The alphabet is essentially an uncial form of the Greek alphabet, with a few additional letters to account for Gothic phonology: Latin F and G, a questionably Runic letter to distinguish the /w/ glide from vocalic /u/, and the letter ƕair to express the Gothic labiovelar.
|From c. 350, in decline by 600|
Ulfilas is thought to have consciously chosen to avoid the use of the older Runic alphabet for this purpose, as it was heavily connected with heathen beliefs and customs. Also, the Greek-based script probably helped to integrate the Gothic nation into the dominant Greco-Roman culture around the Black Sea.
As with the Greek alphabet, Gothic letters were also assigned numerical values. When used as numerals, letters were written either between two dots (•𐌹𐌱• = 12) or with an overline (𐌹𐌱 = 12). Two letters, 𐍁 (90) and 𐍊 (900), have no phonetic value.
The letter names are recorded in a 9th-century manuscript of Alcuin (Codex Vindobonensis 795). Most of them seem to be Gothic forms of names also appearing in the rune poems. The names are given in their attested forms followed by the reconstructed Gothic forms and their meanings.
|Letter||Translit.||Compare||Gothic name||PGmc rune name||IPA||Numeric value||XML entity|
|𐌰||a||Α||aza < ans "god" or asks "ash"||*ansuz||/a, aː/||1||𐌰|
|𐌱||b||Β||bercna < *bairka "birch"||*berkanan||/b/ [b, β]||2||𐌱|
|𐌲||g||Γ||geuua < giba "gift"||*gebō||/ɡ/ [ɡ, ɣ, x]; /n/ [ŋ]||3||𐌲|
|𐌳||d||Δ||daaz < dags "day"||*dagaz||/d/ [d, ð]||4||𐌳|
|𐌴||e||Ε||eyz < aiƕs "horse" or eiws "yew"||*eihwaz, *ehwaz||/eː/||5||𐌴|
|𐌵||q||(Ϛ), ϰ||quetra < *qairþra ? or qairna "millstone"||(see *perþō)||/kʷ/||6||𐌵|
|𐌶||z||Ζ||ezec < (?)||*algiz||/z/||7||𐌶|
|𐌷||h||Η||haal < *hagal or *hagls "hail"||*haglaz||/h/, /x/||8||𐌷|
|𐌸||þ (th)||Φ, Ψ||thyth < þiuþ "good" or þaurnus "thorn"||*thurisaz||/θ/||9||𐌸|
|𐌹||i||Ι||iiz < *eis "ice"||*īsaz||/i/||10||𐌹|
|𐌺||k||Κ||chozma < *kusma or kōnja "pine sap"||*kaunan||/k/||20||𐌺|
|𐌻||l||Λ||laaz < *lagus "sea, lake"||*laguz||/l/||30||𐌻|
|𐌼||m||Μ||manna < manna "man"||*mannaz||/m/||40||𐌼|
|𐌽||n||Ν||noicz < nauþs "need"||*naudiz||/n/||50||𐌽|
|𐌾||j||G, ᛃ||gaar < jēr "year"||*jēran||/j/||60||𐌾|
|𐌿||u||ᚢ||uraz < *ūrus "aurochs"||*ūruz||/ʊ/, /uː/||70||𐌿|
|𐍀||p||Π||pertra < *pairþa ?||*perþō||/p/||80||𐍀|
|𐍂||r||R||reda < *raida "wagon"||*raidō||/r/||100||𐍂|
|𐍃||s||S, Σ||sugil < sauil or sōjil "sun"||*sôwilô||/s/||200||𐍃|
|𐍄||t||Τ||tyz < *tius "the god Týr"||*tīwaz||/t/||300||𐍄|
|𐍅||w||Υ||uuinne < winja "field, pasture" or winna "pain"||*wunjō||/w/, /y/||400||𐍅|
|𐍆||f||Ϝ, F||fe < faihu "cattle, wealth"||*fehu||/ɸ/||500||𐍆|
|𐍇||x||Χ||enguz < *iggus or *iggws "the god Yngvi"||*ingwaz||/x/?||600||𐍇|
|𐍈||ƕ (hw)||Θ||uuaer < *ƕair "kettle"||-||/hʷ/||700||𐍈|
|𐍉||o||Ω, Ο, ᛟ||utal < *ōþal "ancestral land"||*ōþala||/oː/||800||𐍉|
Most of the letters have been taken over directly from the Greek alphabet, though a few have been created or modified from Latin and possibly (more controversially) Runic letters to express unique phonological features of Gothic. These are:
𐍂 (r), 𐍃 (s) and 𐍆 (f) appear to be derived from their Latin equivalents rather than from the Greek, although the equivalent Runic letters (ᚱ, ᛋ and ᚠ), assumed to have been part of the Gothic futhark, possibly played some role in this choice. However, Snædal notes that “Wulfila’s knowledge of runes was questionable to say the least”, as the extreme paucity of inscriptions attests that knowledge and use of runes was rare among the East Germanic peoples. No indisputably Gothic Runic inscriptions are known to exist. Some variants of 𐍃 (s) are shaped like a sigma and more obviously derive from the Greek Σ.
Diacritics and punctuation used in the Codex Argenteus include a trema placed on 𐌹 i, transliterated as ï, in general applied to express diaeresis, the interpunct (·) and colon (:) as well as overlines to indicate sigla (such as xaus for xristaus) and numerals.
The Gothic alphabet was added to the Unicode Standard in March, 2001 with the release of version 3.1.
The Unicode block for Gothic is U+10330–U+1034F in the Supplementary Multilingual Plane. As older software that uses UCS-2 (the predecessor of UTF-16) assumes that all Unicode codepoints can be expressed as 16 bit numbers (U+FFFF or lower, the Basic Multilingual Plane), problems may be encountered using the Gothic alphabet Unicode range and others outside of the Basic Multilingual Plane.
Official Unicode Consortium code chart (PDF)
Ahsa may refer to:
Al-Ahsa (disambiguation), the Saudi Arabian oasis region (also spelled al-Hasa and Hassa)
American Horror Story: Asylum, an American television miniseries
The American Horse Shows Association
The American Hunters and Shooters Association
, the Gothic letter a; see Gothic alphabet, Ansuz runeCeirt
Ceirt (queirt) ᚊ is a letter of the Ogham alphabet, transcribed as Q. It expresses the Primitive Irish labiovelar phoneme. The 14th century Auraicept na n-Éces glosses the name as aball, meaning "apple tree". Its phonetic value is [kʷ].
The Bríatharogam (kennings) for the letter are:
Morainn mac Moín: Clithar baiscill ‘the shelter of a lunatic’
Maic ind Óc: Bríg anduini ‘substance of an insignificant person’
Con Culainn: Dígu fethail ‘dregs of clothing’McManus (1991:37) compares it to Welsh perth ‘thorn bush’, Latin quercus ‘oak’ (PIE *perkwos). The name was confused with Old Irish ceirt ‘rag’, reflected in the kennings.
In the framework of a runic origin of the Ogham, the name has also been compared to the name of the Anglo Saxon Futhorc p-rune, Peorð: This name is itself unclear, but most often identified as ‘pear’, a meaning not unrelated to ‘apple’. The p letter of the Gothic alphabet has a cognate name, pairþra, alongside the clearly related qairþra, the name for the Gothic labiovelar. Since an influence of Ogham letter names on Gothic letter names is eminently unlikely, it seems most probable that the Proto-Germanic p rune had a meaning of ‘pear tree’ (*pera-trewô?), continued in the Anglo-Saxon peorð rune (with the meaning of the name forgotten), and was introduced into 4th century Ireland as the name of a rune named after a pear or apple tree. As p was nonexistent as a phoneme in Primitive Irish, the p and q runes would have been considered equivalent.Circled dot
The circled dot, circumpunct, or circle with a point at its centre is an ancient symbol. It can represent:
Solar systemSolar symbol used to represent the Sun
The sun / Gold (Alchemical symbols)
The sun / Ra (Egyptian hieroglyphs)
The sun / a day (Chinese oracle script, the modern character being 日)Religion and philosophyKeter (Kabbalah)
MonismLanguage and linguistics
Bilabial clicks ʘ (International Phonetic Alphabet) (Unicode IPA Extensions)
Hwair 𐍈 (Gothic alphabet) (Unicode Gothic)
Berber languages ⵙ ( Tifinagh Alphabet ) (Unicode Tifinagh)
Tha 𑀣 (Brāhmī script) (Unicode Brahmi)
Fisheye ◉ (Unicode Geometric Shapes)
Circled dot operator ⊙ (which represents the XNOR gate; Unicode Mathematical Operators), and n-ary circled dot operator ⨀ (Unicode Supplemental Mathematical Operators)
A brief contact (brush) of the signing hand in SignWriting
An indication of selected choice of radio buttonsOther usesA nazar is a circled-dot-shaped amulet believed to protect against the evil eye
Center of pressure
Mensuration sign for 9/8 meter 𝇇 (Unicode Musical Symbols)
Used, or cancelled, stamp (philately)
The trademark of the Target Corporation
As a symbol of the phallus or nature's generative principle and of an Entered Apprentice Freemason
City centre (European road-signs)
End of trail. Gone home. (scouting)
The Symbol of "Waterhole" in the Australian Aboroginies Symbol resembles the Circumpunct
In Germany it is symbol for a "Gestempelte Briefmarke" (canceled stamp), while a star means "postfrisch" (mint Stamp)
In geometry, it is often the symbol for a circle
In physics, it can be used to denote a vector facing out of the pageCodex Vindobonensis 795
The Codex Vindobonensis 795 (Vienna Austrian National Library Codex) is a 9th-century manuscript. It contains letters and treatises by Alcuin, including a discussion of the Gothic alphabet. It also contains a description of the Anglo-Saxon futhorc.Dagaz
The d rune (ᛞ) is called dæg "day" in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem. The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet 𐌳 d is called dags. This rune is also part of the Elder Futhark, with a reconstructed Proto-Germanic name *dagaz.
Its "butterfly" shape is possibly derived from Lepontic san.Ehwaz
*Ehwaz is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark e rune ᛖ, meaning "horse" (cognate to Latin equus, Gaulish epos, Tocharian B yakwe, Sanskrit aśva, Avestan aspa and Old Irish ech). In the Anglo-Saxon futhorc, it is continued as ᛖ eh (properly eoh, but spelled without the diphthong to avoid confusion with ᛇ ēoh "yew").
The Proto-Germanic vowel system was asymmetric and unstable. The difference between the long vowels expressed by ᛖ e and ᛇ ï (sometimes transcribed as *ē1 and *ē2) were lost. The Younger Futhark continues neither, lacking a letter expressing e altogether. The Anglo-Saxon futhorc faithfully preserved all Elder futhorc staves, but assigned new sound values to the redundant ones, futhorc ēoh expressing a diphthong.
In the case of the Gothic alphabet, where the names of the runes were re-applied to letters derived from the Greek alphabet, the letter 𐌴 e was named aíƕus "horse" as well (note that in Gothic orthography, represents monophthongic /e/).Fehu
The Fe rune ᚠ (Old Norse fé; Old English feoh) represents the f-sound in the Younger Futhark and Futhorc alphabets. Its name means "(mobile) wealth", cognate to English fee with the original meaning of "sheep" or "cattle" (Dutch Vee, German Vieh, Latin pecū, Sanskrit pashu).
The rune derives from the unattested but reconstructed Proto-Germanic *fehu in the Elder Futhark alphabet, with the original meaning of "money, cattle, wealth".The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet is 𐍆 f, called faihu. Such correspondence between all rune poems and the Gothic letter name, as well, is uncommon, and gives the reconstructed name of the Old Futhark a high degree of certainty.
The shape of the rune is likely based on Etruscan v 𐌅 , like Greek Digamma Ϝ and Latin F ultimately from Phoenician waw .Fixedsys Excelsior
Fixedsys Excelsior is an unofficial pan-Unicode extension of the popular Microsoft font Fixedsys. The most recent version, last updated in 2007, is 3.01; the official site remains available but has not been updated in over a decade.
In addition to the basic Latin alphabet supported by the original Fixedsys, this font supports Arabic alphabet, Cyrillic script, Runic alphabet, IPA, etc., but not CJK (a complete listing of coverage can be seen below). It also contains narrow, serif, reverse, italic, cursive, and reversed (mirror image) forms of Fixedsys stored in its Private Use Area. The font is fitted entirely into the Basic Multilingual Plane, and as such, some characters with Unicode support in other planes (such as the Gothic alphabet and Mathematical Alphanumeric Symbols) are instead mapped into the PUA for greater accessibility. The fullwidth character section is instead filled by small capitals and text figure forms of Fixedsys. Overall, 5,993 glyphs are covered in the typeface.
Fixedsys Excelsior is free software and appears to have been released by its author into the public domain; he declared the font to be free for any use and encouraged its distribution. The font has no hinting.Gothic runic inscriptions
Very few Elder Futhark inscriptions in the Gothic language have been found in the territory historically settled by the Goths (Wielbark culture, Chernyakhov culture). This is due to the early Christianization of the Goths, with the Gothic alphabet replacing runes by the mid 4th century.
