR itself. This government had its own courts, legislature, and executive, forming the judicial, legislative, and executive branches of government, respectively. However, there was no change in the policy allowing USCAR to annul any government decision. Furthermore, because the legislators, who were Ryukyu residents, often reached decisions contrary to the intentions of USCAR, the United States used gerrymandering and electoral fraud to direct the government toward convenient outcomes. In this way, the United States stripped Japan of its power to administer the Ryukyu Islands, turning them into a puppet state. Still, the movement to return to rule by the Japanese mainland was popular to the extent that event legislative session, from the very first, passed a resolution to return to Japanese administration. The Ryukyuan government and legislature were the driving force behind the later movement for Okinawa Prefecture to return to Japanese control, against the wishes of USCAR.

Members of Government

Chief Executives[2]

No. Portrait Name
(Birth–Death)
Took office Left office Political party
1 Shuhei Higa Shūhei Higa
(1902–1956)[a]
1 April 1951 25 October 1956 Ryūkyū Democratic Party
2 Jugo Toma Jūgō Tōma
(1895–1971)[b]
25 October 1956 10 November 1959 Independent
3 Seisaku Ota Seisaku Ōta
(1904–1999)
10 November 1959 31 October 1964 Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party
4 Seiho Matsuoka Seiho Matsuoka
(1897–1989)
31 October 1964 1 December 1968 Okinawa Liberal Democratic Party
5 Chobyo Yara Chōbyō Yara
(1902–1997)[c]
1 December 1968 14 May 1972 Okinawa Social Mass Party

Notes

  1. ^ Provisional to 1 April 1952.
  2. ^ Acting to 1 November 1956.
  3. ^ Afterwards served as the Governor of Okinawa Prefecture, from 1972 to 1976.

References

  1. ^ "Yahoo!百科事典 サービス終了のお知らせ". 100.yahoo.co.jp. Retrieved February 16, 2014.
  2. ^ "Okinawa and Ryukyu Islands". worldstatesmen.org. B. Cahoon. Retrieved September 23, 2015.

Bibliography

  • Teraya, Eiichi. 沖縄行政機構変遷史 : 明治12年〜昭和59年. (1984)
Chief executive (gubernatorial)

Chief Executive is a term used for Presidential or Prime Ministerial powers given by a constitution or basic law, which allows its holder to implement policy, supervise executive branch of government, prepare executive budget for submission to the legislature, and appoint and remove executive officials. Depending on the specific constitution, he may also be able to veto laws, dissolve the legislature or submit his own bills to the legislature.

It is also used to refer to certain gubernatorial offices, expressing the nature of their job being analogous to a head of government. While in most cases there is another specific style, such as president, governor-general, governor, lieutenant-governor, administrator, high commissioner, commissioner, premier, or minister-president, there are a few offices formally styled Chief Executive:

In the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China, which were previously under British and Portuguese rule until the transfer of sovereignty in late 20th century, the chief executive are the political and executive leaders of the regions and of their respective governments:In Mauritius, on Rodrigues island, since 12 October 2002 autonomy was granted:New Zealand Antarctic Territory: while not a government, the Ross Dependency is a Crown entity managed by a Board of Directors and the Chair acts as the Chief Executive. The Board reports to the Minister of Foreign Affairs (New Zealand).

The head of government in the Falkland Islands is known as the Chief Executive.

Historically, the head of government of the Ryukyu Islands was known as the Chief Executive. The functions were largely superseded by that of the Governor of the Okinawa Prefecture upon retrocession of the islands to Japan as a prefecture.

Chinaha Castle

Chinaha Castle (伊敷索城, Chinaha jō), also known as Ishikinawa Castle, is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Kumejima, Okinawa, on Kume Island. It was built on a cliff to control the Shirase River.

Chinen Castle

Chinen Castle (知念城, Chinen jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Nanjō, Okinawa. It is the second oldest castle in the Ryukyu Islands.

Governor of Okinawa Prefecture

The Governor of Okinawa Prefecture (沖縄県知事, Okinawa-ken chiji) is the head of the local government in Okinawa Prefecture. The governor's official residence is in Okinawa Prefecture Government Building located in Naha, the capital city of the prefecture.

Gushikawa Castle (Itoman)

Gushikawa Castle (具志川城, Gushikawa jō, Okinawan: Gushichan Gushiku) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Itoman, Okinawa.

Gushikawa Castle (Kume)

Gushikawa Castle (具志川城, Gushikawa jō, Okinawan: Gushichan Gushiku) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Kumejima, Okinawa, on Kume Island. It was built in the 15th century. The Miifugaa rock formation can be seen from the castle.

Itokazu Castle

Itokazu Castle (糸数城, Itokazu jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Nanjō, Okinawa. It was built with Ryūkyūan limestone in the mid-14th century. It is now in ruins.

