Government of the Republic of China

The Government of the Republic of China, commonly known as the Government of Taiwan, is the democratic, constitutional government that exercises control over Taiwan and other islands in the free area. The president is the head of state. The government consists of Presidency and five branches (Yuan), the Executive Yuan, Legislative Yuan, Judicial Yuan, Examination Yuan, and Control Yuan.

Originally established in 1912 in Nanking, the Government of the Republic of China relocated several times, and finally moved to Taipei in 1949 because of its military losses in the Chinese Civil War. The government had historically been dominated by the Kuomintang, but the situation has changed as Taiwan evolved into a multi-party democracy.

Government of the
Republic of China
Traditional Chinese中華民國政府
Simplified Chinese中华民国政府
Government of Taiwan
Traditional Chinese臺灣政府
Simplified Chinese台湾政府

Organizational structure

The government formally consists of the presidency and five branches of government, modeled on Sun Yat-sen's political philosophy of Three Principles of the People.

Office of the President
ROC Office of the President Emblem.svg
President
Commander-in-Chief Flag of the Republic of China
National Security Council
ROC National Security Council Logo.gif
Executive Yuan
ROC Executive Yuan Logo
Legislative Yuan
ROC Legislative Yuan Seal.svg
Judicial Yuan
ROC Judicial Yuan Logo.svg
Examination Yuan
ROC Examination Yuan Seal.jpg
Control Yuan
ROC Control Yuan Logo.gif

In practice, the system resembles a semi-presidential system with a uniquely strong presidency, as the President may appoint the Premier, the head of government, without the consent of the legislature. The President, however, shares limitations found in other semi-presidential systems, including the lack of a strong veto and no direct control of most administrative policy.

Category Name Chinese Mandarin Taiwanese Hakka Role
Presidency President 總統 Zǒngtǒng Chóng-thóng Chúng-thúng Head of state
Vice President 副總統 Fùzǒngtǒng Hù-chóng-thóng Fu-chúng-thúng
Office of the President 總統府 Zǒngtǒngfǔ Chóng-thóng-hú Chúng-thúng-fú Advisory and administrative
agencies to the President
National Security Council 國家安全會議 Guójiā Ᾱnquán Huìyì Kok-ka An-choân Hōe-gī Koet-kâ Ôn-chhiòn Fi-ngi
Five Yuans Executive Yuan 行政院 Xíngzhèng Yuàn Hêng-chèng Īⁿ Hàng-chṳn Yen Executive, Cabinet
Legislative Yuan 立法院 Lìfǎ Yuàn Li̍p-hoat-īⁿ Li̍p-fap Yen Legislature, Parliament
Judicial Yuan 司法院 Sīfǎ Yuàn Su-hoat Īⁿ Sṳ̂-fap Yen Judiciary, Constitutional court
Examination Yuan 考試院 Kǎoshì Yuàn Khó-chhì Īⁿ Kháu-sṳ Yen Civil service commission
Control Yuan 監察院 Jiānchá Yuàn Kàm-chhat Īⁿ Kam-chhat Yen Auditory

Presidency

The leadership of the country consists of the two top officials that is directly and jointly elected by the Taiwanese people.

Under the President, two advisory and administrative agencies are established to supports the work of the President.

Executive Yuan

Executive Yuan 20050703
Executive Yuan

The Executive Yuan is in charge of the Premier. However, the ROC's political system does not fit traditional models. The Premier is selected by the President without the need for approval from the Legislature, but the Legislature can pass laws without regard for the President, as neither the President nor the Premier wields veto power. Thus, there is little incentive for the President and the Legislature to negotiate on legislation if they are of opposing parties. During the tenure of the pan-Green's Chen Shui-bian the continued control of the Legislative Yuan by the pan-Blue majority caused legislation to repeatedly stall, as the two sides were deadlocked. There is another curiosity of the ROC system; because the ROC was previously dominated by strongman one-party politics, real power in the system shifted from one position to another, depending on what position was currently occupied by the leader of the state (Chiang Kai-shek and later his son, Chiang Ching-kuo). This legacy has resulted in executive powers currently being concentrated in the office of the President rather than the Premier.

