Gospel Book

The Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is a codex or bound volume containing one or more of the four Gospels of the Christian New Testament – normally all four – centering on the life of Jesus of Nazareth and the roots of the Christian faith. The term is also used of the liturgical book, also called the Evangeliary, from which are read the portions of the Gospels used in the Mass and other services, arranged according to the order of the liturgical calendar.[1]

Liturgical use in churches of a distinct Gospel book remains normal, often compulsory, in Eastern Christianity, and very common in Roman Catholicism and some parts of Anglicanism and Lutheranism. Other Protestant churches normally just use a complete Bible.

KellsFol292rIncipJohn
The Book of Kells, c. 800, showing the lavishly decorated text that opens the Gospel of John.

History

In the Middle Ages, the production of copies of the Bible in its entirety was rare,only because of the huge expense of the parchment required. Individual books or collections of books were produced for specific purposes. From the 4th century Gospel Books were produced for liturgical use, as well as private study and as "display books" for ceremonial and ornamental purposes.[2] The Codex Washingtonianus (Freer gospels) is an early example of a book containing only the four gospels, in Greek, written in the 4th or 5th century. By the 7th century particular gospel texts were allocated to days in the liturgical calendar; previously gospel readings had often worked through the books in sequence.[3] Many of these volumes were elaborate; the Gospel Book was the most common form of heavily illuminated manuscript until about the 11th century, when the Romanesque Bible and Psalter largely superseded it in the West. In the East they remained a significant subject for illumination until the arrival of printing. The Evangelist portrait was a particular feature of their decoration.[4] Most of the masterpieces of both Insular and Ottonian illumination are Gospel Books,[5] and there are very many Byzantine and Carolingian examples.

But most Gospel Books were never illuminated at all, or only with decorated initials and other touches. They often contained, in addition to the text of the Gospels themselves, supporting texts including Canon Tables, summaries, glossaries, and other explanatory material. Latin books often include the Letter of Jerome to Pope Damasus where Jerome set out to the Pope the reasoning behind his new Vulgate translation and arrangement of the texts, and many Greek ones the Epistula ad Carpianum (Letter to Carpian) of Eusebius of Caesarea explaining the Eusebian Canons he had devised.[6]

Luxury illuminated gospel books were mainly a feature of the Early Middle Ages, as the evangeliary or a general lectionary gradually became more common for liturgical use, and other texts became most favoured for elaborate decoration.[7]

Western use

In current Roman Catholic usage, the Book of the Gospels or Evangeliary[1] contains the full text of the passages from all four gospels that the deacon or priest is to read or chant at Mass in the course of the liturgical year. However, use of the Book of the Gospels is not mandatory, and the gospel readings are also included in the standard Lectionary.[8][9]

The Book of the Gospels, if used, is brought to the altar in the entrance procession, while the Lectionary may not.[10] When carried in procession, the Book of the Gospels is held slightly elevated, though not over the head. It is particularly proper for the deacon to carry the Book of the Gospels in procession, as the reading of the gospel is his particular province. When there is no deacon, the Book may be carried by a lector.[11]

FatherBrian01
2008 Midnight Mass at The Cathedral of Saint Peter the Apostle in Jackson, MS

Upon reaching the altar, the deacon or lector bows in veneration of the altar, then places the Book upon the altar, where it remains until the Alleluia.[12]

During the singing of the Alleluia, the deacon (who before proclaiming the gospel receives the presiding priest's blessing), or in his absence, a priest, removes the Book from the altar and processes with it to the ambo. If incense is used, the Book of the Gospels is censed by the deacon before the reading or chanting. An altar server or acolyte will swing the censer slowly during the reading or chanting.[13] The Book of the Gospels remains on the ambo until the Mass concludes, unless it is taken to a bishop to be kissed, after which it may be placed on the credence table or another appropriate and dignified place.[14]

If the Rite of Dismissal of catechumens is celebrated, the Book of the Gospels is carried in procession in front of the catechumens as they leave the church.

Episcopal Church in America

The Gospel Book
The Gospel Book at St. Mary's Episcopal Church.

In the Episcopal Church in the United States of America the practice of using a Gospel Book was recovered with the 1979 US Book of Common Prayer, which suggests that the lessons and gospel "be read from a book or books of appropriate size and dignity".[15] Following this several publishers have produced gospel books for use in the Episcopal Church, and other books have been privately compiled. A deacon, server or acolyte usually carries the gospel book in the entrance procession, holding the book as high as possible with arms fully extended, and places it on the altar until time for the gospel proclamation. Afterward, it may be returned to the altar or placed on a side table or a stand.

