Government of Massachusetts

The form of Massachusetts government is provided by the Constitution of the Commonwealth. The legislative power is exercised by the bicameral General Court, composed of the Senate and House of Representatives. The executive power generally is exercised by the Governor, along with other independently elected officers, the Attorney General, Secretary of the Commonwealth, and Auditor. The judicial power is reposed in the Supreme Judicial Court, which superintends the entire system of courts. Cities and towns also act through local governmental bodies that possess only the authority granted to them by the Commonwealth over local issues, including limited home rule authority. Most county governments were abolished in the 1990s and 2000s, although a handful remain.

The capital of Massachusetts is Boston. The seat of power is Beacon Hill, which is home to the legislative and executive branches. The Supreme Judicial Court occupies nearby Pemberton Hill.

Executive

There are 151 departments or agencies in Massachusetts, and over 700 independent boards and commissions.[1] The Governor exercises direct control over many of the largest agencies, but only indirect control over independent entities through appointments.

Elected officials

The statewide elected officials are:

Other elected officials are:

Some executive agencies are delegated by the legislature with the responsibility of formulating regulations by following a prescribed procedure. Most of these are collected in the Code of Massachusetts Regulations.

Governor's cabinet

The governor has a cabinet of eleven secretaries.[2] In general, they supervise the state agencies which are under the direct control of the governor.[3] Nine of the secretaries preside over the "Executive Office of" their respective areas.[4]

  • Secretary of Housing and Economic Development
    • Consumer Affairs and Business Regulation
    • Department of Business Development
    • Department of Housing and Community Development
    • Department of Telecommunications and Cable
    • Division of Banks
    • Division of Insurance
    • Division of Professional Licensure
    • Division of Standards
    • State Racing Commission
  • Secretary of Health and Human Services[5]
    • Office of Health Services
      • Department of Public Health
      • Department of Mental Health
      • Division of Medical Assistance
      • Betsy Lehman Center for Patient Safety and Medical Error Reduction
    • Office of Children, Youth, and Family Services
      • Department of Children and Families
      • Department of Transitional Assistance
      • Department of Youth Services
      • Child Abuse Prevention Board
      • Office for Refugees and Immigrants
    • Office of Disabilities and Community Services
      • Department of Developmental Services
      • Massachusetts Rehabilitation Commission
      • Massachusetts Commission for the Blind
      • Massachusetts Commission for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
      • Soldiers' Home in Massachusetts
      • Soldiers' Home in Holyoke
    • Managed Care Oversight Board
    • Health Facilities Appeals Board
    • Department of Elder Affairs (independent Secretary)
    • Department of Veterans' Services (independent Secretary)
  • Secretary of Energy and Environmental Affairs
  • Secretary of Labor and Workforce Development
    • Department of Industrial Accidents
    • Department of Labor
    • Department of Workforce Development
  • Secretary of Public Safety
  • Secretary of Administration and Finance
    • Office of the Comptroller - Comptroller is appointed by governor for co-terminous term[6]
    • Appellate Tax Board
    • Bureau of State Office Buildings
    • Civil Service Commission
    • Department of Revenue
    • Developmental Disabilities Council
    • Division of Administrative Law Appeals
    • Division of Capital Asset Management
    • George Fingold Library
    • Group Insurance Commission
    • Human Resources Division
    • Information Technology Division
    • Office on Disability
    • Operational Services Division
    • Public Employee Retirement Administration Commission
    • Teachers' Retirement Board
  • Secretary of Transportation (reorganized in 2009)
  • Secretary of Education
  • Secretary of Technology Services and Security (established 2017)
  • Secretary of Elder Affairs
    • Department of Elder Affairs - part of the Executive Office of Health and Human Services[7]
  • Secretary of Veterans Services
    • Department of Veterans Services - part of the Executive Office of Health and Human Services[7]

Legislature

USA State House 4 MA
The interior of the State House

The state legislature is formally known as the General Court, reflecting its former judicial duties in the colonial era. It is composed of two houses: the Massachusetts Senate, which has 40 members, and the Massachusetts House of Representatives, which has 160 members. All members in both houses face election every two years. The Speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives presides over the House of Representatives, is its chief leader, and controls the flow of legislation. The President of the Massachusetts Senate is the presiding officer of the Senate.