Legislative Yuan

Legislative Yuan (0212)
Legislative Yuan

The main legislative body is the unicameral Legislative Yuan with one hundred and thirteen seats. Seventy-three are elected in single member districts; thirty-four are elected based on the proportion of nationwide votes received by participating political parties, and six seats are reserved to represent aboriginal groups. Members serve four-year terms. Although sometimes referred to as a "parliament", the Legislative Yuan, under Sun's political theory, is a branch of government, while only the National Assembly of the Republic of China, which is now abolished, with the power to amend the constitution and formerly to elect the President and Vice President, could be considered a parliament. However, after constitutional amendments effectively transferring almost all of the National Assembly's powers to the Legislative Yuan in the late 1990s, it has become more common for newspapers in Taiwan to refer to the Legislative Yuan as the nation's "parliament" (國會, guóhuì).

Judicial Yuan

Judicial Yuan Building 20060521
Judicial Yuan

The Judicial Yuan is the ROC's highest judiciary. The President and Vice-President of the Judicial Yuan and fifteen Justices form the Council of Grand Justices. They are nominated and appointed by the President of the Republic, with the consent of the Legislative Yuan. The highest court, the Supreme Court, consists of a number of civil and criminal divisions, each of which is formed by a presiding Judge and four Associate Judges, all appointed for life. In 1993, a separate constitutional court was established to resolve constitutional disputes, regulate the activities of political parties and accelerate the democratization process. There is no trial by jury but the right to a fair and public trial is protected by law and respected in practice; many cases are presided over by multiple judges.

Capital punishment is legal. Efforts have been made by the government to reduce the number of executions, although they have not been able to completely abolish the punishment. As of 2006, about 80% of Taiwanese want to keep the death penalty.[1]

Examination Yuan

Examination Yuan main gate 20110603
Examination Yuan

The Examination Yuan is in charge of validating the qualification of civil servants in the Republic of China. As a special branch of government under the Three Principles of the People. The concept of the Examination Yuan is based on the old Imperial examination system used in Imperial China.

Control Yuan

Control Yuan
Control Yuan

Based on the traditional Chinese censorate, the Control Yuan is an investigatory agency that monitors the other branches of government. It may be compared to the Court of Auditors of the European Union, the Government Accountability Office of the United States, a political ombudsman, or a standing commission for administrative inquiry.

History

The Government of the Republic of China was formally established in 1912 in Nanking, with Sun Yat-sen as President of the Provisional Government of the Republic of China under the Provisional Constitution of the Republic of China. This government moved to Beijing in the same year with Yuan Shikai as President, and continued under his successors as the internationally recognized government of China until 1928. In the Republican period, there were a series of governments, sometimes in rivalry with each other. The Nationalist government, led by the Kuomintang (KMT), was originally formed as a rival military government under Sun Yat-sen in Guangzhou in 1917. After Sun's death in 1925, Chiang Kai-shek led the Northern Expedition (1926–1928) to unify the country and established the capital in Nanjing. This government gained diplomatic recognition but did not control all the territory of the Qing dynasty. The essentially one-party rule functioned under Sun's Three Principles of the People, which provided for a transitional period of "tutelage", but drew more political parties, including the Communist Party of China into a United Front during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). The Tutelage Constitution of 1931 was replaced by the Constitution of the Republic of China in 1947.[2]

1912–1928

Nanjinglinshizhengfu
Cabinet meeting of the Nanjing Provisional Government led by Sun Yat-sen

The first Chinese national government was established on 1 January 1912, in Nanjing, with Sun Yat-sen as the provisional president. Provincial delegates were sent to confirm the authority of the national government, and they later also formed the first parliament. The power of this national government was limited and short-lived, with generals controlling both central and northern provinces of China. The limited acts passed by this government included the formal abdication of the Qing dynasty and some economic initiatives. The parliament's authority became nominal; violations of the Constitution by Yuan Shikai, who became president in March 1912, were met with half-hearted motions of censure, and Kuomintang members of the parliament who gave up their membership in the KMT were offered 1,000 British pounds. Yuan maintained power locally by sending military generals to be provincial governors or by obtaining the allegiance of those already in power.

When Yuan died, the parliament of 1913 was reconvened to give legitimacy to a new government. However, the real power of the time passed to military leaders, forming the warlord period. The impotent government still had its use; when World War I began, several Western powers and Japan wanted China to declare war on Germany, in order to liquidate German holdings.

There were also several warlord governments and puppet states sharing the same name. See also: Wang Jingwei Government, Warlord era.

1928–1949

National Government of the R.O.C
In 1927, National Government of the Republic of China at Nanjing

After the successful Northern Expedition led by the Kuomintang (KMT) and its leader Chiang Kai-shek, the KMT managed to nominally unify China and established the National Government of the Republic of China (also known as the Nationalist Government; traditional Chinese: 國民政府; simplified Chinese: 国民政府; pinyin: Guómín Zhèngfǔ) with its capital in Nanjing, whose authority was maintained till the full-scale outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937.