Eastern use

Eastern Orthodox

Gorskii 03989u
Jewelled and enamelled Gospel book belonging to Tsar Aleksei Mikhailovich (Trinity Monastery, Aleksandrov).

Among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholics the Gospel Book (Greek: Εὐαγγέλιον, Evangélion) is very important liturgically. It is considered to be an icon of Christ, and is venerated in the same manner as an icon.

The Gospel Book contains the readings that are used at Matins, the Divine Liturgy, Molebens, and other services. Among the Greeks the modern liturgical Gospel Book is laid out in order of the cycle of readings as they occur in the ecclesiastical year, with a section in the back providing the Gospel readings for Matins, Feasts and special occasions, and is thus strictly an evangeliary rather than a gospel book. In the Slavic usage, the Gospel Book contains the full text of the four Gospels in canonical order (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John), with annotations in the margins to indicate the beginning and ending of each reading, and a table of readings in the back. Occasionally it will contain pre-arranged texts of the more complex composite readings, such as the Twelve Gospels read at Matins on Good Friday.

Traditionally, the Orthodox will never cover the Gospel Book in leather—the skin of a dead animal—because the words of Christ are considered to be life-giving. Animal skins are also reminiscent of the Fall of Man, when God fashioned garments of skin for Adam and Eve after their disobedience (Genesis 3:21). The Apostle Paul speaks of Christ being the "New Adam" (1 Corinthians 15:22,47-49), and the Orthodox understand Christ as coming to clothe mankind in the original "garments of light" which Adam and Eve lost in Paradise. Traditionally, the Gospel is covered in gold, the earthly element which is best symbolizes the glory of Heaven. If gold is unavailable, the Gospel may be covered in cloth.

The Gospel Book rests on the center of the Holy Table (Altar), as the Cross of Christ was planted in the center of the earth. This placement of the Gospel Book also represents the activity of Christ at the Creation (the square Altar representing the created world). The Gospel rests upon the antimension, which remains on the Altar at all times, as Christ will remain with the Church until the end of the world (Matthew 28:20). Even when the antimension is unfolded to receive the chalice and diskos, the Gospel Book is not removed from the Holy Table, but is stood upright in front of the Tabernacle.

Dues2Sept21 2009
Reading the Gospel during the Divine Liturgy.

The Divine Liturgy begins with the priest lifting the Gospel Book high and making the sign of the cross with it over the Altar. The Gospel Book is carried in procession at specific times, accompanied by candles. The most frequent occurrence is during the Divine Liturgy when it is carried in the Little Entrance[16] which precedes the Epistle and Gospel readings. It is also carried in the Crucessions at Pascha and Theophany. After reading from the Gospel, the priest will bless the faithful with it. At Sunday Matins, after the Gospel reading, all come forward to venerate the Gospel Book and receive the blessing of the priest or bishop.

Whenever an Eastern Christian goes to Confession he or she will confess before a Gospel Book and the Cross. In traditional Orthodox countries, when a person takes a vow or oath, he usually does so before a Gospel Book and Cross. Near the end of the Sacred Mystery of Holy Unction, the person or persons that were anointed will kneel and the Gospel Book is opened and placed on their heads, with the writing down. While the chief priest says a special Prayer of the Gospel.

When a Bishop is Consecrated, he kneels, touching his forehead to the Altar, and the Gospel Book is opened and placed with the text down over his neck, while the consecrating bishops place their hands on the Gospel and say the Prayer of Consecration. When a Synod of bishops meets, a Gospel Book is often enthroned in a prominent place to show that Christ Himself presides over the meeting. When a priest or bishop is buried, he is buried with a Gospel Book resting on his chest, as an indication of his vocation to preach the Gospel to all men. The funeral service for a priest and bishop will have several readings from the Gospels, to indicate the importance of the Gospel to his ministry.

Armenian use

In the Armenian Apostolic Church and the Armenian Catholic Church, during the reading of the Gospel, the deacon holds a piece of fine fabric in his hands, and with that he holds the Gospel Book. It is considered improper to touch the Gospel Book with bare hands. No lectern is provided for the Gospel reading in the Armenian sanctuary.

Significant gospel books

RossanoGospelsChristBeforePilate
Illuminated page from the 6th century Rossano Gospels, one of the oldest extant Gospel Books.

See also the categories at bottom.

