The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs:
The legal power of the Communist Party is guaranteed by the PRC Constitution and its position as the supreme political authority in the PRC is realised through its comprehensive control of the state, military, and media. According to a prominent government spokesman:
We will never simply copy the system of Western countries or introduce a system of multiple parties holding office in rotation; although China’s state organs have different responsibilities, they all adhere to the line, principles and policies of the party.
The primary organs of state power are the National People's Congress (NPC), the President, and the State Council. Members of the State Council include the Premier, a variable number of Vice Premiers (now four), five State Councilors (protocol equal of vice premiers but with narrower portfolios), The Secretary-General, and now 26 ministers and other cabinet-level department heads. During the 1980s there was an attempt made to separate party and state functions, with the party deciding general policy and the state carrying it out. The attempt was abandoned in the 1990s with the result that the political leadership within the state are also the leaders of the party. This dual structure thereby creates a single centralized focus of power.
At the same time there has been a move to separate party and state offices at levels other than the central government. It is not unheard of for a sub-national executive to also be party secretary. This frequently causes conflict between the chief executive and the party secretary, and this conflict is widely seen as intentional to prevent either from becoming too powerful. Some special cases are the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macau, where according to constitution and respective basic law, most national laws do not apply and the autonomous regions where, following Soviet practice, the chief executive is typically a member of the local ethnic group while the party general secretary is non-local and usually Han Chinese.
Under the Constitution of China, the NPC is the highest organ of state power in China. It meets annually for about two weeks to review and approve major new policy directions, laws, the budget, and major personnel changes. Most national legislation in the PRC is adopted by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. Most initiatives are presented to the NPCSC for consideration by the State Council after previous endorsement by the Communist Party's Politburo Standing Committee. Although the NPC generally approves State Council policy and personnel recommendations, the NPC and its standing committee has increasingly asserted its role as the national legislature and has been able to force revisions in some laws. For example, the State Council and the Party have been unable to secure passage of a fuel tax to finance the construction of expressways.
|Government of the|
People's Republic of China
Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhèngfǔ
|Formation||1 October 1949|
|Legislature||National People's Congress|
|Party||Communist Party of China|
|General Secretary||Xi Jinping|
(Li Keqiang Government)
|Congress Chairman||Li Zhanshu|
|Military||People's Liberation Army|
People's Armed Police
|Military Chairman||Xi Jinping|
|Government of the People's Republic of China|
The Politburo Standing Committee consists of the government's top leadership. Historically it has five to nine members, and currently has seven members. Its officially mandated purpose is to conduct policy discussions and make decisions on major issues when the Politburo, a larger decision-making body, is not in session. According to the party's Constitution, the General Secretary of the Central Committee must also be a member of the Politburo Standing Committee.
The membership of the PSC is strictly ranked in protocol sequence. Historically, the general secretary (or party chairman) has been ranked first; the rankings of other leaders have varied over time. Since the 1990s, the general secretary, premier, chairman of the National People's Congress, the chairman of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, the secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, the party's top anti-graft body, and the first-ranked secretary of the secretariat have consistently also been members of the Politburo Standing Committee.
Power is concentrated in the Paramount leader, currently Xi Jinping, who heads the four most important political and state offices: He is General Secretary of the Communist Party, general secretary of the Central Committee, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and President of the PRC. Recently, experts have observed growing limitations to the Paramount leader's de facto control over the government.
The Constitution was first created on September 20, 1954. Before that an interim constitution-like document created by the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference was in force. The second promulgation in 1975 shortened the Constitution to just about 30 articles, and contained Communist slogans and revolutionary language throughout. The role of courts was slashed, and the Presidency was gone. The 3rd promulgation in 1978 expanded the number of articles, but was still under the influence of the just-gone-by Cultural Revolution.
The current constitution is the PRC's fourth promulgation. On December 4, 1982, it was promulgated and has served as a stable constitution for 30 years. The roles of the presidency and the courts were normalized, and under the constitution, all citizens were equal. Amendments in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004, and 2018 recognized private property, safeguarded human rights, and further promoted the non-public sector of the economy.
The National People's Congress (usually abbreviated NPC) is the national legislature of the People's Republic of China. With 2,924 members in 2017, it is the largest parliamentary body in the world. Under China's current Constitution, the NPC is structured as a unicameral legislature, with the power to legislate, the power to oversee the operations of the government, and the power to elect the major officials of state. The NPC and the National Committee of the People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC), a consultative body whose members represent various social groups, are the main deliberative bodies of China, and are often referred to as the Lianghui (Two Assemblies).