Known as the Nanjing Decade, the government ruled as a one-party state, as laid out by Sun Yat-sen's "Three Stages of Revolution" and his policy of Dang Guo (literally: party-state). The first stage was military unification, which was carried out with the Northern Expedition. The second was "political tutelage" which was a provisional government led by the KMT to educate people about their political and civil rights, and the third stage was constitutional government. The KMT considered themselves to be at the second stage in 1928. Although the Nanjing decade was far more stable and progressive as compared to the Warlord period which preceded it, it was still marred with widespread violence, official corruption and the ongoing civil war with the communists.

With the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War, the invading Imperial Japanese Army managed to capture Nanjing on 13 December 1937. The Japanese then proceeded to sack the city, and massacred hundreds of thousands of Chinese civilians. With the fall of Nanjing, the government was forced to move first to Wuhan, until the city fell on 27 October 1938. It retreated further inland to Chongqing, which was the wartime capital until 1945. Although Chongqing was located in the inland western province of Sichuan, it was nevertheless heavily bombed by Japanese warplanes many times during the course of the war.

With the end of the war, the National Government moved back to Nanjing. The Kuomintang then proceeded with the drafting of a new constitution for China, which were boycotted by the communists. The Constitution of the Republic of China was adopted by the National Assembly on 25 December 1946 and went into force a year later. The constitution was seen as the third and final step in Sun Yat-sen's "Three Stages of Revolution" - constitutional government. From then on, the government was known simply as the Government of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: 中華民國政府; simplified Chinese: 中华民国政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zhèngfǔ). Chiang Kai-shek was also elected as the 1st President of the Republic of China under the constitution by the National Assembly in 1948, with Li Zongren being elected as Vice-President.

However, in 1946, the civil war with the communists led by Mao Zedong resumed despite mediation by the United States. Stretched and exhausted due to the long war with the Japanese, the Kuomintang-led government faced a disciplined and ever growing communist Red Army, which numbers grew in strength and was renamed as the People's Liberation Army (PLA) in 1946. Although government forces were numerically superior and were equipped with modern weapons, they eventually lost due to low morale, defections, poor discipline as well as popular discontent with the ROC government due to skyrocketing inflation, corruption and administrative incompetence. The constitution was also superseded by the Temporary Provisions Effective During the Period of Communist Rebellion, which were a series of temporary constitutional provisions mainly to increase the powers of the President and suspended the two-term limit. The temporary provisions were passed by the National Assembly on 10 May 1948. Under intense pressure to take responsibility for the government's bleak outlook during the course of the civil war, Chiang resigned as President on 21 January 1949. The presidency was passed on to Vice-President Li Zongren, who was however unable to govern effectively due to Chiang pulling the strings behind government as Director-General of the Kuomintang.

With the fall of Nanjing to the PLA on April 1949, the ROC government moved south to Guangzhou, and then to its wartime capital of Chongqing, and finally to Chengdu. Sensing that he would eventually lose the mainland to the communists, Chiang secretly started preparations to move the government to the island of Taiwan, which was placed under the ROC's control on 25 October 1945. Taiwan was seen as a safe haven for Chiang due to it being separated from the mainland by the 180 km or 110 mi-wide Taiwan Strait. During that period, more than two million civilians, military personnel and government officials left the mainland for Taiwan. Chiang then declared Taipei as the provisional capital of the Republic of China on 7 December 1949, and left Chengdu for Taipei by air three days later when the city fell to the communists.

Since 1949

Presidential-Palace-(Taipei)
Since 1950, the Presidential Office Building in Taipei has been home to the Office of the President of the Republic of China

Based on the Constitution of the Republic of China, the head of state is the President, who is elected by popular vote for a four-year term on the same ticket as the Vice-President. The President has authority over the five administrative branches (Yuan): the Control, Examination, Executive, Judicial, and Legislative Yuans. The President appoints the members of the Executive Yuan as the cabinet, including a Premier, who is officially the President of the Executive Yuan; members are responsible for policy and administration.