Kakinohana Castle

Kakinohana Castle (垣花城, Kakinohana jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Nanjō, Okinawa.

List of U.S. governors of the Ryukyu Islands

This article lists the U.S. governors of the Ryukyu Islands, which represented the United States in the Ryukyu Islands (Japanese: 琉球諸島, Hepburn: Ryūkyū-shotō, Okinawan: 琉球/ルーチュー Ruuchuu), an archipelago of Japanese islands within Kagoshima and Okinawa prefectures, centered on the Okinawa Islands (whose main island, Okinawa, is the smallest and least populated of the five Japanese home islands). The list encompasses the period of U.S. occupation, from the start of the Battle of Okinawa in 1945 until the return of the islands to Japanese sovereignty in 1972, in accordance with the 1971 Okinawa Reversion Agreement.

Okinawa Meteorological Observatory

The Okinawa Meteorological Observatory (沖縄気象台, Okinawa Kishōdai) is a JMA weather stations (気象台, Kishōdai) located in Naha, Okinawa. It is responsible for weather services in Okinawa region and operates three Local Meteorological Observatories as well as an Aviation Weather Station.

Okinawa Prefectural Assembly

The Okinawa Prefectural Assembly (沖縄県議会, Okinawa-kengikai) is the prefectural parliament of Okinawa.

Its 48 members are elected every four years in 14 districts by single non-transferable vote (SNTV). 13 electoral districts are multi-member district, one district is a single-member district where SNTV becomes equivalent to First-past-the-post voting.

The assembly is responsible for enacting and amending prefectural ordinances, approving the budget and voting on important administrative appointments made by the governor including the vice-governors.

Unlike most mainland prefectural assemblies (Hokkaidō is another exception) the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly was not in existence continuously since 1878. After the Battle of Okinawa, the United States military governed the prefecture. The civilian branch of the military government was the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands; a Legislature of the Government of the Ryukyu Islands (立法院) was created in 1952. After Okinawa's return to the mainland in 1972, the Prefectural Assembly was restored. Since then, it had been one of three prefectures in the country that do not elect their assemblies in unified local elections (last round: 2011), the other two being Ibaraki and Tokyo (In 2011, another three prefectures hit by the Great East Japan earthquake postponed their elections).

Suhara Castle

Suhara Castle (塩原城, Suhara jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Kumejima, Okinawa, on Kume Island. It was built on a hill overlooking Eef beach.

Tamagusuku Castle

Tamagusuku Castle (玉城城, Tamagusuku jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Nanjō, Okinawa. It is the oldest castle on Okinawa; Chūzan Seikan says it was built by Amamikyu, the creation goddess of the Ryukyuan religion. It was the home of the Aji of Tamagusuku Magiri.

Tatami-ishi

Tatami-ishi (畳石, Tatami-ishi), literally "tatami stones", is a geological feature in Kumejima, Okinawa, Japan. Located on the south coast of the island of Ōjima (奥武島), to the immediate southeast of Kume Island, it lies within Kumejima Prefectural Natural Park. Exposed at low tide, the feature comprises some one thousand pentagonal and hexagonal rocks, each 1 to 1.5 metres in diameter, stretching fifty metres from north to south over a length of two hundred and fifty metres. It was formed during the Miocene period by the columnar jointing of andesitic lava as it cooled and contracted. The name is derived from the resemblance to a room of close-fitted tatami mats, while the feature is sometimes also likened to a turtle's carapace. In 1967 Tatami-ishi was designated a Natural Monument by the Government of the Ryukyu Islands. With the reversion of Okinawa to Japan in 1972, it was redesignated a Prefectural Cultural Property. In 2014 an area of 29.3 ha was designated a national Natural Monument.

Tunnaha Castle

Tunnaha Castle (登武那覇城, Tunnaha jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Kumejima, Okinawa, on Kume Island. It is located in Tunnaha Forest Park.

Uegusuku Castle (Kume)

Uegusuku Castle (宇江城城, Uegusuku jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Kumejima, Okinawa, on Kume Island. It was the home to the Aji of Kume Magiri before the 16th century. It is now a ruined castle.

Uegusuku Castle (Tomigusuku)

Uegusuku Castle (宇江城, Uegusuku jō) is a Ryukyuan gusuku in Tomigusuku, Okinawa. The castle is in ruins.

United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands

The United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島米国民政府, Ryūkyū-rettō Beikoku Minseifu), or "USCAR", was the government in Okinawa, Japan, after World War II from 1950 until 1972.

United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands

The United States Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島米国軍政府, Ryūkyū-rettō Beikoku Gunseifu), or "USMGR", was the government in Okinawa, Japan from 1945 to 1950, whereupon it was replaced by the United States Civil Administration of the Ryukyu Islands (USCAR).

Languages

This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors (here).
Text is available under the CC BY-SA 3.0 license; additional terms may apply.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses.