The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government the Russian Federation".
According to the 1991 amendment to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was the head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. But, the President does appoint the Prime Minister. The Chapter 6 of the Constitution of Russia says, that "The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Prime Minister), Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministries".
|Government of Russia|
|Прави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции|
|Main organ||Council of Ministers|
|Responsible to||State Duma|
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Council of Ministers had become the main executive body. At some points it contained over 69 state committees, 16–17 ministers, 5 federal services, and over 46 governmental agencies. After the 2004 reform, government duties were split between 17 ministries, 5 federal services, and over 30 governmental agencies. The Russian Federation practices asymmetrical federalism. This means that not all regions are treated equally and that some regions have been given more autonomy than others. There are 7 super regions (federal districts) with a super governor that answers to the President. Those super regions include the South, Central, North-West, Far East, Siberia, Ural, Volga, and North Caucasus. They were established in May 2000.
The prime minister, currently Dmitry Medvedev, is appointed by the president (currently Vladimir Putin), and confirmed by the State Duma. He or she succeeds to the presidency if the current president dies, is incapacitated, or resigns.
Corruption is common and widespread in the government. According to 2016 results of Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International, Russia ranked 131st place out of 176 countries with score 29. Multiple anti biggest stances taken against corruption is the formation of the Anti-Corruption Council in 2008.
The large body was preceded by Government of the Soviet Union. Since the Russian Federation emerged in 1991 to 1992, the government's structure has undergone several major changes. In the initial years, a large amount of government bodies, primarily the different ministries, underwent massive reorganization as the old Soviet governing networks were adapted to the new state. Many reshuffles and renamings occurred.
On 28 November 1991, President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin signed presidential decree No.242 "On reorganization of the government bodies of the RSFSR". Yeltsin officially declared the end of the Soviet Union and became the President of the Russian Federation. Yeltsin was a reformer and promised Western-styled democracy.
In 1993 the new Russian Constitution was adopted. The new Constitution gained legitimacy through its bicameral legislature, independent judiciary, the position of the president and the prime minister, and democratic features. These democratic features included competitive multi-party elections, separation of powers, federalism, and protection of civil liberties.
In 1999, Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as the Prime Minister. Later in that year, Yeltsin resigned from the presidency and Putin took over. In 2000 Putin won the presidential election.
The Government is the subject of the 6th chapter of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. According to the constitution, the government of the Russian Federation must:
The government issues its acts in the way of decisions (Постановления) and orders (Распоряжения). These must not contradict the constitution, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, and Presidential decrees, and are signed by the Prime Minister.
The Government, also assists the Prime Minister, in faithfully carrying out the country's domestic and foreign policy as determined by the President, in general.
The cabinet consists of the following members:
|Chairman of the Government||Dmitry Medvedev||United Russia|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Sergey Lavrov||United Russia|
|Minister of Internal Affairs||Vladimir Kolokoltsev||United Russia|
|Minister of Finance||Anton Siluanov||United Russia|
|Minister of Defense||Sergei Shoygu||United Russia|
|Minister of Emergency Situations||Yevgeny Zinichev||—|
|Minister of Justice||Aleksandr Konovalov||United Russia|
|Minister of Industry and Trade||Denis Manturov||United Russia|
|Minister for Economic Development||Maxim Oreshkin||—|
|Minister of Health||Veronika Skvortsova||—|
|Minister of Labour and Social Affairs||Maxim Topilin||United Russia|
|Minister of Enlightenment||Olga Vasilyeva||—|
|Minister of Science and Higher Education||Mikhail Kotyukov||—|
|Minister of Transportation||Yevgeny Dietrich||—|
|Minister of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector||Vladimir Yakushev||United Russia|
|Minister for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection||Dmitry Kobylkin||United Russia|
|Minister of Energy||Alexander Novak||United Russia|
|Minister of Culture||Vladimir Medinsky||United Russia|
|Minister of Sports||Pavel Kolobkov||—|
|Minister of Digital Development, Telecom and Mass Communications||Konstantin Noskov||—|
|Minister of Agriculture||Dmitry Patrushev||—|
|Minister for Russian Far East Affairs||Alexander Kozlov||United Russia|
|Minister for North Caucasus Affairs||Sergey Chebotarev||—|
|Offices with the status of Minister|
|First Deputy Chairman||Anton Siluanov||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman and Head of the Government Administration||Konstantin Chuychenko||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman and Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Far Eastern Federal District||Yury Trutnev||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman for Culture and Sport||Olga Golodets||—|
|Deputy Chairman for Social Affairs||Tatyana Golikova||—|
|Deputy Chairman for Construction Industry||Vitaly Mutko||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman for Digital Economy, Transportation and Telecom||Maxim Akimov||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman for Defense Industry||Yury Borisov||—|
|Deputy Chairman for Agriculture Industry||Alexey Gordeyev||United Russia|