The Government of Russia exercises executive power in the Russian Federation. The members of the government are the Prime Minister, the deputy prime ministers, and the federal ministers. It has its legal basis in the Constitution of the Russian Federation and the federal constitutional law "On the Government the Russian Federation".
According to the 1991 amendment to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was the head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power. But, the President does appoint the Prime Minister. The Chapter 6 of the Constitution of Russia says, that "The Government of the Russian Federation consists of the Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Prime Minister), Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation and federal ministries".
|Government of Russia|
|Прави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции|
|Main organ||Council of Ministers|
|Responsible to||State Duma|
After the fall of the Soviet Union, the Russian Council of Ministers had become the main executive body. At some points it contained over 69 state committees, 16–17 ministers, 5 federal services, and over 46 governmental agencies. After the 2004 reform, government duties were split between 17 ministries, 5 federal services, and over 30 governmental agencies. The Russian Federation practices asymmetrical federalism. This means that not all regions are treated equally and that some regions have been given more autonomy than others. There are 7 super regions (federal districts) with a super governor that answers to the President. Those super regions include the South, Central, North-West, Far East, Siberia, Ural, Volga, and North Caucasus. They were established in May 2000.
The prime minister, currently Dmitry Medvedev, is appointed by the president (currently Vladimir Putin), and confirmed by the State Duma. He or she succeeds to the presidency if the current president dies, is incapacitated, or resigns.
Corruption is common and widespread in the government. According to 2016 results of Corruption Perception Index of Transparency International, Russia ranked 131st place out of 176 countries with score 29. Multiple anti biggest stances taken against corruption is the formation of the Anti-Corruption Council in 2008.
The large body was preceded by Government of the Soviet Union. Since the Russian Federation emerged in 1991 to 1992, the government's structure has undergone several major changes. In the initial years, a large amount of government bodies, primarily the different ministries, underwent massive reorganization as the old Soviet governing networks were adapted to the new state. Many reshuffles and renamings occurred.
On 28 November 1991, President of the RSFSR Boris Yeltsin signed presidential decree No.242 "On reorganization of the government bodies of the RSFSR". Yeltsin officially declared the end of the Soviet Union and became the President of the Russian Federation. Yeltsin was a reformer and promised Western-styled democracy.
In 1993 the new Russian Constitution was adopted. The new Constitution gained legitimacy through its bicameral legislature, independent judiciary, the position of the president and the prime minister, and democratic features. These democratic features included competitive multi-party elections, separation of powers, federalism, and protection of civil liberties.
In 1999, Yeltsin appointed Vladimir Putin as the Prime Minister. Later in that year, Yeltsin resigned from the presidency and Putin took over. In 2000 Putin won the presidential election.
The Government is the subject of the 6th chapter of the Constitution of the Russian Federation. According to the constitution, the government of the Russian Federation must:
The government issues its acts in the way of decisions (Постановления) and orders (Распоряжения). These must not contradict the constitution, federal constitutional laws, federal laws, and Presidential decrees, and are signed by the Prime Minister.
The Government, also assists the Prime Minister, in faithfully carrying out the country's domestic and foreign policy as determined by the President, in general.
The cabinet consists of the following members:
|Chairman of the Government||Dmitry Medvedev||United Russia|
|Minister of Foreign Affairs||Sergey Lavrov||United Russia|
|Minister of Internal Affairs||Vladimir Kolokoltsev||United Russia|
|Minister of Finance||Anton Siluanov||United Russia|
|Minister of Defense||Sergei Shoygu||United Russia|
|Minister of Emergency Situations||Yevgeny Zinichev||—|
|Minister of Justice||Aleksandr Konovalov||United Russia|
|Minister of Industry and Trade||Denis Manturov||United Russia|
|Minister for Economic Development||Maxim Oreshkin||—|
|Minister of Health||Veronika Skvortsova||—|
|Minister of Labour and Social Affairs||Maxim Topilin||United Russia|
|Minister of Enlightenment||Olga Vasilyeva||—|
|Minister of Science and Higher Education||Mikhail Kotyukov||—|
|Minister of Transportation||Yevgeny Dietrich||—|
|Minister of Construction Industry, Housing and Utilities Sector||Vladimir Yakushev||United Russia|
|Minister for Natural Resources and Environmental Protection||Dmitry Kobylkin||United Russia|
|Minister of Energy||Alexander Novak||United Russia|
|Minister of Culture||Vladimir Medinsky||United Russia|
|Minister of Sports||Pavel Kolobkov||—|
|Minister of Digital Development, Telecom and Mass Communications||Konstantin Noskov||—|
|Minister of Agriculture||Dmitry Patrushev||—|
|Minister for Russian Far East Affairs||Alexander Kozlov||United Russia|
|Minister for North Caucasus Affairs||Sergey Chebotarev||—|
|Offices with the status of Minister|
|First Deputy Chairman||Anton Siluanov||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman and Head of the Government Administration||Konstantin Chuychenko||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman and Presidential Plenipotentiary Envoy to the Far Eastern Federal District||Yury Trutnev||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman for Culture and Sport||Olga Golodets||—|
|Deputy Chairman for Social Affairs||Tatyana Golikova||—|
|Deputy Chairman for Construction Industry||Vitaly Mutko||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman for Digital Economy, Transportation and Telecom||Maxim Akimov||United Russia|
|Deputy Chairman for Defense Industry||Yury Borisov||—|
|Deputy Chairman for Agriculture Industry||Alexey Gordeyev||United Russia|
The Council of People's Commissars (Russian: Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed soon after the October Revolution during 1917. Created in the Russian Republic, the council began forming the USSR. It evolved to become the greatest executive authority of the government of the USSR. The premier of this council was thus the head of government (whereas the Premier of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was head of state).
The 1918 Constitution of the RSFSR formalised the role of the Sovnarkom of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR): it was to be responsible to the Congress of Soviets for the "general administration of the affairs of the state". The constitution enabled the Sovnarkom to issue decrees having the force of law when the Congress was not in session. The Congress then routinely approved these decrees at its next session.
When the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics was established during December 1922, the USSR Sovnarkom was modelled on the RSFSR Sovnarkom. It was transformed during 1946 into the Council of Ministers.Duma
A duma (дума) was a Russian assembly with advisory or legislative functions. The term comes from the Russian verb думать (dumat’) meaning "to think" or "to consider". The first formally constituted duma was the State Duma introduced into the Russian Empire by Tsar Nicholas II in 1905. The Tsar dismissed the first duma within 75 days and re-elected second duma within three months. It was dissolved in 1917 during the Russian Revolution. Since 1993, the State Duma is the lower legislative house of the Russian Federation.Federal Assembly (Russia)
The Federal Assembly (Russian: Федера́льное Собра́ние, tr. Federalnoye Sobraniye, IPA: [fʲɪdʲɪˈralʲnəjə sɐˈbranʲɪjə]) is the national legislature of the Russian Federation, according to the Constitution of Russian Federation (1993). It was preceded by the Supreme Soviet.