Notes

  1. ^ a b "General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 44" (PDF). Catholic Bishops' Conference of England & Wales. Catholic Truth Society. Retrieved 2 February 2015. Among gestures included are also actions and processions: of the priest going with the deacon and ministers to the altar; of the deacon carrying the Evangeliary or Book of the Gospels to the ambo before the proclamation of the Gospel ...
  2. ^ Calkins, 31
  3. ^ Calkins, 18-19
  4. ^ Calkins, 23-29, and chapters 1 and 3
  5. ^ Calkins, chapters 1 and 3 deals with these in turn
  6. ^ Calkins, 25
  7. ^ Calkins, 148-150
  8. ^ Deiss, 36-37
  9. ^ "The Proclamation of the Gospel at Mass" (The Catholic Liturgical Library)
  10. ^ General Instruction of the Roman Missal, 120
  11. ^ Deiss, 38-39
  12. ^ Commentary, 128
  13. ^ Paul Turner, "The Book of the Gospels"
  14. ^ Edward McNamara, "A Place for the Book of the Gospels"
  15. ^ 1979 US Book of Common Prayer, p. 406
  16. ^ In the Greek usage, the processional cross and fans are used in the Little Entrance as well. With the Russians, the fans are usually only used when a Bishop is celebrating.

References

  • Calkins, Robert G. Illuminated Books of the Middle Ages. 1983, Cornell University Press, ISBN 0500233756
  • "Commentary", Edward Foley, John Francis Baldovin, Mary Collins, Joanne M. Pierce, eds., A Commentary on the Order of Mass of the Roman Missal, 2011, Liturgical Press, 2011, ISBN 0814662471, 9780814662472
  • Deiss, Lucien, The Mass, 1992, Liturgical Press, ISBN 0814620582, 9780814620588
  • Otto Pächt, Book Illumination in the Middle Ages (trans fr German), 1986, Harvey Miller Publishers, London, ISBN 0199210608
  • Palazzo,Eric, A History of Liturgical Books from the Beginning to the Thirteenth Century, 1998, Liturgical Press, ISBN 081466167X, 9780814661673, google books

External links

Ada Gospels

The Ada Gospels (Trier, Stadtbibliothek, Codex 22) is a late eighth century or early ninth century Carolingian gospel book in the Stadtbibliothek, Trier, Germany. The manuscript contains a dedication to Charlemagne's sister Ada, from where it gets its name. The manuscript is written on vellum in Carolingian minuscule. It measures 14.5 by 9.625 inches. The Ada Gospels are one of a group of manuscript illuminations by a circle of scriptoria that represent what modern scholars call the "Ada School". Other products of the Ada School include the Soissons Gospels, Harley Golden Gospels, Godescalc Evangelistary and the Lorsch Gospels; ten manuscripts in total are usually recognised.

The manuscript is illuminated. Its illuminations include an elaborate initial page for the Gospel of Matthew and portraits of Matthew, Mark and Luke. The illuminations show Insular, Italian and Byzantine influences. The Evangelist portraits show a firm grasp of Classical style typical of the Carolingian Renaissance.

In 1499 the codex was given a rich sculpted gold binding that includes the Late Antique Eagle Cameo displaying the family of Emperor Constantine.

Another Gospel

Another Gospel: Cults, Alternative Religions, and the New Age Movement is a non-fiction book discussing new religious movements and the New Age movement, written by Ruth A. Tucker. The book was published in 1989 by Zondervan, a Christian publishing house. Another edition was released by the same publisher in 2004.

Bodmin manumissions

The Bodmin manumissions are records included in a manuscript Gospel book, the Bodmin Gospels or St Petroc Gospels, British Library, Additional MS 9381. The manuscript is mostly in Latin, but with elements in Old English and the earliest written examples of the Cornish language, which is thus of particular interest to language scholars and early Cornish historians. The manuscript was discovered by Thomas Rodd (b. 1796, d. 1849), a London bookseller and it was sold to the British Museum by Rodd in May 1833. It is thought to have been made in Brittany - now part of France - and dates from the last quarter of the 9th century to 1st quarter of the 11th century.

Carolingian Gospel Book (British Library, MS Add. 11848)

British Library, Additional Manuscript 11848 is an illuminated Carolingian Latin Gospel Book produced at Tours. It contains the Vulgate translation of the four Gospels written on vellum in Carolingian minuscule with Square and Rustic Capitals and Uncials as display scripts. The manuscript has 219 extant folios which measure approximately 330 by 230 mm. The text is written in area of about 205 by 127 mm. In addition to the text of the Gospels, the manuscript contains the letter of St. Jerome to Pope Damasus and of Eusebius of Caesarea to Carpian, along with the Eusebian canon tables. There are prologues and capitula lists before each Gospel. A table of readings for the year was added, probably between 1675 and 1749, to the end of the volume. This is followed by a list of capitula incipits and a word grid which were added in the Carolingian period.