The NPC is elected for a term of five years. It holds annual sessions every spring, usually lasting from 10 to 14 days, in the Great Hall of the People on the west side of Tiananmen Square in Beijing. The NPC's sessions are usually timed to occur with the meetings of the CPPCC, and these annual meetings provide an opportunity for the officers of state to review past policies and present future plans to the nation. The fourth session of the 12th NPC was held from March 5 to March 16, 2016.
The President of the People's Republic of China is the head of state. Under the PRC's constitution, the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with limited powers. However, since 1993, as a matter of convention, the presidency has been held simultaneously by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, top leader in one party system. The office is officially regarded as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post; theoretically, the president serves at the pleasure of the National People's Congress, the legislature, and is not legally vested to take executive action on its own prerogative.[note 1] The current president is Xi Jinping, who took office in March 2013.
The office was first established in the Constitution of the People's Republic of China in 1954 and successively held by Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi. Liu fell into political disgrace during the Cultural Revolution, after which the office became vacant. The office was abolished under the Constitution of 1975, then reinstated in the Constitution of 1982, but with reduced powers. The official English-language translation of the title was "Chairman"; after 1982, this translation was changed to "President", although the Chinese title remains unchanged.[note 2] In March 2018, presidential term limits were abolished.
The State Council is the chief authority of the People's Republic of China. It is appointed by the National People's Congress and is chaired by the Premier and includes the heads of each governmental department and agency. There are about 50 members in the council. In the politics of the People's Republic of China, the Central People's Government forms one of three interlocking branches of power, the others being the Communist Party of China and the People's Liberation Army. The State Council directly oversees the various subordinate People's Governments in the provinces, and in practice maintains an interlocking membership with the top levels of the Communist Party of China.
Currently the Premier of the State Council is Li Keqiang and the Vice Premiers are Han Zheng, Sun Chunlan, Hu Chunhua and Liu He. Together with the five State Councilors, they form the inner cabinet that regularly convenes for the State Council Executive Meeting.
The Central Military Commission exercises the command and control of the People's Liberation Army and is supervised by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress. The state CMC is nominally considered the supreme military policy-making body and its chairman, elected by the National People's Congress, is the commander-in-chief of the armed forces. In reality, command and control of the PLA, however, still resides with the Central Military Commission of the Chinese Communist Party Central Committee.
Currently the chairman of the Central Military Commission is Xi Jinping.
The National Supervisory Commission of the People's Republic of China is the highest supervisory (anti-corruption) agency of the People's Republic of China. It supervises all public officials who exercise public power, at the same administrative ranking as the Supreme People's Court and Supreme People's Procuratorate. Its operations are merged with the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China. It replaces the former Ministry of Supervision.
Currently the director of National Supervisory Commission is Yang Xiaodu.
The Supreme People's Court is of the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have separate judicial systems based on British common law traditions and Portuguese civil-law traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the Supreme People's Court. The judges of the Supreme People's Court are appointed by the National People's Congress.
The governors of China's provinces and autonomous regions and mayors of its centrally controlled municipalities are appointed by the central government in Beijing after receiving the nominal consent of the National People's Congress (NPC). The Hong Kong and Macau special administrative regions (SARS) have some local autonomy since they have separate governments, legal systems, and basic constitutional laws, but they come under Beijing's control in matters of foreign policy and national security, and their chief executives are handpicked by the central government. Below the provincial level in 2004 there were 50 rural prefectures, 283 prefecture-level cities, 374 county-level cities, 852 county-level districts under the jurisdiction of nearby cities, and 1,636 counties. There also were 662 cities (including those incorporated into the four centrally controlled municipalities), 808 urban districts, and 43,258 township-level regions.
Counties are divided into townships and villages. While most have appointed officials running them, some lower-level jurisdictions have direct popular elections. The organs of self-governing ethnic autonomous areas (regions, prefectures, and counties)—people's congresses and people's governments—exercise the same powers as their provincial-level counterparts but are guided additionally by the Law on Regional Ethnic Autonomy and require NPC Standing Committee approval for regulations they enact "in the exercise of autonomy" and "in light of the political, economic, and cultural characteristics of the ethnic group or ethnic groups in the areas."
Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in China's political system, and his influence mainly comes from his position as the general secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
Xi Jinping is the most powerful figure in the Chinese political system. He is the President of China, but his real influence comes from his position as the General Secretary of the Chinese Communist Party.
If Xi relinquished the presidency in 2023 but remained party chief and chairman of the Central Military commission (CMC), his successor as president would be nothing more than a symbolic figure... “Once the president is neither the party’s general secretary nor the CMC chairman, he or she will be hollowed out, just like a body without a soul.”
Benzhuism (Chinese: 本主教; pinyin: Běnzhǔjiào; literally: 'religion of the patrons') is the indigenous religion of the Bai people, an ethnic group of Yunnan, China. It consists in the worship of the ngel zex, the Bai word for "patrons" or "lords", rendered as benzhu (本主) in Chinese, that are local gods and deified ancestors of the Bai people. It is very similar to common Chinese religion.
While many of the Bai are Buddhists, the local government of China has recently helped the revival of the Benzhu ethnic religion, for example through the promotion of the Gwer Sa La festival.Bimoism
Bimoism (Chinese: 毕摩教; pinyin: Bìmójiào, Yi:ꀘꂾ) is the indigenous religion of the Yi people, the largest ethnic group in Yunnan after the Han Chinese. It takes its name from the bimo, shaman-priests who are also masters of Yi language and scriptures, wearing distinctive black robes and large hats.
Since the 1980s, with the loosening of religion restrictions in China, Bimoism has undergone a revitalisation. In 1996, the Bimo Culture Research Center was founded. In the early 2010s, the government of China has helped the revival of the Bimoist faith through the construction of large temples and ceremonial complexes.China–Gambia relations
In 1996, The Gambia recognized the Republic of China as the sole legitimate government of China. However, in 2013, The Gambia severed relations with the Republic of China, and recognized the People's Republic of China as the sole legitimate government of China. The People's Republic of China and Gambia established diplomatic relations in 2016.Civil Service of the People's Republic of China
The Civil Service of the People's Republic of China is the administrative system of the traditional Chinese government which consists of all levels who run the day-to-day affairs in mainland China. The members of the civil service are selected through competitive examination.
As of year 2009, China now has about 10 million civil servants and are managed under the Civil Service Law. Most of the civil servants work in government agencies and departments. State leaders and cabinet members, who normally would be considered politicians in political systems with competing political parties and elections, also come under the civil service in China. Civil servants are not necessarily members of the Communist Party, but 95 percent of civil servants in leading positions from division (county) level and above are Party members.Constitution of the People's Republic of China
The Constitution of the People's Republic of China is nominally the supreme law within the People's Republic of China. The current version was adopted by the 5th National People's Congress on December 4, 1982, with further revisions in 1988, 1993, 1999, 2004 and 2018. Three previous state constitutions—those of 1954, 1975, and 1978—were superseded in turn.
The Constitution is divided into five sections. They are the:
General Principles (Chapter 1)
The Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens (Chapter 2)
The Structure of the State (Chapter 3) - which includes such state organs as the National People's Congress, the State Council, the Local People's Congress and Local People's Governments and the People's Courts and the People's Procuratorates
The National Flag, the National Anthem, the National Emblem and the Capital (Chapter 4).Gree Electric
Gree Electric Appliances Inc. of Zhuhai is a Chinese major appliance manufacturer headquartered in Zhuhai, Guangdong province. It is the world's largest residential air-conditioner manufacturer. The Company offers two types of air conditioners: household air conditioners and commercial air conditioners. The company also produces electric fans, water dispensers, heaters, rice cookers, air purifiers, water kettles, humidifiers and induction cookers, among others products. It distributes its products in China and abroad under the brand name Gree.Hu–Wen Administration
The Hu–Wen Administration (simplified Chinese: 胡温体制; traditional Chinese: 胡溫體制; pinyin: Hú-Wēn Tǐzhì), or Hu–Wen New Administration (simplified Chinese: 胡温新政; traditional Chinese: 胡溫新政; pinyin: Hú-Wēn Xīnzhèng) is the name given to the Chinese leadership that officially succeeded Jiang Zemin, Li Peng and Zhu Rongji in 2003. Using the two leaders' surnames, it is abbreviated as Hu–Wen (simplified Chinese: 胡温; traditional Chinese: 胡溫).
This phrase is named after the new Party General Secretary and President Hu Jintao and Government Premier Wen Jiabao, who are considered the 4th generation Chinese leaders and are viewed as, at least ostensibly, more reform-oriented and more open-minded and have been praised by political observers. Their dominant political ideology is termed the Scientific Development Concept.Judicial system of China
The judicial branch, organized under the constitution and law, is one of five organs of power elected by the People's Congress, in the People's Republic of China.
According to constitution, the court system is to exercise judicial power independently and free of interference from administrative organs, public organizations, and individuals. Though the Party's Political and Legal Affairs Commissions set up to coordinate political and legal affairs have some influence over the court system.Hong Kong and Macau have separate court systems, as mandated by the Constitution and respective Basic law, due to their status as former colonies.Kweichow Moutai
Kweichow Moutai Co., Ltd. is a partial publicly traded, partial state-owned enterprise in China, specializing in the production and sales of Maotai liquor, together with the production and sale of beverage, food and packaging material, development of anti-counterfeiting technology, and research and development of relevant information technology products.Its A shares were listed in the Shanghai Stock Exchange in 2001. It is one of the few Chinese listed companies whose share price had exceeded RMB100. The price reached RMB803.5 in 2018.Kweichow Moutai is a subsidiary of Kweichow Moutai Group, which in turn is owned by the Guizhou Provincial People's Government.
It is the world's most valuable liquor company, having surpassed Diageo in April 2017.List of presidents of the Republic of China
This is a list of the Presidents of the Republic of China (1912–present). The official Chinese name of the President changes by time.
The Republic of China before 1949 controlled mainland China as well as offshore islands. In the fall of 1949 the ROC government retreated to Taiwan and surrounding islands as a result of the takeover of Mainland China by the People's Republic of China. The seat of government was moved to Taipei which retained recognition by the United Nations (to 25 October 1971), the United States (to 1 January 1979) and other Western countries in the context of the Cold War. The Republic of China since 1949, now usually known as Taiwan, has only controlled Taiwan and nearby islands. Martial law was ended in Taiwan in the 1980s and direct elections were introduced in 1996.Lolopo language
Lolopo (autonyms: lɔ˨˩lo˧pʰɔ˨˩, lo˧˩lo˧˩pʰo˧˩; Chinese: 倮倮泼; Central Yi) is a Loloish language spoken by half a million Yi people of China. Chinese linguists call it "Central Yi" as well, which is one of the six Yi languages recognized by the government of China.Macao Basic Law
The Basic Law of the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (Chinese: 中華人民共和國澳門特別行政區基本法, Portuguese: Lei Básica da Região Administrativa Especial de Macau da República Popular da China) is the constitutional document of Macau, replacing the Estatuto Orgânico de Macau. It was adopted on 31 March, 1993 by National People's Congress and signed by President Jiang Zemin, and came into effect on 20 December, 1999.
In accordance with Article 31 of the Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Macau has special administrative region status, which provides constitutional guarantees for implementing the policy of "one country, two systems" and the constitutional basis for enacting the Basic Law of the Macau Special Administrative Region. The Macau Special Administrative Region is directly under the authority of the central government of China in Beijing, which controls the foreign policy and defense of Macau but otherwise grants the region a "high degree of autonomy." The Basic Law took force on December 20, 1999.Nationalist government
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國國民政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó Guómín Zhèngfǔ; literally: 'Chinese People's State National People‘s Government') or the Second Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 and 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party). The name derives from the Kuomintang's translated name "Nationalist Party". The government was in place until it was replaced by the current Government of the Republic of China in the newly promulgated Constitution of the Republic of China.
After the outbreak of the Xinhai Revolution on 10 October 1911, revolutionary leader Sun Yat-sen was elected Provisional President and founded the Provisional Government of the Republic of China. To preserve national unity, Sun ceded the presidency to military strongman Yuan Shikai, who established the Beiyang government. After a failed attempt to install himself as Emperor of China, Yuan died in 1916, leaving a power vacuum which resulted in China being divided into several warlord fiefdoms and rival governments. They were nominally reunified in 1928 by the Nanjing-based government led by Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, which after the Northern Expedition governed the country as a one-party state under the Kuomintang, and was subsequently given international recognition as the legitimate representative of China.Premier of the People's Republic of China
The Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China, sometimes also referred to informally as the "Prime Minister", is the Leader of the State Council of China (a.k.a. the Central People's Government), who is the head of government and holds the highest rank (Level 1) in the Civil Service. This position replaces Premier of the Government Administration Council of the Central People's Government (Chinese: 中央人民政府政务院总理, exist from 1949 to 1954)
The Premier is formally approved by the National People's Congress upon the nomination of the President. In practice, the candidate is chosen within the Communist Party of China through the same process that determines the composition of the Politburo Standing Committee. Both the President and the Premier are selected once every five years. The premier is limited to two terms, but the president is not. The Premier has always been a member of the powerful Politburo Standing Committee of the Communist Party of China.
The current Premier is Li Keqiang, who took office on 15 March 2013. He succeeded Wen Jiabao.Reformed Government of the Republic of China
The Reformed Government of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國維新政府, Zhōnghuá Mínguó Wéixīn Zhèngfǔ or Japanese: 中華民国維新政府, "Chūkaminkoku Ishin Seifu") was a Chinese puppet state created by Japan that existed from 1938 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The regime had little authority or popular support, nor did it receive international recognition even from Japan itself, lasting only two years before it was merged with the Provisional Government into the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China under Wang Jingwei. Due to the extensive powers of the Japanese advisors within the government and its own limited powers, the Reformed Government was not much more than an arm of the Japanese military administration.Republic of China (disambiguation)
The Republic of China is a state in East Asia, commonly known as Taiwan.