It consists of the State Duma, which is the lower house, and the Federation Council, which is the upper house. Both houses are located in Moscow. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third most important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case that both the President and the Prime Minister are incapacitated, the Chairman of the upper house of the Russian parliament becomes Acting President of Russia.The jurisdiction of the State Duma includes: consent to the appointment of the Chairman of the Government, deciding the issue of confidence in the Government, appointment and dismissal of the Chairman of the Central Bank, appointment and dismissal of the Chairman and half of the auditors of the Accounting Chamber, appointment and dismissal of the Commissioner for Human Rights, proclamation of amnesty, advancing of charges against the President for his impeachment and others.The jurisdiction of the Council of the Federation includes: approval of changes in borders between subjects of the Russian Federation, approval of the decree of the President on the introduction of a martial law or on the introduction of a state of emergency, deciding on the possibility of using the Armed Forces of Russia outside the territory of the Russia, appointment of elections of the President, impeachment of the President, appointment of judges of higher courts of Russia, appointment and dismissal of the Procurator-General of the Russian Federation, appointment and dismissal of Deputy Chairman and half of the auditors of the all Accounting Chamber and others.Federal budget of Russia
The Federal budget of Russia (Russian: Федеральный бюджет России) is the leading element of the Budget system of Russia. The federal budget is a major state financial plan for the fiscal year, which has the force of law after its approval by the Russian parliament and signed into law by the President of Russia. That the federal budget is the primary means of redistribution of national income and gross domestic product through it mobilized the financial resources necessary to regulate the country's economic development, social policy and the strengthening of the national defense. The share of federal budget accounts for a significant portion of the distribution process, which is the allocation of funds between sectors of the economy, manufacturing and industrial areas, regions of the country.
The right of the Russian Federation for an independent federal budget is enshrined by Article 71 of the Russian Constitution and the Budget Code of Russia that regulates the details of its formation and execution.
In 2016, the Russian budget deficit reached $21Bln. It was expected to rise to $21.7 billion in the year. 2016 budget revenues were estimated to be 13.7 trillion rubles (200 billion US dollars) or 17.5% of GDP, while spending is planned to be 16 trillion rubles (roughly 233 billion dollars) or 20.5% of GDP. The budget deficit is thus 2.35 trillion rubles (33 billion dollars) or 3% of GDP.First Deputy Prime Minister of Russia
A First Deputy Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation, commonly referred to as the First Deputy Prime Minister, is a member of the Russian Government. The First Deputy is to be proposed by the Prime Minister, and approved by the President.List of heads of government of Russia
Approximately 98 people have been head of the Russian government since its establishment in 1726. The chairman of government was a member of the Supreme Privy Council, which was created on 8 (19) February 1726 by Empress Catherine, and from 8 (20) September 1802 ministerial duties were allocated by the Committee of Ministers, which was established on in accordance with the proclamation of Emperor Alexander II. Beginning with Count Aleksandr Romanovich Vorontsov, the eldest of the officers was de facto chairman of the committee. Eight years after the inauguration of the manifest, the first de jure office holder was Count Nikolay Rumyantsev. The Council of Ministers was unofficially formed in October 1857, as a result of Emperor Alexander II's reforms; its first session began on 19 (31) December 1857. Before the actual formation of that body on 12 (24) November 1861, the Emperor himself was in charge. The Council of Ministers consisted of chairmen of the State Council and the Committee of Ministers, as well as high-ranking officers appointed by the Emperor. The first session ended on 11 (23) December 1882, after the number of files to the Council greatly decreased.The Committee of Ministers functioned simultaneously with the second session of the Council of Ministers for six more months; Count Sergei Witte participated on both entities until the abolition of the committee on 23 April (5 May) 1906. Following that event, the duties of the committee were left to the Council of Ministers, until the formation of the Small Council in 1909, which also included deputy ministers. By the order of Emperor Nicholas II, the second session of the Council of Ministers began on 19 October (1 November) 1905, following the formation of the State Duma. Shortly after the February Revolution and the inception of the Russian Provisional Government on 2 (15) March 1917, Georgy Lvov from the Constitutional Democratic Party and Alexander Kerensky from the Socialist Revolutionary Party became joint Minister-Chairmen. The provisional Russian Republic was eventually replaced by the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) and the governmental body by the Council of People's Commissars, which was chaired from 1917–24 by Vladimir Lenin. That body was renamed Council of Ministers following a decree of the Supreme Council on 23 March 1946.