Ebbo Gospels

The Ebbo Gospels (Épernay, Bibliothèque Municipale, Ms. 1) is an early Carolingian illuminated Gospel book known for an unusual, energetic style of illustration. The book was produced in the ninth century at the Benedictine Abbaye Saint-Pierre d’Hautvillers.

Entrance (liturgical)

In Eastern Orthodox and Byzantine Catholic churches, an entrance is a procession during which the clergy enter into the sanctuary through the Holy Doors. The origin of these entrances goes back to the early church, when the liturgical books and sacred vessels were kept in special storage rooms for safe keeping and the procession was necessary to bring these objects into the church when needed. Over the centuries, these processions have grown more elaborate, and nowadays are accompanied by incense, candles and liturgical fans. In the liturgical theology of the Orthodox Church, the angels are believed to enter with the clergy into the sanctuary, as evidenced by the prayers which accompany the various entrances.

The bishop has the right to enter and leave the altar (sanctuary) through the Holy Doors at any time, and is not restricted to the liturgical entrances, as the priest and deacon are.

Evangelion

Evangelion refer to the gospel in Christianity, translated from the Greek word εὐαγγέλιον (euangélion, Latin: evangelium) meaning "Good News".

Evangelion may also refer to:

Gospel account

Gospel Book

In Manichaeism, a major text known as the Evangelion (Classical Syriac: ܐܘܢܓܠܝܘܢ‎), also known as the Gospel of Mani

Nestorian Evangelion, an illustrated gospel book belonging to the Church of the East, also known as Vie de Jésus-Christ ("Life of Jesus Christ")

Gannat

Gannat (Auvergnat: Gatnat) is a commune in the Allier department in central France.

Gannat was a sub-prefecture until 1926, with a population of around 5,800 inhabitants. There is a castle (the Château de Gannat), two churches of which one (Saint-Étienne) is partly Romanesque with a 9th-century Gospel Book. The Cultures du Monde Festival is held every July. The patron saint of Gannat is Saint Procule.

Gospel (liturgy)

The Gospel in Christian liturgy refers to a reading from the Gospels used during various religious services, including Mass or Divine Liturgy (Eucharist). In many Christian churches, all present stand when a passage from one of the Gospels is read publicly, and sit when a passage from a different part of the Bible is read. The reading of the Gospels, often contained in a liturgical edition containing only the four Gospels (see lectionary), is traditionally done by a minister, priest or deacon, and in many traditions the Gospel Book is brought into the midst of the congregation to be read.

Gospel Book (British Library, Add. 40618)

British Library, Add. MS 40618 is a late 8th century illuminated Irish Gospel Book with 10th century Anglo-Saxon additions. The manuscript contains a portion of the Gospel of Matthew, the majority of the Gospel of Mark and the entirety of the Gospels of Luke and John. There are three surviving Evangelist portraits, one original and two 10th century replacements, along with 10th century decorated initials. It is catalogued as number 40618 in the Additional manuscripts collection at the British Library.

The manuscript has 66 surviving vellum folios. The pages are 130 by 105 mm. The text occupies an area of 101 by 73 mm. There are gatherings of 16 or 20 folios. The oak board used as the back cover survives along with a vellum cover from another book that was used as a wrapper starting in the 17th century.

The manuscript is missing several folios. The first 18 folios are missing from Matthew so the text begins at Matthew 21:32. There are two folios missing that contained the end of Matthew and the beginning of Mark. The remainder of Mark and the other two Gospels are complete. The original final page of John has been lost, but was replaced by a folio written in by a 10th-century Anglo-Saxon scribe. The original Evangelist portraits of Matthew, Mark and John have also been lost. In the 10th century Evangelist portraits were added to either replace or to supplement the originals. Of these the portraits of Luke and John survive.

The manuscript is a pocket gospel. The text belongs to the Irish Vulgate tradition with a few Old Latin readings. The manuscript is written in a pointed Insular minuscule in three hands, although the second hand wrote only a few lines on folio 51. Edward the Deacon, the scribe who wrote the Anglo-Saxon page at the end of John, wrote in an Anglo-Saxon minuscule that had some features of Carolingian minuscule. Edward added a colophon in rustic capitals (QUI LEGAT ORAT PRO SCRIPTORE EADVVARDO DIACONE – "may he who reads this pray for the scribe Edward the deacon").

The portrait of Luke, which is the only surviving original miniature, strongly resembles the Evangelist portraits of the Book of Mulling. The Anglo-Saxon miniatures are done in an early version of the Winchester Style and were influenced by Carolingian illumination. The manuscript originally contained decorated initials. These were erased in the 10th century and new zoomorphic initials were repainted in an Anglo-Saxon style. The placement of the initials is unusual because lines are rarely broken to start a new paragraph. The text usually continues and the initial is omitted from its proper place and is instead inserted into the margin. This system is used in some Greek manuscripts including the Codex Alexandrinus. There are gold crosses, which were probably also added in the 10th century, in the margins of John.

The manuscript is thought to have belonged to King Athelstan, who may have ordered the 10th century "modernization". On folio 66 verso there is a partially erased 12th century inscription which reads "iste est liber sanct......" Also on folio 66v are two ownership inscriptions. One indicates that in 1538 the book was owned by William Newman. The other indicates that in 1662 it was owned by Robert Lancaster. The manuscript was purchased by the British Library at Sotheby's in 1922.

Gospel Book Fragment (Durham Cathedral Library, A. II. 10.)

Durham Cathedral Library, Manuscript A.II.10. is a fragmentary seventh century Insular Gospel Book, produced in Lindisfarne c. 650. Only seven leaves of the book survive, bound in three separate volumes in the Durham Cathedral Dean and Chapter Library (MS A. II 10 ff. 2-5, 238-8a; MS C. III. 13, ff. 192-5; and MS C. III. 20, ff 1-2). Although this book is fragmentary, it is the earliest surviving example in the series of lavish Insular Gospel Books which includes the Book of Durrow, the Lindisfarne Gospels, the St. Teilo Gospels and the Book of Kells.

The surviving illuminations are a border to the colophon at the end of the Gospel of Matthew and an "INI" monogram at the beginning of the Gospel of Mark.

The frame is in the form of three "D" shapes stacked one atop another and which occupy the entire right half of the page. The spaces between the curves of the "D" shapes are filled with triangular knots. The "D" shapes themselves are decorated orange dots superposed on yellow interlace patterns. The pattern of the interlace is different on each of the "D" shapes. This frame represents the first appearance in an Insular manuscript of interlace, a motif which will assume enormous importance in later manuscripts. The frame encloses the explicit for Matthew, the incipit for Mark, and the text of the pater noster in Greek, but written in Latin letters.

The "INI" monogram is formed by compressing the three letters into a large N which is reminiscent of the initial N found in the Ambrosiana Jerome. The left upright of the monogram is over twice as long as the right. Both uprights are divided into two columns of colored panels separated by a black and cable. The panels are decorated with dots of contrasting colors. Both ends of the right upright and the top end of the left upright have spiral pattern terminals. The lower end of the left upright and both ends of the knotted cross bar have beast head terminals. In the first line of text that follows the monogram, the letters are hollow-shafted and each successive letter is smaller than the previous. There are some smaller initials marking verses in Matthew.

This manuscript shows the beginning of many techniques and motifs that are used in later manuscripts. The use of decorated text in which the decoration distorts the shape of the letters has been seen before, notably in the Cathach of St. Columba. But the combination of letters into a monogram is a new motif, one that will be developed extensively in later manuscripts. Similar "INI" monograms will be used at the beginning of the Gospel of Mark in almost every later Insular Gospel Book. The use of alternating colors the almost resemble enamel plaques such as are seen in this manuscript's INI monogram will also become a standard technique in later manuscripts. The successive diminution of letters following an initial had also been seen, again notably in the Cathach, and would also be a standard technique in Insular illumination. Finally the interlace pattern first found here would become an almost defining aspect of Insular illumination.

Insular art

Insular art, also known as Hiberno-Saxon art, is the style of art produced in the post-Roman history of Ireland and Britain. The term derives from insula, the Latin term for "island"; in this period Britain and Ireland shared a largely common style different from that of the rest of Europe. Art historians usually group insular art as part of the Migration Period art movement as well as Early Medieval Western art, and it is the combination of these two traditions that gives the style its special character.Most Insular art originates from the Irish monastic movement of Celtic Christianity, or metalwork for the secular elite, and the period begins around 600 with the combining of Celtic and Anglo-Saxon styles. One major distinctive feature is interlace decoration, in particular the interlace decoration as found at Sutton Hoo, in East Anglia. This is now applied to decorating new types of objects mostly copied from the Mediterranean world, above all the codex or book.The finest period of the style was brought to an end by the disruption to monastic centres and aristocratic life of the Viking raids which began in the late 8th century. These are presumed to have interrupted work on the Book of Kells, and no later Gospel books are as heavily or finely illuminated as the masterpieces of the 8th century. In England the style merged into Anglo-Saxon art around 900, whilst in Ireland the style continued until the 12th century, when it merged into Romanesque art. Ireland, Scotland and the kingdom of Northumbria in northern England are the most important centres, but examples were found also in southern England, Wales and in Continental Europe, especially Gaul (modern France), in centres founded by the Hiberno-Scottish mission and Anglo-Saxon missions. The influence of insular art affected all subsequent European medieval art, especially in the decorative elements of Romanesque and Gothic manuscripts.Surviving examples of Insular art are mainly illuminated manuscripts, metalwork and carvings in stone, especially stone crosses. Surfaces are highly decorated with intricate patterning, with no attempt to give an impression of depth, volume or recession. The best examples include the Book of Kells, Lindisfarne Gospels, Book of Durrow, brooches such as the Tara Brooch and the Ruthwell Cross. Carpet pages are a characteristic feature of Insular manuscripts, although historiated initials (an Insular invention), canon tables and figurative miniatures, especially Evangelist portraits, are also common.

Jon Meacham

Jon Ellis Meacham (; born May 20, 1969) is a writer, reviewer, and presidential biographer. A former Executive Editor and Executive Vice President at Random House, he is a contributing writer to The New York Times Book Review, a contributing editor to Time magazine, and a former Editor-in-Chief of Newsweek. He is the author of several books. He won the 2009 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography for American Lion: Andrew Jackson in the White House. He is currently the Rogers Chair for the Study of the Presidency and a distinguished visiting professor in the Department of Political Science at Vanderbilt University.

List of Hiberno-Saxon illuminated manuscripts

Hiberno-Saxon manuscripts are those manuscripts made in the British Isles from about 500 CE to about 900 CE in England, but later in Ireland and elsewhere, or those manuscripts made on the continent in scriptoria founded by Hiberno-Scottish or Anglo-Saxon missionaries and which are stylistically similar to the manuscripts produced in the British Isles. It is almost impossible to separate Anglo-Saxon, Irish, Scottish and Welsh art at this period, especially in manuscripts; this art is therefore called Insular art. See specifically Insular illumination and also Insular script. For English manuscripts produced after 900, see the List of illuminated Anglo-Saxon manuscripts.

Antwerp Sedulius (Antwerp, Museum Plantin-Moretus MS M. 17. 4)

Barberini Gospels (Rome, Vatican, Biblioteca Apostolica MS Barberini Lat. 570)

Bibliothèque Nationale MS lat. 10861 Lives of Saints (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale MS lat. 10861)

Gospels of Saint Gatien of Tours (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale MS. nouv. acq. lat. 1587)

Ambrosiana Jerome (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana MS S. 45. sup.)

Ambrosiana Orosius (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana MS D. 23. sup.)

Bodleian Ovid (Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Auct. F. 4. 32, ff. 37-47 (S. C. 2176)

Bodleian Philippus (Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Bodley 426 (S. C. 2327))

Book of Armagh (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS 52)

Book of Cerne (Cambridge, University Library, MS L1. 1. 10)

Book of Deer (Cambridge, University Library, MS II. 6. 32)

Book of Dimma (Dublin, Trinity College Library MS A. 4. 23 (59))

Book of Durrow (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. 4. 5 (57))

Book of Kells (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A I. 6. (58))

Book of Mulling (Dublin, Trinity College Library MS A. I. 15 (60))

Book of Nunnaminster (London, British Library Harley MS 2965)

Gospel Book (London, British Library Add. MS. 40618)

British Library Add. MS. 36929 Psalter (London, British Library Add. MS. 36929)

British Library Harley MS 1023 Gospel Book (London, British Library Harley MS 1023)

Gospels of Mael Brigte (London, British Library, Harley MS 1802)

Cadmug Gospels (Fulda, Landesbibliothek Codex Bonifatianus 3)

Canterbury Gospels (London, British Library Royal MS I. E. VI and Canterbury, Cathedral Library Additional MS 16)

Cathach of St. Columba (Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, s. n.)

Codex Amiatinus (Florence, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana MS Amiatinus 1)

Codex Bigotianus (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale MS lat. 281, 298)

Codex Eyckensis (Maaseik, Church of Saint Catherine, Treasury, s.n.)

Codex Usserianus Primus (Dublin, Trinity College Library, MS A. 4. 15 (55))

Codex Usserianus Secundus (Garland of Howth) (Dublin, Trinity College MS A. 4. 6 (56))

Cologne Collectio Canonum (Cologne, Dombibliothek Cod. 213)

Cotton-Corpus Christi Gospel Fragment (Cambridge, Corpus Christi College MS 197B, ff. 1-36 (Formerly pp. 245–316) and London, British Library Cotton MS Otho C. V)

Cuthbert Gospel of St John (Stonyhurst Gospel) British Library - for binding

Cutbercht Gospels (Vienna, Österreichische Nationalbibliothek Cod. 1224)

Durham Cassiodorus (Durham, Cathedral Library MS B. II. 30)

