Government of India

The Government of India (ISO: Bhārat Sarkār), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic. It is located in New Delhi, the capital of India.

Government of India
Bhārat Sarkār
Emblem of India
FormationJanuary 26, 1950
CountryRepublic of India
Websiteindia.gov.in
Head of statePresident (Ramnath Kovind)
SeatRashtrapati Bhavan
Legislature
LegislatureParliament
Upper houseRajya Sabha
LeaderChairman (Venkaiah Naidu)
Lower houseLok Sabha
LeaderSpeaker (Sumitra Mahajan)
Meeting placeSansad Bhavan
Executive
Head of governmentPrime minister (Narendra Modi)
Main organCabinet
Head of civil servicesCabinet secretary (Pradeep Kumar Sinha, IAS)
Meeting placeCentral secretariat
Ministries57
Responsible toLok Sabha
Judiciary
CourtSupreme court
Chief judgeChief justice (Ranjan Gogoi)

Basic structure

Modelled after the Westminster system for governing the state,[1] the union government is mainly composed of the executive, the legislature, and the judiciary, in which all powers are vested by the constitution in the prime minister, parliament and the supreme court. The President of India is the head of state and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces whilst the elected prime minister acts as the head of the executive, and is responsible for running the union government.[2] The parliament is bicameral in nature, with the Lok Sabha being the lower house, and the Rajya Sabha the upper house. The judiciary systematically contains an apex supreme court, 24 high courts, and several district courts, all inferior to the supreme court.[3]

The basic civil and criminal laws governing the citizens of India are set down in major parliamentary legislation, such as the civil procedure code, the penal code, and the criminal procedure code.[4] Similar to the union government, individual state governments each consist of executive, legislative and judiciary. The legal system as applicable to the union and individual state governments is based on the English Common and Statutory Law.[5] The full name of the country is the Republic of India. India and Bharat are equally official short names for the Republic of India in the Constitution,[6] and both names appears on legal banknotes, in treaties and in legal cases. The terms "union government", "central government" and "Bhārata Sarakāra" are often used officially and unofficially to refer to the Government of India. The term New Delhi is commonly used as a metonym for the central government, as the seat of government is in New Delhi.

Legislature

New Delhi government block 03-2016 img3
Building of the Parliament of India

The powers of the legislature in India are exercised by the Parliament, a bicameral legislature consisting of the Rajya Sabha and the Lok Sabha. Of the two houses of parliament, the Rajya Sabha is considered to be the upper house or the Council of States and consists of members appointed by the president and elected by the state and territorial legislatures. The Lok Sabha is considered the lower house or the House of the people.[7]

The parliament does not have complete control and sovereignty, as its laws are subject to judicial review by the Supreme Court.[8] However, it does exercise some control over the executive. The members of the cabinet, including the prime minister, are either chosen from parliament or elected thereto within six months of assuming office.[9] The cabinet as a whole is responsible to the Lok Sabha.[10] The Lok Sabha is a temporary house and can be dissolved only when the party in power loses the support of the majority of the house. The Rajya Sabha is a permanent house and can never be dissolved. The members of the Rajya Sabha are elected for a six-year term.[11]

Executive

The executive of government is the one that has sole authority and responsibility for the daily administration of the state bureaucracy. The division of power into separate branches of government is central to the republican idea of the separation of powers.[12]

President

The executive power is vested mainly in the President of India, as per Article 53(1) of the constitution. The president has all constitutional powers and exercises them directly or through officers subordinate to him as per the aforesaid Article 53(1). The president is to act in accordance with aid and advice tendered by the prime minister, who leads the council of ministers as described in Article 74 of the Constitution of India.

The council of ministers remains in power during the 'pleasure' of the president. However, in practice, the council of ministers must retain the support of the Lok Sabha. If a president were to dismiss the council of ministers on his or her own initiative, it might trigger a constitutional crisis. Thus, in practice, the council of ministers cannot be dismissed as long as it holds the support of a majority in the Lok Sabha.

The president is responsible for appointing many high officials in India. These high officials include the governors of the 29 states; the chief justice; other judges of the supreme court and high courts on the advice of other judges; the Attorney General; the Comptroller and Auditor General; the Chief Election Commissioner and other election commissioners; the chairman and members of the Union Public Service Commission; the officers of the All India Services (IAS, IFoS and IPS) and central civil services in group 'A'; and the ambassadors and high commissioners to other countries on the recommendations of the cabinet.[13][14]

The president, as the head of state, also receives the credentials of ambassadors from other countries, whilst the prime minister, as head of government, receives credentials of high commissioners from other members of the Commonwealth, in line with historical tradition.