The General Court is responsible for enacting laws in the state. A bill signed by the governor, or passed by two-thirds of both branches over his veto, becomes a law. Its session laws are published in the official Acts and Resolves of Massachusetts, which are codified as the General Laws of Massachusetts.

Bond rating

On June 9, 2017, S&P Global Ratings downgraded Massachusetts' bond rating to AA (the third-highest tier) due to the state legislature's inability to replenish the rainy day fund. The state is in the midst of above average economic growth.[8]

Judiciary

The judiciary of Massachusetts is the branch of the government that interprets and applies the law of Massachusetts, ensures equal justice under law, and provides a mechanism for dispute resolution. The Massachusetts court system consists of the Supreme Judicial Court, the Appeals Court, and the seven Trial Court departments:

The judicial power in Massachusetts is reposed in the Supreme Judicial Court, which superintends the entire system of courts. In addition to appellate functions, the Supreme Judicial Court is responsible for the general superintendence of the judiciary and of the bar, makes or approves rules for the operations of all the courts, and in certain instances, provides advisory opinions, upon request, to the Governor and Legislature on various legal issues. The Supreme Judicial Court also oversees several affiliated agencies of the judicial branch, including the Board of Bar Overseers, the Board of Bar Examiners, the Clients' Security Board, the Massachusetts Mental Health Legal Advisors Committee, and Massachusetts Correctional Legal Services.

Local government

Massachusetts shares with the five other New England states a governmental structure known as the New England town. Only the southeastern third of the state has functioning county governments; in western, central, and northeastern Massachusetts, traditional county-level government was eliminated in the late 1990s. All of the land in Massachusetts is divided up among the cities and towns and there are no "unincorporated" areas or population centers, nor townships. Generally speaking, there are four kinds of public school districts in Massachusetts: local schools, regional schools, vocational/technical schools, and charter schools. District attorneys and sheriffs are elected by constituencies that mostly, but not entirely, follow county boundaries; they are funded by the state budget.[9][10] Though most county governments have been abolished, each county still has a Sheriff's Department which operates jails and correctional facilities and service of process within the county.

Transparency

The state has an Open Meeting Law, enforced by the Attorney General, and a Public Records Law, enforced by the Secretary of the Commonwealth.[11] A 2008 report by the Better Government Association and National Freedom of Information Coalition ranked Massachusetts 43rd out of 50 states for government transparency, and gave it a failing grade of "F" taking into account time, cost, and comprehensiveness of access to public records.[12][13] Access to government records and the actions of the Secretary in enforcing the law became an issue in the 2014 campaign for the office. Incumbent William Galvin cited his previous requests that the legislature revise the Public Records Law to make access easier.[14] The governor claims to be exempt from the Public Records Law.[11]

A reform law was signed on June 3, 2016, which will take effect on January 1, 2017, putting stricter limits on time and reducing costs.[15]

See also

References

  1. ^ http://appointments.state.ma.us/Default.aspx
  2. ^ http://www.mass.gov/?pageID=gov3subtopic&L=3&L0=Home&L1=Our+Team&L2=Cabinet&sid=Agov3
  3. ^ "State Government Organizational Chart - Commonwealth of Massachusetts". mass.gov.
  4. ^ 6A MGL 2
  5. ^ "General Laws". mass.gov.
  6. ^ 7A MGL 1
  7. ^ a b 6A MGL 16
  8. ^ Miller, Joshua (2017-06-09). "State bond rating downgraded in blow to Baker, Mass. politicians". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2017-06-10.
  9. ^ "FY2009 Budget - District Attorneys General Appropriations Act". mass.gov.
  10. ^ "FY2009 Budget - Sheriffs General Appropriations Act". mass.gov.
  11. ^ a b "FOREWORD". rcfp.org.
  12. ^ http://www.nfoic.org/sites/default/files/results1.pdf
  13. ^ "States Failing FOI Responsiveness". nfoic.org.
  14. ^ "Secretary of State Galvin faces criticism for keeping government secrets - Metro - The Boston Globe". BostonGlobe.com.
  15. ^ http://www.wbur.org/2016/06/03/baker-public-records

Further reading

External links

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