After the fall of the Soviet Union, Boris Yeltsin, as the President of the Russian Federation, was automatically appointed as the Head of Government of the Russian Federation in the first two years of his mandate. The latter body took the previous name "Council of Ministers", the chairman of which became Viktor Chernomyrdin from the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, replacing acting chairman Yegor Gaidar. According to the new constitution ratified on 25 December 1993, those two entities were separated. Since then, the head of that office takes the formal title "Chairmen of the Government" or colloquially "Prime Minister" (the only actual prime minister was Valentin Pavlov). Chernomyrdin resumed chairing the government, followed up by non-partisans and acting office holders. On 8 May 2008, Vladimir Putin took the office for a second term, now as a member of United Russia. Dmitry Medvedev has been the Chairman of the Government since 8 May 2012.The youngest head of government by his accession to office was Count Karl-Fridrikh Golshteyn-Gottorpsky, at age 26, and the oldest Count Pyotr Andreyevich Tolstoy, at age 81.Order of the Government of Russia
Orders and Resolutions of the Government of Russia (Russian: Постановления и Pаспоряжения) is secondary legislation, a normative administrative directive content published by the Government of the Russian Federation within the limits of its competence, on the basis and in pursuance of the Constitution of the Russian Federation, federal constitutional laws, federal laws and Decrees of the President of Russia.Outline of Russia
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Russia.
The Russian Federation, commonly known as Russia, is the most extensive country in the world, covering 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), more than an eighth of the Earth’s land area. Russia is a transcontinental country extending across the whole of northern Asia and 40% of Europe; it spans 11 time zones and incorporates a great range of environments and landforms. With 143 million people, Russia is the ninth most populated country. Russia has the world's largest mineral and energy resources, has the world's largest forest reserves, and its lakes contain approximately one-quarter of the Earth's fresh liquid water.President of Russia
The President of Russia, officially the President of the Russian Federation (Russian: Президент Российской Федерации, tr. Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
In 1991, the office was briefly known as the President of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian: Президент Российской Советской Федеративной Социалистической Республики) until 25 December 1991. According to the 1978 Russian Constitution, the President of Russia was head of the executive branch and headed the Council of Ministers of Russia. According to the current 1993 Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is not a part of the Government of Russia, which exercises executive power.In all cases where the President of the Russian Federation is unable to fulfill his duties, they shall be temporarily delegated to the Prime Minister, who becomes Acting President of Russia. The Chairman of the Federation Council is the third important position after the President and the Prime Minister. In the case of incapacity of both the President and Prime Minister, the chairman of the upper house of parliament becomes acting head of state.The power includes execution of federal law, alongside the responsibility of appointing federal ministers, diplomatic, regulatory and judicial officers, and concluding treaties with foreign powers with the advice and consent of the State Duma and the Federation Council. The president is further empowered to grant federal pardons and reprieves, and to convene and adjourn the Federal Assembly under extraordinary circumstances. The president also directs the foreign and domestic policy of the Russian Federation.
The president is elected directly through a popular vote to a six-year term. The law prohibits anyone from ever being elected to the presidency for a third consecutive term. In all, three individuals have served four presidencies spanning six full terms. On 7 May 2012, Vladimir Putin became the fourth and current president.Prime Minister of Russia
The Chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation (Russian: Председатель Правительства Российской Федерации, translit. Predsedatel' Pravitel'stva Rossiyskoy Federatsii), colloquially referred to as the Prime Minister (Russian: Премьер-министр, translit. Prem'yer-ministr) is the head of the Russian government and the second most powerful figure of the Russian Federation. The official residence of the prime minister is Gorki-9 in Odintsovsky District, Moscow Oblast, but his working residence is in Moscow (Russian White House). Under Article 24 of the Federal Constitutional Law 'On the Government of the Russian Federation', the prime minister "heads the Government of the Russian Federation". The Russian Prime Minister is considered the second highest position in the government, after the President.