The president is the de jure commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.[15]

The President of India can grant a pardon to or reduce the sentence of a convicted person for one time, particularly in cases involving punishment of death. The decisions involving pardoning and other rights by the president are independent of the opinion of the prime minister or the Lok Sabha majority. In most other cases, however, the president exercises his or her executive powers on the advice of the prime minister.[16]

Vice president

The vice president is the second highest constitutional position in India after the president. The vice president represents the nation in the absence of the president and takes charge as acting president in the incident of resignation impeachment or removal of the president. The vice president also has the legislative function of acting as the chairman of the Rajya Sabha.[17] The vice president is elected indirectly by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both the houses of the parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting is by secret ballot conducted by the election commission.

Prime minister

New Delhi government block 03-2016 img5
The Rashtrapati Bhawan complex, with North and South Block housing the Prime Minister's Office, Cabinet Secretariat, Ministry of Defence, and others.

The Prime Minister of India, as addressed in the Constitution of India, is the chief of the government, chief adviser to the president, head of the council of ministers and the leader of the majority party in the parliament. The prime minister leads the executive of the Government of India.

The prime minister is the senior member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss other members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the Government; is the presiding member and chairman of the cabinet and is responsible for bringing a proposal of legislation. The resignation or death of the prime minister dissolves the cabinet.

The prime minister is appointed by the president to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive.

Cabinet, ministries and agencies

Department GOI
The organizational structure of a department of the Government of India.

The Cabinet of India includes the prime minister and his cabinet ministers.[18] Each minister must be a member of one of the houses of the parliament. The cabinet is headed by the prime minister, and is advised by the Cabinet Secretary, who also acts as the head of the Indian Administrative Service and other civil services. Other ministers are either as union cabinet ministers, who are heads of the various ministries; or ministers of state, who are junior members who report directly to one of the cabinet ministers, often overseeing a specific aspect of government; or ministers of state (independent charges), who do not report to a cabinet minister. As per article 88 of the constitution, every minister shall have the right to speak in, and to take part in the proceedings of, either house, any joint sitting of the houses, and any committee of parliament of which he may be named a member, but shall not be entitled to a vote in the house where he is not a member.

Secretaries

A secretary to the Government of India, a civil servant, generally an Indian Administrative Service (IAS) officer,[19][20][21][22] is the administrative head of the ministry or department, and is the principal adviser to the minister on all matters of policy and administration within the ministry/department.[23][24] Secretaries to the Government of India rank 23rd on Indian order of precedence.[25][26][27][28] Secretaries at the higher level are assisted by one or many additional secretaries, who are further assisted by joint secretaries.[24] At the middle they are assisted by directors/deputy secretaries and under secretaries.[24] At the lower level, there are section officers, assistant section officers, upper division clerks, lower division clerks and other secretarial staff.[24]

Civil services

The Civil Services of India are the civil services and the permanent bureaucracy of India. The executive decisions are implemented by the Indian civil servants.

In the parliamentary democracy of India, the ultimate responsibility for running the administration rests with the elected representatives of the people which are the ministers. These ministers are accountable to the legislatures which are also elected by the people on the basis of universal adult suffrage. The ministers are indirectly responsible to the people themselves. But the handful of ministers are not expected to deal personally with the various problems of modern administration. Thus the ministers lay down the policy and it is for the civil servants to enforce it.

Cabinet secretary

The cabinet secretary (IAST: Maṃtrimaṇḍala Saciva) is the top-most executive official and senior-most civil servant of the Government of India. The cabinet secretary is the ex-officio head of the Civil Services Board, the Cabinet Secretariat, the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and head of all civil services under the rules of business of the government.

The cabinet secretary is generally the senior-most officer of the Indian Administrative Service. The cabinet secretary ranks 11th on the Indian order of precedence.[25][26][27][28] The cabinet secretary is under the direct charge of the prime minister.

Judiciary

India's independent union judicial system began under the British, and its concepts and procedures resemble those of Anglo-Saxon countries. The Supreme Court of India consists of the chief justice and 30 associate justices, all appointed by the president on the advice of the Chief Justice of India. The jury trials were abolished in India in the early 1960s, after the famous case KM Nanavati v. State of Maharashtra, for reasons of being vulnerable to media and public pressure, as well as to being misled.

Unlike its United States counterpart, the Indian justice system consists of a unitary system at both state and union level. The judiciary consists of the Supreme Court of India, high courts at the state level, and district courts and sessions courts at the district level.

Supreme court

Supreme Court of India - 200705
Building of the Supreme Court of India.

The Supreme Court of India is situated in New Delhi, the capital region of India.

The supreme court is the highest judicial forum and final court of appeal under the Constitution of India, the highest constitutional court, with the power of constitutional review. Consisting of the Chief Justice of India and 30 sanctioned other judges, it has extensive powers in the form of original, appellate and advisory jurisdictions.[29]

As the final court of appeal of the country, it takes up appeals primarily against verdicts of the high courts of various states of the Union and other courts and tribunals. It safeguards fundamental rights of citizens and settles disputes between various governments in the country. As an advisory court, it hears matters which may specifically be referred to it under the constitution by the president. It also may take cognisance of matters on its own (or 'suo moto'), without anyone drawing its attention to them. The law declared by the supreme court becomes binding on all courts within India and also by the union and state governments.[30] Per Article 142, it is the duty of the President to enforce the decrees of the supreme court.

In addition, Article 32 of the constitution gives an extensive original jurisdiction to the supreme court in regard to enforcing fundamental rights. It is empowered to issue directions, orders or writs, including writs in the nature of habeas corpus, mandamus, prohibition, quo warranto and certiorari to enforce them. The supreme court has been conferred with power to direct transfer of any civil or criminal case from one state high court to another state high court, or from a court subordinate to another state high court and the supreme court. Although the proceedings in the supreme court arise out of the judgment or orders made by the subordinate courts, of late the supreme court has started entertaining matters in which interest of the public at large is involved. This may be done by any individual or group of persons either by filing a writ petition at the filing counter of the court, or by addressing a letter to the Chief Justice of India, highlighting the question of public importance for redress. These are known as public interest litigations.[31]

Elections and voting

India has a quasi-federal form of government, called "union" or "central" government,[32] with elected officials at the union, state and local levels. At the national level, the head of government, the prime minister, is appointed by the President of India from the party or coalition that has the majority of seats in the Lok Sabha. The members of the Lok Sabha are directly elected for a term of five years by universal adult suffrage through a first-past-the-post voting system. Members of the Rajya Sabha, which represents the states, are elected by the members of State legislative assemblies by proportional representation, except for 12 members who are nominated by the president.

India is currently the largest democracy in the world, with around 834 million eligible voters, as of 2014.[33]

State and local governments

State governments in India are the governments ruling States of India and the chief minister heads the state government. Power is divided between union government and state governments. State government's legislature is bicameral in 7 states and unicameral in the rest. Lower house is elected with 5 years term, while in upper house 1/3 of the total members in the house gets elected every 2 years with 6-year term.

Local government function at the basic level. It is the third level of government apart from union and state governments. It consists of panchayats in rural areas and municipalities in urban areas. They are elected directly or indirectly by the people.

Finance

Taxation

RBI-Tower
Reserve Bank of India's headquarters in Mumbai, India's financial capital

India has a three-tier tax structure, wherein the constitution empowers the union government to levy income tax, tax on capital transactions (wealth tax, inheritance tax), sales tax, service tax, customs and excise duties and the state governments to levy sales tax on intrastate sale of goods, tax on entertainment and professions, excise duties on manufacture of alcohol, stamp duties on transfer of property and collect land revenue (levy on land owned). The local governments are empowered by the state government to levy property tax and charge users for public utilities like water supply, sewage etc.[34] More than half of the revenues of the union and state governments come from taxes, of which 3/4 come from direct taxes. More than a quarter of the union government's tax revenues is shared with the state governments.[35]

The tax reforms, initiated in 1991, have sought to rationalise the tax structure and increase compliance by taking steps in the following directions:

  • Reducing the rates of individual and corporate income taxes, excises, customs and making it more progressive
  • Reducing exemptions and concessions
  • Simplification of laws and procedures
  • Introduction of permanent account number (PAN) to track monetary transactions
  • 21 of the 29 states introduced value added tax (VAT) on 1 April 2005 to replace the complex and multiple sales tax system[34][36]

The non-tax revenues of the central government come from fiscal services, interest receipts, public sector dividends, etc., while the non-tax revenues of the States are grants from the central government, interest receipts, dividends and income from general, economic and social services.[37]

Inter-state share in the union tax pool is decided by the recommendations of the Finance Commission to the president.

Total tax receipts of Centre and State amount to approximately 18% of national GDP. This compares to a figure of 37–45% in the OECD.

Union budget

The Finance minister of India usually presents the annual union budget in the parliament on the last working day of February. However, for the F.Y. 2017-18, this tradition had been changed. Now budget will be presented on the 1st day of February. The budget has to be passed by the Lok Sabha before it can come into effect on 1 April, the start of India's fiscal year. The Union budget is preceded by an economic survey which outlines the broad direction of the budget and the economic performance of the country for the outgoing financial year[38]

India's non-development revenue expenditure had increased nearly five-fold in 2003–04 since 1990–91 and more than tenfold since 1985–1986. Interest payments are the single largest item of expenditure and accounted for more than 40% of the total non-development expenditure in the 2003–04 budget. Defense expenditure increased fourfold during the same period and has been increasing because of India's desire to project its military prowess beyond South Asia. In 2007, India's defence spending stood at US$26.5 billion.

Issues

Corruption

Several ministers are accused of corruption and nearly a quarter of the 543 elected members of parliament had been charged with crimes, including murder, in 2009.[39] Many of the biggest scandals since 2010 have involved high level government officials, including cabinet ministers and chief ministers, such as the 2010 Commonwealth Games scam (70,000 crore (equivalent to 1.2 trillion or US$16 billion in 2018)), the Adarsh Housing Society scam, the Coal Mining Scam (1.86 lakh crore (equivalent to 3.1 trillion or US$43 billion in 2018)), the mining scandal in Karnataka and the cash for vote scandal.

See also

References

  1. ^ Subramanian, K. (June 17, 2014). "A prime ministerial form of government". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. OCLC 13119119. Retrieved March 9, 2018.
  2. ^ "Government of India, Structure of Government India". www.elections.com. 2018-01-08.
  3. ^ "Constitution of India's definition of India". Indiagovt.in.
  4. ^ "Legal services India on Criminal laws in India". Legal Services India. Retrieved April 11, 2018.
  5. ^ Dheeraj Kumar Tiwari. "Structure of Indian Legal System: Orignal Orign [sic] and Development". International Journal of Law and Legal Jurisprudence Studies. Retrieved 2017-05-19.
  6. ^ A. M., Buckley (2012). India. Edina, Minnesota: ABDO Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1617876257. OCLC 767886738.
  7. ^ Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practise. p. 186. ISBN 1137433973. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  8. ^ "Parliament's actions subject to judicial review: court". The Hindu. Retrieved 2017-07-19.
  9. ^ "Indian Constitution And Parliamentary Government | Law Teacher". Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  10. ^ Laxmikanth. Governance In India. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 9780071074667.
  11. ^ "Our Parliament". webcache.googleusercontent.com. Retrieved 2017-07-20.
  12. ^ Arnull, Elaine; Fox, Darrell (2016-06-29). Cultural Perspectives on Youth Justice: Connecting Theory, Policy and International Practice. Springer. ISBN 9781137433978.
  13. ^ Pratiyogita Darpan (March 2007). Pratiyogita Darpan. Pratiyogita Darpan. p. 60. Retrieved 10 May 2012.
  14. ^ Bakshi, Parvinrai Mulwantrai (2010). The Constitution of India (10th ed.). New Delhi: Universal Law Pub. Co. p. 48. ISBN 978-8175348400. OCLC 551377953.
  15. ^ Oldenburg, Philip (31 August 2010). India, Pakistan, and Democracy: Solving the Puzzle of Divergent Paths. Taylor & Francis. p. 71. ISBN 978-0-415-78018-6. Retrieved 3 May 2012.
  16. ^ Kumar; Rajesh. Universal's Guide to the Constitution of India Pg no. 72.
  17. ^ "Important India functions of vicepresident".
  18. ^ Cabinet Ministers (as on 26.05.2014). Cabsec.nic.in. Retrieved on 6 December 2013. Archived 27 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  19. ^ Tikku, Aloke (January 15, 2016). "Parity between IAS and non-IAS? The IAS will get to decide". Hindustan Times. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  20. ^ "Non-IAS bureaucrats now eligible for secretary-level posts". The Asian Age. January 18, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  21. ^ "Need Pay Parity With IAS Officers, Say Officials Of 20 Civil Services". NDTV. June 30, 2016. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  22. ^ Dastidar, Avishek G (January 14, 2017). "Alleging bias, non-IAS officers petition PM Modi". The Indian Express. Retrieved August 13, 2017.
  23. ^ Laxmikanth, M. (2014). Governance in India (2nd Edition). Noida: McGraw Hill Education. pp. 3.1–3.10. ISBN 978-9339204785.
  24. ^ a b c d "Central Secretariat Manual of Office Procedure - 14th Edition (2015)" (PDF). Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pension. p. 6. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  25. ^ a b "Order of Precedence" (PDF). Rajya Sabha. President's Secretariat. July 26, 1979. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  26. ^ a b "Table of Precedence" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. President's Secretariat. July 26, 1979. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-05-27. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  27. ^ a b "Table of Precedence". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. President's Secretariat. Archived from the original on 2014-04-28. Retrieved September 24, 2017.
  28. ^ a b Maheshwari, S.R. (2000). Indian Administration (6th Edition). New Delhi: Orient Blackswan Private Ltd. ISBN 9788125019886.
  29. ^ "Rule of law index 2016". Retrieved 13 January 2018.
  30. ^ "History of Supreme Court of India" (PDF). Supreme Court of India. Archived from the original (PDF) on 22 December 2014. Retrieved 30 August 2014.
  31. ^ "PIL". LegalServicesIndia. Retrieved 10 May 2017.
  32. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 April 2016. Retrieved 16 July 2016.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
  33. ^ D'Ambrogio, Enrico. "India: the biggest democracy in the world" (PDF). European Parliamentary Research Service. Retrieved 21 September 2017.
  34. ^ a b Bernardi, Luigi; Fraschini, Angela (2005). "Tax System And Tax Reforms In India". Working paper n. 51.
  35. ^ Tax revenue was 88% of total union government revenue in 1950–51 and has come down to 73% in 2003–04, as a result of increase in non-tax revenue. Tax revenues were 70% of total state government revenues in 2002 to 2003. Indirect taxes were 84% of the union governments total tax revenue and have come down to 62% in 2003–04, mostly because of cuts in import duties and rationalisation. The states share in union government's tax revenue is 28.0% for the period 2000 to 2005 as per the recommendations of the eleventh finance commission. In addition, states that do not levy sales tax on sugar, textiles and tobacco, are entitled to 1.5% of the proceeds.Datt, Ruddar; Sundharam, K.P.M. (2005). Indian Economy. S.Chand. pp. 938, 942, 946. ISBN 81-219-0298-3.
  36. ^ "Indif_real_GDP_per_capitaa says 21 of 29 states to launch new tax". Daily Times. 25 March 2005. Archived from the original on 16 January 2009.
  37. ^ Datt, Ruddar; Sundharam, K.P.M. "55". Indian Economy. pp. 943–945.
  38. ^ "Union Budget 2017-18". www.ibef.org. Retrieved 2017-07-21.
  39. ^ Washington Post:When the Little Ones Run the Show (quote from the New Delhi based Association for Democratic Reform) retrieved 14 May 2009

Further reading

  • Subrata K. Mitra and V.B. Singh (1999). Democracy and Social Change in India: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National Electorate. New Delhi: Sage Publications. ISBN 81-7036-809-X (India HB), ISBN 0-7619-9344-4 (US HB).

External links

Bank of Baroda

Bank of Baroda (BoB) is an Indian multinational, public sector banking and financial services company. It is owned by Government of India and headquartered in Vadodara, Gujarat. It has a corporate office in Mumbai, Maharashtra.

Based on 2017 data, it is ranked 1145 on Forbes Global 2000 list. BoB has total assets in excess of ₹ 3.58 trillion (making it India’s 2nd biggest bank by assets), a network of 9583 branches in India and abroad, and 10441 ATMs as of July, 2017. The government of India announced the merger of Bank of Baroda, Vijaya Bank and Dena Bank on September 17, 2018 to create the country's third largest lender. The amalgamation is the first-ever three-way consolidation of banks in the country, with a combined business of Rs 14.82 lakh crore, making it the third largest bank after State Bank of India (SBI) and HDFC Bank.The bank was founded by the Maharaja of Baroda, Maharaja Sayajirao Gaekwad III on 20 July 1908 in the Princely State of Baroda, in Gujarat. The bank, along with 13 other major commercial banks of India, was nationalised on 19 July 1969, by the Government of India and has been designated as a profit-making public sector undertaking(PSU).