Originally, the National Assembly of the Republic of China was elected in mainland China in 1947 to officially carry out the duties of choosing the president, to amend the constitution, and to exercise the sovereignty of the citizens, but in fact, the Assembly's role in Taipei seemed to reconfirm the executive powers of President Chiang Kai-shek. The National Assembly was re-established on Taiwan when the government moved. Because it was impossible to hold subsequent elections to represent constituencies in mainland China, representatives elected in 1947-48 held these seats "indefinitely." In June 1990, however, the Council of Grand Justices mandated the retirement, effective December 1991, of all remaining "indefinitely" elected members of the National Assembly, Legislative Yuan, and other bodies. In 2005, the National Assembly permanently abolished itself by ratifying a constitution amendment passed by the Legislative Yuan.

Amending the ROC constitution now requires the approval of three-fourths of the quorum of members of the Legislative Yuan. This quorum requires at least three-fourths of all members of the Legislature. After passing by the legislature, the amendment needs ratification in a referendum from at least fifty percent of all eligible voters of the ROC regardless of voter turnout.

References

  1. ^ Chang, Rich (2006-01-02). "Nation keeps death penalty, but reduces executions". Taipei Times. Retrieved 2009-11-02.
  2. ^ Ch'ien Tuan-Sheng (Qian Duansheng)The Government and Politics of China, 1912-1949. (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1950).

External links

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Government ruling Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu
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the People's Republic of China

1949–1954
Representative for China in the United Nations
1947–1971
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Government of the
People's Republic of China

1971–present
1989 in Taiwan

Events from the year 1989 in Taiwan, Republic of China. This year is numbered Minguo 78 according to the official Republic of China calendar.

Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China

The Additional Articles of the Constitution of the Republic of China are the revisions and constitutional amendments to the original constitution to meet the requisites of the nation and the political status of Taiwan. The Additional Articles is usually attached after the original constitution as a separate document. It also has its own preamble and article ordering different from the original constitution.The Additional Articles are the fundamental law of the present government of the Republic of China on Taiwan since 1991, last amended in 2005.

Beiyang government

The Beiyang government (Chinese: 北洋政府; pinyin: Běiyáng Zhèngfǔ; Wade–Giles: Pei-yang Chêng-fu), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government or the First Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China which sat in its capital Peking between 1912 and 1928. It was internationally recognized as the legitimate Chinese government. The name derives from the Beiyang Army, which dominated its politics with the rise of Yuan Shikai, who was a general of the Qing dynasty. After his death, the army split into various factions competing for power, in a period called the Warlord Era. Although the government and the state were nominally under civilian control under a constitution, the Beiyang generals were effectively in charge of it. Nevertheless, the government enjoyed legitimacy abroad along with diplomatic recognition, had access to tax and customs revenue, and could apply for foreign financial loans.

Its legitimacy was seriously challenged in 1917, by Sun Yat-sen's Guangzhou-based Kuomintang (KMT) government movement. His successor Chiang Kai-shek defeated the Beiyang warlords during the Northern Expedition between 1926 and 1928, and overthrew the factions and the government, effectively unifying the country in 1928. The Kuomintang proceeded to install its nationalist government in Nanking; China's political order became a one-party state, and subsequently received international recognition as the legitimate government of China.

Chinese Maritime Customs Service

The Chinese Maritime Customs Service was a Chinese governmental tax collection agency and information service from its founding in 1854 until it split in 1949 into services operating in the Republic of China on Taiwan, and in the People's Republic of China. From its foundation in 1854 until the collapse of the Qing dynasty in 1911, the agency was known as the Imperial Maritime Customs Service.

Directorate-General of Personnel Administration

The Directorate-General of Personnel Administration of the Executive Yuan (DGPA; Chinese: 行政院人事行政總處; pinyin: Xíngzhèngyuàn Rénshì Xíngzhèng Zǒngchù; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hêng-chèng-īⁿ Jîn-sū Hêng-chèng Chóng-chhù) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) is a government body responsible for the overall personnel administration of all ministries and agencies under the Executive Yuan. The agency was established in 1967 as the Central Personnel Administration (Chinese: 行政院人事行政局) and given its current name on 6 February 2012.

Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics

The Directorate General of Budget, Accounting and Statistics (DGBAS; Chinese: 行政院主計總處; pinyin: Xíngzhèngyuàn Zhǔjì Zǒngchù; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Hêng-chèng-īⁿ Chú-kè Chóng-chhù) is a branch of the Executive Yuan of the Republic of China (Taiwan), performs the role of both a comptroller for the government and census bureau.

Executive Yuan

The Executive Yuan is the executive branch of the government of the Republic of China on Taiwan.