Due to the central role of the President of Russia in the political system, the activities of the executive branch (including the Prime Minister) are significantly influenced by the head of state (for example, it is the President who appoints and dismisses the Prime Minister and other members of the Government; the President may chair the meetings of the cabinet and give obligatory orders to the Prime Minister and other members of the Government, the President may also revoke any act of the Government). The use of the term "Prime Minister" is strictly informal and is never used by the Russian Constitution, Federal Laws and other laws.Prosecutor General of Russia
The Prosecutor General of Russia (also Attorney General of Russia, Russian: Генеральный Прокурор Российской Федерации) heads the system of official prosecution in courts known and heads the Office of the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation (Генеральная прокуратура Российской Федерации). The Prosecutor General remains the most powerful component of the Russian judicial system.Rossiyskaya Gazeta
Rossiyskaya Gazeta (Russian: Российская газета, lit. Russian Gazette) is a Russian newspaper published by the Government of Russia. The daily newspaper serves as the official newspaper of record of the Government of Russia, publishing government-related affairs such as official decrees, statements and documents of state bodies, the promulgation of newly approved laws, Presidential decrees, and government announcements. First issued on 11 November 1990, Rossiyskaya Gazeta has a circulation of 185,445 as of 2010, making it one of the largest Russian and Russian language newspapers.Russian Federal Communications Agency
Federal Communications Agency (Russian: Федеральное агентство связи, abbreviated Rossvyaz, Russian: Россвязь) is the federal agency, controlled by the Ministry of Communications and Mass Media of Russia. It is responsible for providing public services, the management of state property and law enforcement functions in the field of communication and information.Russian Provisional Government
The Russian Provisional Government (Russian: Временное правительство России, tr. Vremennoye pravitel'stvo Rossii) was a provisional government of Russia established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II of the Russian Empire on 2 March [15 March, New Style] 1917. The intention of the provisional government was the organization of elections to the Russian Constituent Assembly and its convention. The provisional government lasted approximately eight months, and ceased to exist when the Bolsheviks gained power after the October Revolution in October [November, N.S.] 1917. According to Harold Whitmore Williams the history of eight months during which Russia was ruled by the Provisional Government was the history of the steady and systematic disorganisation of the army.For most of the life of the Provisional Government, the status of the monarchy was unresolved. This was finally clarified on 1 September [14 September, N.S.], when the Russian Republic was proclaimed, in a decree signed by Kerensky as Minister-President and Zarudny as Minister of Justice.Special Communications Service of Russia
The Special Communications and Information Service of the Federal Protective Service of the Russian Federation (Spetssvyaz, Spetssviaz; Russian: Служба специальной связи и информации, Спецсвязь России) is a cryptologic intelligence agency of The Federal Protective Service of Russia responsible for the collection and analysis of foreign communications and foreign signals intelligence, as well as protecting Russian government communications and information systems,which involves information security and cryptanalysis/cryptography. It is the equivalent to the United States National Security Agency.State Assembly of the Sakha Republic
State Assembly (Il Tumen) is the name for the unicameral legislature of the Sakha Republic, Russia. It is a legal successor of the Supreme Council of the Sakha Republic.The State Assembly comprises seventy deputies who are elected for five-year terms.State Duma
The State Duma (Russian: Госуда́рственная ду́ма, tr. Gosudárstvennaya dúma), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Gosduma (Russian: Госду́ма), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation. The Duma headquarters are located in central Moscow, a few steps from Manege Square. Its members are referred to as deputies. The State Duma replaced the Supreme Soviet as a result of the new constitution introduced by Boris Yeltsin in the aftermath of the Russian constitutional crisis of 1993, and approved by the Russian public in a referendum.Supreme Court of Russia
The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: Верховный Суд Российской Федерации) is a court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases. It also supervises the work of lower courts. Its predecessor is the Supreme Court of the Soviet Union.Ukase
A ukase, or ukaz (; Russian: указ [ʊˈkas], formally "imposition"), in Imperial Russia, was a proclamation of the tsar, government, or a religious leader (patriarch) that had the force of law. "Edict" and "decree" are adequate translations using the terminology and concepts of Roman law.
From the Russian term, the word ukase has entered the English language with the meaning of "any proclamation or decree; an order or regulation of a final or arbitrary nature".