As many as 10 banks have been merged with Bank of Baroda during its journey so far.

Census of India

The decennial Census of India has been conducted 15 times, as of 2011. While it has been undertaken every 10 years, beginning in 1872, the first complete census was taken in 1881. Post 1949, it has been conducted by the Registrar General and Census Commissioner of India under the Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. All the censuses since 1951 were conducted under the 1948 Census of India Act. The last census was held in 2011. The next will be held in 2021.

Employees' Provident Fund Organisation

The Employees' Provident Fund Organisation (abbreviated to EPFO), is an organization tasked to assist the Central Board of Trustees, a statutory body formed by the Employees' Provident Fund and Miscellaneous Provisions Act, 1952 and is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Labour and Employment, Government of India.EPFO assists the Central Board in administering a compulsory contributory Provident Fund Scheme, a Pension Scheme and an Insurance Scheme for the workforce engaged in the organized sector in India. It is also the nodal agency for implementing Bilateral Social Security Agreements with other countries on a reciprocal basis. The schemes cover Indian workers as well as International workers (for countries with which bilateral agreements have been signed. As of now 17 Social Security Agreements are operational). It is one of the largest social security organisations in India in terms of the number of covered beneficiaries and the volume of financial transactions undertaken. The EPFO's apex decision making body is the Central Board of Trustees (CBT).The total assets under management are more than ₹8.5 lakh crore (US$128 billion) as of 18 March 2016.On 1 October 2014, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi launched Universal Account Number for Employees covered by EPFO to enable PF number portability.

Government of India Act 1935

The Government of India Act 1935 was originally passed in August 1935 (25 & 26 Geo. 5 c. 42), and is said to be the longest Act (British) of Parliament ever enacted by that time, surpassed only by the Greater London Authority Act 1999 64 years later. Because of its length, the Act was retroactively split by the Government of India Act, 1935 (Re-printed) (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 1) into two separate Acts:

The Government of India Act, 1935 (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 2), having 321 sections and 10 schedules.

The Government of Burma Act, 1935 (26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 3), having 159 sections and 6 schedules.References in the literature on Indian political and constitutional history are usually to the shortened Government of India Act, 1935 (i.e. 26 Geo. 5 & 1 Edw. 8 c. 2), rather than to the text of the Act as originally enacted.

Indian Administrative Service

The Indian Administrative Service (IAST: Bhāratīya Praśāsanika Sevā), often abbreviated to I.A.S., or simply IAS, is the administrative arm of the All India Services. Considered the premier civil service of India, the IAS is one of the three arms of the All India Services along with the Indian Police Service (IPS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFS). Members of these three services serve the Government of India as well as the individual states. IAS officers may also be deployed to various public sector undertakings.

As with other countries following the Westminster parliamentary system of government, the IAS is a part of the permanent bureaucracy of the nation, and is an inseparable part of the executive of the Government of India. As such, the bureaucracy remains politically neutral and guarantees administrative continuity to the ruling party or coalition.Upon confirmation of service, an IAS officer serves a probationary period as a sub-divisional magistrate. Completion of this probation is followed by an executive administrative role in a district as a district magistrate and collector which lasts several years, as long as sixteen years in some states. After this tenure, an officer may be promoted to head a whole state division, as a divisional commissioner.

On attaining the higher scales of the pay matrix, IAS officers may lead government departments or ministries. In these roles, IAS officers represent the country at the international level in bilateral and multilateral negotiations. If serving on a deputation, they may be employed in intergovernmental organisations such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the Asian Development Bank, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, or the United Nations, or its agencies. IAS officers are also involved in the conduct of elections in India as mandated by the Election Commission of India.

Indian Councils Act 1909

The Indian Councils Act 1909 (9 Edw. 7 Ch. 4), commonly known as the Morley-Minto or Minto-Morley Reforms, was an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that brought about a limited increase in the involvement of Indians in the governance of British India.

Indian Forest Service

Indian Forest Service (IFS) (भारतीय वन सेवा) is one of the three All India Services of the Government of India. The other two All India Services being the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Police Service (IPS). It was constituted in the year 1966 under the All India Services Act, 1951 by the Government of India.