Republic of China may also refer to:
The Republic of China (1912–1949), state in East Asia from the end of the Qing dynasty to the end of the Chinese Civil War, ruling all of China
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1912), a government established in 1912
The Beiyang government, the government of northern China, 1913–1928
The Nationalist government, the Kuomintang-ruled government of China, 1928–1948
The Fujian People's Government, also known as the People's Revolutionary Government of the Republic of China, 1933–1934
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–40), puppet government of Japan
The Reformed Government of the Republic of China, puppet government of Japan
The Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China, puppet government of Japan, 1940–1945
The Government of the Republic of China, the current government of TaiwanSupreme People's Procuratorate
The Supreme People's Procuratorate also translated as the "Prosecutor General's Office" (Chinese: 最高人民检察院; pinyin: Zuìgāo Rénmín Jiǎncháyuàn) is the highest national level agency responsible for both prosecution and investigation in the People's Republic of China. Hong Kong and Macau, as special administrative regions, have their own separate legal systems, based on common law traditions and Portuguese legal traditions respectively, and are out of the jurisdiction of the SPP.
The office of the Procurator or Prosecutor General is influenced by similar institutions (public procurator) in both Japan and Socialist legal systems, and finds equivalence in most civil law systems, which often use an inquisitorial system. Its direct predecessor institution in China is the Procuratorial Office of the Supreme Court of the Republic of China, which in turn is descended from the Procuratorial Office of the Dali Yuan of the late Qing Dynasty.
The current Prosecutor-General of the People's Republic of China is Zhang Jun.Two Chinas
The term Two Chinas refers to the current geopolitical situation of two political entities each calling themselves "China":
People's Republic of China (PRC), commonly known as "China", established in 1949, controlling mainland China and two special administrative regions, Hong Kong and Macau.
Republic of China (ROC), now commonly known as "Taiwan" but originally as "China" when it controlled mainland China from its establishment in 1912 to 1949, when it retreated to the island of Taiwan. Since the end of 1949, when it lost control of mainland China in the Chinese Civil War, the ROC has controlled only Taiwan and some nearby island groups. The ROC lost its status as representing "China" in the United Nations in 1971.Wang Jingwei regime
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (Chinese: 中華民國國民政府; pinyin: Zhōnghuá mínguó guómín zhèngfǔ), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China. This should not be confused with the Republic of China under Chiang Kai-shek, which was a separate, non-Japanese-backed government that fought against Japan. It was ruled by a one-party totalitarian dictatorship under Wang Jingwei, an ex-Kuomintang (KMT) official. The region that it would administer was initially seized by Japan throughout the late 1930s with the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Wang, a rival of Chiang Kai-shek and member of the pro-peace faction of the KMT, defected to the Japanese side and formed a collaborationist government in occupied Nanjing (the traditional capital of China) in 1940. The new state claimed the entirety of China during its existence, portraying itself as the legitimate inheritors of the Xinhai Revolution and Sun Yat-sen's legacy as opposed to Chiang Kai-shek's government in Chongqing, but effectively only Japanese-occupied territory was under its direct control. Its international recognition was limited to other members of the Anti-Comintern Pact, of which it was a signatory. The Reorganized National Government existed until the end of World War II and the surrender of Japan in August 1945, at which point the regime was dissolved and many of its leading members were executed for treason.
The state was formed by combining the previous Reformed Government (1938–1940) and Provisional Government (1937–1940) of the Republic of China, puppet regimes which ruled the central and northern regions of China that were under Japanese control, respectively. Unlike Wang Jingwei's government, these regimes were not much more than arms of the Japanese military leadership and received no recognition even from Japan itself or its allies. However, after 1940 the former territory of the Provisional Government remained semi-autonomous from Nanjing's control, under the "North China Political Council" of Wang Kemin, while the region of Mengjiang (puppet government in Inner Mongolia) was under Wang Jingwei's government only nominally. His regime was also hampered by the fact that the powers granted to it by the Japanese were extremely limited, and this was only partly changed with the signing of a new treaty in 1943 which gave it more sovereignty from Japanese control. The Japanese largely viewed it as not an end in itself but the means to an end, a bridge for negotiations with Chiang Kai-shek, which led them to often treat Wang with indifference.
|Hanyu Pinyin||Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Zhèngfǔ|
Central state organs of the People's Republic of China
Governments of Asia