Durham Cathedral Library A. II. 10. Gospel Book Fragment (Durham, Cathedral Library MSS A. II. 10 ff. 2-5, 338-8a, C. III. 13, ff. 192-5, and C. III. 20, ff. 1, 2)

Durham Cathedral Library A. II. 16. Gospel Book Fragment (Durham Cathedral Library MSS A. II. 16, ff. 1-23, 34-86, 102 and Cambridge, Magdalene College Pepysian MS 2981 (18))

Durham Gospels (Durham, Cathedral Library, MS A.II.17, 2-102 and Cambridge, Magdalene College Pepysian MS 2981 (19))

Echternach Gospels (Paris, Bibliothèque Nationale, MS lat. 9389)

Freiburg Gospel Book Fragment (Freiburg im Breisgau, Universitätsbibliothek Cod. 702)

Gotha Gospels (Gotha, Forschungsbibliothek Cod. Memb I. 18)

Harburg Gospels (Harburg über Donauwörth, Schloss Harburg, Fürstlich Ottingen-Wallersteinsche Bibliothek Cod. I. 2. 4. 2 (Olin Maihingen))

Hereford Gospels (Hereford, Cathedral Library MS P. I. 2)

Karlsruhe Bede (Karlsruhe, Landesbibliothek Cod. CLXVII)

Leiden Pliny (Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek MS Voss. lat. F. 4, ff. 4-33)

Leiden Priscian (Leiden, Universiteitsbibliotheek MS. B. P. L. 67)

Leipzig Gospel Book Fragment (Leipzig, Universitätsbibliothek MSS Rep. I, 58a and Rep. 35a)

Leningrad Bede (Leningrad, Public Library Cod. Q. v. I. 18)

Leningrad Gospels (Leningrad, Public Library Cod. F. v. I. 8)

Leningrad Paulinus (Leningrad, Public Library Cod. Q. v. XIV. 1)

Lichfield Gospels (Book of St. Chad) (Lichfield, Cathedral Library)

Lindisfarne Gospels (London, BL, Cotton MS Nero D. IV)

Lothian Psalter (Blickling Psalter) (New York, Pierpont Morgan Library MS M. 776)

Macdurnan Gospels (London, Lambeth Palace MS 1370)

MacRegol Gospels (Rushworth Gospels) (Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Auct. D. 2. 19 (S. C. 3946))

Milan Theodore (Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana C. 301. inf.)

Rawlinson Gospels (Oxford, Bodleian Library MS Rawlinson G. 167 (S.C. no. 14890))

Ricemarch Psalter (Dublin, Trinity College MS A. 4. 20 (50))

Royal Gospel Book (London, British Library Royal MS I. B. VII)

Royal Irish Academy MS D. II. 3 Gospel of St. John (Dublin, Royal Irish Academy MS D. II. 3, ff. 1-11)

Royal Prayer Book (London, British Library Royal MS 2.A.XX)

Salaberga Psalter (Berlin, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz MS Hamilton 553)

Southampton Psalter (Cambridge, St. John's College MS C. 9 (59))

St. Gall Gospel Book (St. Gall, Stiftsbibliothek Cod. 51)

St. Gall Gospel of St. John (St. Gall, Stiftsbibliothek Cod. 60)

St. Gall Priscian (St. Gall, Stiftsbibliothek Cod. 904)

Stockholm Codex Aureus (Stockholm, Royal Library MS A. 135)

Stonyhurst Gospel - for binding

Stowe Missal (Dublin, Royal Irish Academy MS D. II. 3, ff. 12-67)

Stuttgart Psalter (Stuttgart, Württembergische Landesbibliothek Cod. Bibl. 2. 12)

Tiberius Bede (London, British Library Cotton MS Tiberius C. II)

Trier Gospels (Trier, Domschatz Codex 61 (Bibliotheksnummer 134))

Turin Gospel Book Fragment (Turin, Biblioteca Nazionale Cod. O. IV. 20)

Utrecht Gospel Book Fragment (Utrecht, Universiteitsbibliotheek MS 32 (Script. eccl. 484, ff. 94-105)

Valenciennes Apocalypse (Valenciennes, Bibliothèque Municipale MS 99)

Vespasian Psalter (London, British Library Cotton MS Vespasian A. I)

Vitellius Psalter (London, British Library Cotton MS Vitellius F. XI)

Wurzburg St. Paul (Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek Cod. M. p. th. F. 69)

Liturgical fan in Eastern Christianity

The hexapteryga or ripidion are ceremonial fans used in the Eastern Christian Churches (including Eastern Catholic Churches, Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches) during services. Ripidions are carried by the altar servers at all processions with Eucharistic gifts and the Gospel book.