There are about a dozen candidate inscriptions, and only three of them are widely accepted to be of Gothic origin: the gold ring of Pietroassa, bearing a votive inscription, part of a larger treasure found in the Romanian Carpathians, and two spearheads inscribed with what is probably the weapon's name, one found in the Ukrainian Carpathians, and the other in eastern Germany, near the Oder.Gyfu
Gyfu is the name for the g-rune ᚷ in the Anglo-Saxon rune poem, meaning ‘gift’ or ‘generosity’:
The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet is 𐌲 g, called giba. The same rune also appears in the Elder Futhark, with a suggested Proto-Germanic name *gebô ‘gift’. J. H. Looijenga speculates that the rune is directly derived from Latin Χ, the pronunciation of which may have been similar to Germanic g in the 1st century, e.g., Gothic *reihs compared to Latin rex (as opposed to the Etruscan alphabet, where /𐌗 had a value of [s]).
The gyfu rune is sometimes used as a symbol within modern mysticism, particularly amongst those interested in Celtic mythology. It’s described, for example, in the book The Runic Tarot as a representation of the giving-receiving balance in friendships.Jēran
Jera (also Jeran, Jeraz) is the conventional name of the j-rune ᛃ of the Elder Futhark, from a reconstructed Common Germanic stem *jēra- meaning "harvest, (good) year".
The corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet is Gothic 𐌾, named jēr, also expressing /j/.
The Elder Futhark rune gives rise to the Anglo-Frisian runes ᛄ /j/, named gēr /jeːr/, and ᛡ /io/, named ior, and to the Younger Futhark ár rune ᛅ, which stood for /a/ as the /j/ phoneme had disappeared in Old Norse.
Note that ᛆ also can be a variation of dotted Isaz used for /e/; e.g. in Dalecarlian runes.List of languages by writing system
Below is a list of languages sorted by writing system (by alphabetical order).Peorð
ᛈ is the rune denoting the sound p (voiceless bilabial stop) in the Elder Futhark runic alphabet. It does not appear in the Younger Futhark. It is named peorð in the Anglo-Saxon rune-poem and glossed enigmatically as follows:
ᛈ peorð byþ symble plega and hlehter / ƿlancum [on middum], ðar ƿigan sittaþ / on beorsele bliþe ætsomne
"Peorð is a source of recreation and amusement to the great, where warriors sit blithely together in the beerhall."The name is not comprehensible from Old English, i.e. no word similar to peorð is known in this language.
According to a 9th-century manuscript of Alcuin (Codex Vindobonensis 795), written using the Gothic alphabet in Britain, the letters p (based on a Greek Π) and q (an inverted Π) are called "pairþra" and "qairþra", respectively. One of these names clearly is derived from the other. However, the names are not comprehensible in Gothic either, and it is not clear which is derived from which, although it is known that the Elder Futhark had a p, but no q rune.
In any case, it seems evident that peorð is related to pairþra.
The Anglo-Saxon futhorc adopted exactly the same approach for the addition of a labiovelar rune, ᛢ cƿeorð, in both shape and name based on peorð, but it is not known if the Gothic runes already had a similar variant rune of p, or if the labiovelar letter was a 4th-century creation of Ulfilas.
The Common Germanic name could be referring to a pear-tree (or perhaps generally a fruit-tree).
Based on the context of "recreation and amusement" given in the rune poem, a common speculative interpretation is that the intended meaning is "pear-wood" as the material of either a woodwind instrument, or a "game box" or game pieces made from wood.
From peorð, Proto-Germanic form *perðu, *perþō or *perþaz may be reconstructed on purely phonological grounds. The expected Proto-Germanic term for "pear tree" would be *pera-trewô (*pera being, however, a post-Proto-Germanic loan, either West Germanic, or Common Germanic, if Gothic pairþra meant "pear tree", from Vulgar Latin pirum (plural pira), itself of unknown origin).
The Ogham letter name Ceirt, glossed as "apple tree", may in turn be a loan from Germanic into Primitive Irish.
The earliest attestation of the rune is in the Kylver Stone futhark row (ca. AD 400). The earliest example in a linguistic context (as opposed to an abecedarium) is already in futhorc, in the Kent II, III and IV coin inscriptions (the personal names pada and æpa/epa), dated to ca. AD 700. On St. Cuthbert's coffin (AD 698), a p rune takes the place of Greek Ρ. The Westeremden yew-stick (ca. AD 750) has op hæmu "at home" and up duna "on the hill".