Fujian People's Government

The Fujian People's Government (or spelt as the Fukien People's Government) is the common name for the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China (1933–1934) (Chinese: 中華共和國人民革命政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Gònghéguó Rénmín Gémìng Zhèngfǔ), also known as the Fujian People's Government (Chinese: 福建人民革命政府; pinyin: Fújiàn Rénmín Zhèngfǔ), was a short-lived anti-Kuomintang government in the Chinese Republic's Fujian Province. The rebellion that led to its formation and its collapse are known as the Fujian Incident (閩變 Mǐnbiàn or 福建事變 Fújiàn Shìbiàn) or Fujian Rebellion.

National Security Council (Taiwan)

The National Security Council (NSC; Chinese: 國家安全會議; pinyin: Guójiā Ᾱnquán Huìyì; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kok-ka An-choân Hōe-gī) is an organ of the Republic of China (Taiwan) to advise on issues related to national security directly under the chairmanship of the President.Members of the NSC also consist of the Vice President, the Premier, the heads of key ministries, the Chief of the General Staff, the NSC Secretary-General and the Director-General of the National Security Bureau.

Nationalist government

The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國國民政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Guómín Zhèngfǔ; literally: 'Chinese People's State National People‘s Government') or the Second Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 and 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party). The name derives from the Kuomintang's translated name "Nationalist Party". The government was in place until it was replaced by the current Government of the Republic of China in the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China.

After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution on 10 October 1911, revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen was elected Provisional President and founded the Provisional Government of the Republic of China. To preserve national unity, Sun ceded the presidency to military strongman Yuan Shikai, who established the Beiyang government. After a failed attempt to install himself as Emperor of China, Yuan died in 1916, leaving a power vacuum which resulted in China being divided into several warlord fiefdoms and rival governments. They were nominally reunified in 1928 by the Nanjing-based government led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, which after the Northern Expedition governed the country as a one-party state under the Kuomintang, and was subsequently given international recognition as the legitimate representative of China.

Office of the President (Taiwan)

The Office of the President (Chinese: 總統府; pinyin: Zǒngtǒngfǔ; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Chóng-thóng-hú) is an organ of the Republic of China (Taiwan) that handles the general administrative affairs of the President and the Vice President. The office, together with the National Security Council, serve as the two advisory agencies to the President.The Office of the President is led by a Secretary-General and oversees

Academia Sinica (Chinese: 中央硏究院; pinyin: Zhōngyāng Yánjiùyuàn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tiong-iong Gián-kiù-īⁿ) and

Academia Historica (Chinese: 國史館; pinyin: Guóshǐguǎn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Kok-sú-koán).

Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912)

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (中華民國臨時政府, pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Línshí Zhèngfǔ) was a provisional government established during the Xinhai Revolution by the revolutionaries in 1912. After the success of the Wuchang uprising, revolutionary provincial assembly representatives held a conference in the district of Wuchang, China, which framed the organizational outline of the Provisional Government.

Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–1940)

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (traditional Chinese: 中華民國臨時政府; simplified Chinese: 中华民国临时政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Línshí Zhèngfǔ, or Japanese: Chūka Minkoku Rinji Seifu) was a Chinese puppet state of the Empire of Japan that existed from 1937 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. It had been formed largely on the initiative of Imperial Japanese Army commanders in north China, before securing approval from Japanese government authorities in Tokyo. Thus the Provisional Government had nominal authority in Japanese occupied zones in north China, while to the south the Central China Expeditionary Army established the Reformed Government of the Republic of China in 1938, which had authority in the Yangtze River area. Both essentially served as a local organ of the Japanese military authorities, due to the presence and extensive powers of Japanese advisors within the Provisional Government over native Chinese bureaucrats, and because it never made any attempt to secure international recognition, even from Japan.

Reformed Government of the Republic of China

The Reformed Government of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國維新政府, Zhōnghuá Mínguó Wéixīn Zhèngfǔ or Japanese: 中華民国維新政府, "Chūkaminkoku Ishin Seifu") was a Chinese puppet state created by Japan that existed from 1938 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The regime had little authority or popular support, nor did it receive international recognition even from Japan itself, lasting only two years before it was merged with the Provisional Government into the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China under Wang Jingwei. Due to the extensive powers of the Japanese advisors within the government and its own limited powers, the Reformed Government was not much more than an arm of the Japanese military administration.

Republic of China (disambiguation)

The Republic of China is a state in East Asia, commonly known as Taiwan.