The main mandate of the service is the implementation of the National Forest Policy in order to ensure the ecological stability of the country through the protection and participatory sustainable management of natural resources. An IFS officer is wholly independent of the district administration and exercises administrative, judicial and financial powers in his own domain. Positions in state forest department, such as Divisional Forest Officer (DFO), Conservator of Forests (CF) and Principal Chief Conservator of Forests (PCCF) etc., are held only by IFS officers. The highest ranking IFS official in each state is the Head of Forest Forces (HoFF).

Earlier, the British Government in India, had constituted the Imperial Forest Service in 1867 which functioned under the Federal Government until ‘Forestry’ was transferred to the Provincial List by the Government of India Act, 1935, and subsequent recruitment to the Imperial Forest Service was discontinued.

Ministry of Environment, Forest and Climate Change, (MoEFCC) under the Government of India, is the Cadre Controlling Authority of the Indian Forest Service.

Indian Police Service

The Indian Police Service (Bhāratīya Pulis Sevā) or IPS, is an All India Service for policing. It replaced the Indian Imperial Police in 1948, a year after India became independent from Great Britain.

Along with the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and the Indian Forest Service (IFoS), the IPS is one of the three All India Services — its cadre can be employed by both the Union Government and the individual States.

The service is not a force itself but provides leaders and commanders to staff the state police. Its members are the senior officers of the police. The Bureau of police Research and Development is responsible for research and development of the police force in India.

List of districts in Tamil Nadu

The state of Tamil Nadu, in southern India is divided into 33 districts. Tirunelveli district is the largest district whereas Chennai district is the smallest district by area and also the most populated and densely populated district in the state.

Ministry of External Affairs (India)

The Ministry of External Affairs of India (abbreviated as MEA), (Hindi/हिंदी :- विदेश मंत्रालय) also known as the Foreign Ministry, is the government agency responsible for the conduct of foreign relations of India. The Ministry comes under Government of India and is responsible for India's representation in the United Nations. It also advises other Ministries and State Governments when the latter have dealings with foreign governments or institutions.

Ministry of Home Affairs (India)

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) or Home Ministry (IAST: Gṛha Maṃtralāyā) is a ministry of the Government of India. As the interior ministry of India, it is mainly responsible for the maintenance of internal security and domestic policy. The Home Ministry is headed by Union Minister of Home Affairs Rajnath Singh.

The Home Ministry is also the cadre controlling authority for the Indian Police Service (IPS), DANIPS and DANICS. Police-I Division of the ministry is the cadre controlling authority in respect of the Indian Police Service; whereas, the UT Division is the administrative division for DANIPS and DANICS and the All India Services officers posted and working in the Arunachal Pradesh-Goa-Mizoram-Union Territories (AGMUT) cadre.

Ministry of Railways (India)

The Ministry of Railways is a ministry in the Government of India, responsible for the country's rail transport. The ministry operates the state-owned Indian Railways, an organisation that operates as a monopoly in rail transport and is headed by the Chairman of Railway Board. The ministry is headed by the Minister of Railways, a cabinet-level minister who presents the rail budget every year in parliament.

Padma Shri

Padma Shri (Hindi: पद्म श्री, also Padma Shree) is the fourth highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the Bharat Ratna, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan. It is awarded by the Government of India, every year on India's Republic Day.

Prime Minister of India

The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India. The prime minister is also the chief adviser to the President of India and head of the Council of Ministers. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the Parliament of India—the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of the States)—but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha.

The prime minister is the senior-most member of cabinet in the executive of government in a parliamentary system. The prime minister selects and can dismiss members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the government; and is the presiding member and chairperson of the cabinet.

The union cabinet headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of India to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha as per article 75(3) of the Constitution of India. The prime minister has to enjoy the confidence of a majority in the Lok Sabha and shall resign if they are unable to prove majority when instructed by the president.