Looijenga (1997) speculates that the p rune arose as a variant of the b rune, parallel to the secondary nature of Ogham peith. The uncertainty surrounding the rune is a consequence of the rarity of the *p phoneme in Proto-Germanic, itself due to the rarity of its parent-phoneme *b in Proto-Indo-European.
The rune is discontinued in Younger Futhark, which expresses /p/ with the b rune, for example on the Viking Age Skarpåker Stone,
iarþ sal rifna uk ubhiminfor Old Norse
Jörð skal rifna ok upphiminn.
"Earth shall be rent, and the heavens above."Raido
*Raidō "ride, journey" is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the r- rune of the Elder Futhark ᚱ. The name is attested for the same rune in all three rune poems, Old Norwegian Ræið Icelandic Reið, Anglo-Saxon Rad, as well as for the corresponding letter of the Gothic alphabet 𐍂 r, called raida. The shape of the rune may be directly derived from Latin R.Ulfilas
Ulfilas (c. 311–383), also known as Ulphilas and Orphila, all Latinized forms of the Gothic Wulfila, literally "Little Wolf", was a Goth of Cappadocian Greek descent who served as a bishop and missionary, is credited with the translation of the Bible into the Gothic Bible, and participated in the Arian controversy. He developed the Gothic alphabet in order for the Bible to be translated, sans Kings due to the war narratives he feared would entice the Goths, into the Gothic language. Although traditionally the translation of the Bible into the Gothic language has been ascribed to Ulfilas, analysis of the Gothic text indicates the involvement of a team of translators, possibly under the supervision of Ulfilas.Ur (rune)
The reconstructed Proto-Germanic name of the Elder Futhark u rune ᚢ is *Ūruz meaning "wild ox" or *Ūrą "water". It may have been derived from the Raetic alphabet character u as it is similar in both shape and sound value. The name of the corresponding letter in the Gothic alphabet is urus.Wulfila Glacier
Wulfila Glacier (Lednik Wulfila \'led-nik vul-'fi-la\) is located on the southern slopes of Breznik Heights, Greenwich Island in the South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, south-southwest of Solis Glacier and west of Zheravna Glacier. It is bounded by Oborishte Ridge to the northwest, Nevlya Peak to the north, Terter Peak and Razgrad Peak to the northeast, and Ephraim Bluff to the southeast. The glacier extends 3 km in northwest-southeast direction and 2 km in northeast-southwest direction, draining southwestwards into McFarlane Strait between Ephraim Bluff and the base of Provadiya Hook.
The feature is named after Bishop Wulfila (311-383 AD) of Nicopolis ad Istrum (the present Bulgarian settlement of Nikyup near Veliko Tarnovo) who created the Gothic alphabet, and laid the foundations of the Germanic literature.Wynn
Wynn (Ƿ ƿ) (also spelled wen, ƿynn, or ƿen) is a letter of the Old English alphabet, where it is used to represent the sound /w/.
While the earliest Old English texts represent this phoneme with the digraph ⟨uu⟩, scribes soon borrowed the rune wynn ᚹ for this purpose. It remained a standard letter throughout the Anglo-Saxon era, eventually falling out of use (perhaps under the influence of French orthography) during the Middle English period, circa 1300. It was replaced with ⟨uu⟩ once again, from which the modern
The denotation of the rune is "joy, bliss" known from the Anglo-Saxon Rune Poems:
ᚹ Ƿenne bruceþ, þe can ƿeana lytsares and sorge and him sylfa hæfblæd and blysse and eac byrga geniht. [Lines 22-24 in The Anglo-Saxon Runic Poem]Who uses it knows no pain,
sorrow nor anxiety, and he himself has
prosperity and bliss, and also enough shelter. [Translation slightly modified from Dickins (1915)]It is not continued in the Younger Futhark, but in the Gothic alphabet, the letter 𐍅 w is called winja, allowing a Proto-Germanic reconstruction of the rune's name as *wunjô "joy".
It is one of the two runes (along with þ) to have been borrowed into the English alphabet (or any extension of the Latin alphabet). A modified version of the letter ƿynn called Vend was used briefly in Old Norse for the sounds /u/, /v/, and /w/.
As with þ, ƿynn was revived in modern times for the printing of Old English texts, but since the early 20th century the usual practice has been to substitute the modern ⟨w⟩ instead due to ƿynn's visual resemblance to P.