Republic of China may also refer to:

The Republic of China (1912–1949), state in East Asia from the end of the Qing dynasty to the end of the Chinese Civil War, ruling all of China

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912), a government established in 1912

The Beiyang government, the government of northern China, 1913–1928

The Nationalist government, the Kuomintang-ruled government of China, 1928–1948

The Fujian People's Government, also known as the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China, 1933–1934

The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–40), puppet government of Japan

The Reformed Government of the Republic of China, puppet government of Japan

The Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, puppet government of Japan, 1940–1945

The Government of the Republic of China, the current government of Taiwan

Supreme Court of the Republic of China

The Supreme Court of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國最高法院; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Zuìgāo Fǎyuàn; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tiong-hôa Bîn-kok Chòe-ko Hoat-īⁿ) is the court of last resort in the Republic of China on Taiwan although matters regarding interpretation of the Constitution and unifying the interpretation of laws and orders are decided by the Constitutional Court of the Judicial Yuan.

Wang Jingwei regime

The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國國民政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá mínguó guómín zhèngfǔ), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China. This should not be confused with the Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek, which was the separate, non-Japanese-backed government that fought against Japan. It was ruled by a one-party totalitarian dictatorship under Wang Jingwei, an ex-Kuomintang (KMT) official. The region that it would administer was initially seized by Japan throughout the late 1930s with the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Wang, a rival of Chiang Kai-shek and member of the pro-peace faction of the KMT, defected to the Japanese side and formed a collaborationist government in occupied Nanjing (the traditional capital of China) in 1940. The new state claimed the entirety of China during its existence, portraying itself as the legitimate inheritors of the Xinhai Revolution and Sun Yat-sen's legacy as opposed to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing, but effectively only Japanese-occupied territory was under its direct control. Its international recognition was limited to other members of the Anti-Comintern Pact, of which it was a signatory. The Reorganized National Government existed until the end of World War II and the surrender of Japan in August 1945, at which point the regime was dissolved and many of its leading members were executed for treason.

The state was formed by combining the previous Reformed Government (1938–1940) and Provisional Government (1937–1940) of the Republic of China, puppet regimes which ruled the central and northern regions of China that were under Japanese control, respectively. Unlike Wang Jingwei's government, these regimes were not much more than arms of the Japanese military leadership and received no recognition even from Japan itself or its allies. However, after 1940 the former territory of the Provisional Government remained semi-autonomous from Nanjing's control, under the "North China Political Council" of Wang Kemin, while the region of Mengjiang (puppet government in Inner Mongolia) was under Wang Jingwei's government only nominally. His regime was also hampered by the fact that the powers granted to it by the Japanese were extremely limited, and this was only partly changed with the signing of a new treaty in 1943 which gave it more sovereignty from Japanese control. The Japanese largely viewed it as not an end in itself but the means to an end, a bridge for negotiations with Chiang Kai-shek, which led them to often treat Wang with indifference.

Wuhan government

The Wuhan nationalist government (Chinese: 武漢國民政府), also known as the Wuhan government, Wuhan regime, or Hankow government, was a left-wing nationalist government of China led first by Eugene Chen, and later by Wang Jingwei, that was based in Wuhan from 5 December 1926 to 21 September 1927. Following the capture of Wuhan during the Northern Expedition, the existing Kuomintang (KMT) government, which had been based in Guangzhou, moved there in December 1926. In April 1927, after National Revolutionary Army (NRA) commander-in-chief Chiang Kai-shek purged communists and leftists in the "Shanghai massacre", the Wuhan government split from Chiang in what is known as the "Nanjing–Wuhan split" (Chinese: 寧漢分裂). Chiang subsequently formed his own government in Nanjing. While Chiang continued the Northern Expedition on his own, increasing tensions between communists and the KMT in the Wuhan government resulted in a new purge of communists from that government, and an eventual reconciliation with the Nanjing faction, after which the government moved to Nanjing.

Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinZhōnghuá Mínguó Zhèngfǔ
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳChûng-fà Mìn-koet Chṳn-fú
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTiong-hôa Bîn-kok Chèng-hú
Tâi-lôTiong-huâ Bîn-kok Tsìng-hú
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDṳ̆ng-huà Mìng-guók Céng-hū
Transcriptions
Standard Mandarin
Hanyu PinyinTáiwān Zhèngfǔ
Hakka
Pha̍k-fa-sṳThòi-vân Chṳn-fú
Southern Min
Hokkien POJTâi-oân Chèng-hú
Tâi-lôTâi-uân Tsìng-hú
Eastern Min
Fuzhou BUCDài-uăng Céng-hū
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