Provisional Government of India

The Provisional Government of India was a provisional government-in-exile established in Kabul, Afghanistan on December 1, 1915 by Indian nationalists, during World War I with support from the Central Powers. Its purpose was to enrol support from the Afghan Emir as well as Tsarist (and later Bolshevik) Russia, China, and Japan for the Indian Movement. Established at the conclusion of the Kabul Mission composed of members of the Berlin Committee, German and Turkish delegates, the provisional government was composed of Mahendra Pratap as President, Maulana Barkatullah as Prime Minister, Deobandi Maulavi Ubaidullah Sindhi as Home Minister, Deobandi Maulavi Bashir as War Minister, and Champakraman Pillai as Foreign Affairs Minister. The provisional government found significant support from the internal administration of the Afghan government, although the Emir refused to declare open support, and ultimately, under British pressure it was forced to withdraw from Afghanistan in 1919.

Secretary to the Government of India

Secretary to the Government of India, often abbreviated as secretary, GoI, or, simply as secretary, is a post and a rank under the Central Staffing Scheme of the Government of India. The authority for the creation of this post solely rests with the Union Council of Ministers.The position holder is generally a career civil servant, mostly from the Indian Administrative Service, and a government official of high seniority. The post of the secretary, however, is an ex-cadre post, hence, anyone can occupy it, but the office-bearers generally are either from All India Services (deputation; on tenure, after empanelment) or Central Civil Services (Group A; on empanelment). All promotions and appointments to this rank and post are directly made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet.

In the structure of the Indian government, a secretary is the administrative head of a ministry or department, and is equivalent to chief secretaries of state governments and Vice Chief of the Army Staff, commanders, officers of the rank of full four-star general and their equivalents in the Indian Armed Forces, and are listed as such on the Indian order of precedence, ranking twenty-third.

South India

South India is the area including the five Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana, as well as the three union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area (635,780 km2 or 245,480 sq mi). Covering the southern part of the peninsular Deccan Plateau, South India is bounded by the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Arabian Sea in the west and the Indian Ocean in the south. The geography of the region is diverse with two mountain ranges–the Western and Eastern Ghats, bordering the plateau heartland. Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri, Tungabhadra and Vaigai rivers are important non-perennial sources of water. Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Trivandrum, Coimbatore, Visakhapatnam, Madurai and Kochi are the largest urban areas.

The majority of the people in South India speak one of the four major Dravidian languages: Telugu, Tamil, Kannada and Malayalam. During its history, a number of dynastic kingdoms ruled over parts of South India whose invasions across southern and southeastern Asia impacted the history and culture in those regions. Major dynasties that were established in South India include the Cheras, Cholas, Pandyas, Pallavas, Satavahanas, Chalukyas, Rashtrakutas and Vijayanagara. Europeans entered India through Kerala and the region was colonised by Britain and other nations.

After experiencing fluctuations in the decades immediately after Indian independence, the economies of South Indian states have registered higher than national average growth over the past three decades. While South Indian states have improved in some socio-economic metrics, poverty continues to affect the region much like the rest of the country, although it has considerably decreased over the years. HDI in the southern states is high and the economy has undergone growth at a faster rate than most northern states. Literacy rates in the southern states are higher than the national average with approximately 80% of the population capable of reading and writing. The fertility rate in South India is 1.9, the lowest of all regions in India.

State Bank of India

The State Bank of India (SBI) is an Indian multinational, public Sector banking and financial services statutory body. It is a government corporation statutory body headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. SBI is ranked as 216th in the Fortune Global 500 list of the world's biggest corporations of 2018. It is the largest bank in India with a 23% market share in assets, besides a share of one-fourth of the total loan and deposits market.The bank descends from the Bank of Calcutta, founded in 1806, via the Imperial Bank of India, making it the oldest commercial bank in the Indian subcontinent. The Bank of Madras merged into the other two "presidency banks" in British India, the Bank of Calcutta and the Bank of Bombay, to form the Imperial Bank of India, which in turn became the State Bank of India in 1955. The Government of India took control of the Imperial Bank of India in 1955, with Reserve Bank of India (India's central bank) taking a 60% stake, renaming it the State Bank of India. In 2008, the government took over the stake held by the Reserve Bank of India.

The Gazette of India

The Gazette of India is a public journal and an authorised legal document of the Government of India, published weekly by the Department of Publication, Ministry of Housing and Urban Affairs. As a public journal, the Gazette prints official notices from the government. It is authentic in content, accurate and strictly in accordance with the Government policies and decisions. The gazette is printed by the Government of India Press.Ordinary gazettes are regularly published weekly on a particular day of the week whereas extraordinary Gazettes are published every day depending upon the urgency of the matters to be notified.

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Total
Ministries Departments
58 93
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