In the Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Churches, the sacred εξαπτέρυγον, hexapterygon, plural: εξαπτέρυγα hexapteryga—literally, "six-winged"), have been used from the first centuries to the present day. It is generally made of metal, round, having the iconographic likeness of an angel with six wings, and is set on the end of a pole. Hexapteryga of carved, gilded, or painted wood are also found. They are usually made in pairs. For historical use in the Western Church see flabellum.

Among the Eastern Catholics and Eastern Orthodox, the hexapteryga will be carried during the Great Entrance and at all processions; in the Russian churches they are often also used to honour a particularly sacred icon or relic. When not in use, the hexapteryga are usually kept in stands behind the Holy Table in the Byzantine Eastern Catholic Churches and Greek tradition, and in the Slavic traditions may either be kept there or out of sight elsewhere in the altar. The latter is especially true in northern Russia, where icons of Christ and the Theotokos are usually placed behind the Holy Table.

Hexapteryga used in the Maronite and Oriental (e.g., Coptic, Armenian, Ethiopian) traditions are distinctive, having little hoops of metal or bells all around the circumference of the disks, symbolizing the hymns of the angels to God. At particularly solemn points of the liturgy, these are shaken gently to produce a tinkling and jingling sound, akin to the sound of multiple altar bells.

London Canon Tables

The London Canon Tables (British Library, Add. MS 5111) is a Byzantine illuminated Gospel Book fragment on vellum from the sixth or seventh century. It was possibly made in Constantinople. The fragment consists of two folios of two illuminated canon tables – of unusual construction – set beneath an ornamental arcade and the Letter by Eusebius of Caesarea which usually prefaces canon tables. The fragment is bound together with a twelfth-century Gospel Book (British Library, Add. MS 5111 and 5112) which is thought to have belonged to one of the monasteries on Mount Athos.

The folios are 220 by 150 mm. They were originally larger, but were trimmed to their current size when they were bound with the twelfth century Gospel Book. The two folios are stained gold, an attribute even rarer than purple-stained folios such as are in the Vienna Genesis. The arches and the columns of the arcades are filled by brightly coloured abstract ornamentation. This ornamentation causes the arcade to lose much of its structural sense. Below each of the arches, there is a medallion with a portrait painted in classical style. As there would have been twelve of these arches it is likely these portraits represent the Apostles, although there is no direct connection between the Canon Tables or the letter of Eusebius and the twelve Apostles.

The numbers of corresponding Gospel sections, as listed in the London Canon Tables, differ strikingly from any other surviving manuscript of the Eusebian canons. Eberhard Nestle, who was among the first biblical scholars to call attention to the value of the Eusebian canons for the New Testament textual criticism, dismissed the London Canon Tables as an example of de luxe manuscripts whose "text-critical value stands in reverse proportion to their artistic". The art historian Carl Nordenfalk, however, suggested that the London Canon Tables, "instead of being an example of careless copying, presuppose another section division than that of Eusebius himself".

Miroslav Gospel

Miroslav's Gospel (Serbian: Мирослављево Јеванђеље / Miroslavljevo Jevanđelje, pronounced [mǐrɔslaʋʎɛʋɔ jɛʋǎndʑɛːʎɛ]) is a 362-page illuminated manuscript Gospel Book on parchment with very rich decorations. It is one of the oldest surviving documents written in the Serbian recension of Church Slavonic. The gospel is considered a masterpiece of illustration and calligraphy.

St. Gall Gospel Book

The St. Gall Gospel Book or Codex Sangallensis 51 is an 8th-century Insular Gospel Book, written either in Ireland or by Irish monks in the Abbey of St. Gall in Switzerland, where it is now in the Abbey library of St. Gallen as MS 51. It has 134 folios (so 268 pages). Amongst its 11 illustrated pages are a Crucifixion, a Last Judgement, a Chi Rho monogram page, a carpet page, and Evangelist portraits.

It is designated by 48 on the Beuron system, and is an 8th-century Latin manuscript of the New Testament. The text, written on vellum, is a version of the old Latin. The manuscript contains the text of the four Gospels on 134 parchment leaves (29 ½ × 22 ½ cm). It is written in two columns, in Irish semi-uncials. It has been in the St Gall library since at least the 10th century, when it is recorded in the earliest catalogue.The Latin text of the Gospel of John is a representative of the Western text-type. The text of the other Gospels represents the Vulgate version.St Gall was founded where Saint Gall had settled and died. He was an Irish monk and one of the traditional twelve companions of Saint Columbanus on his Hiberno-Scottish mission to the continent. The abbey maintained close links with Ireland and England in its early centuries.

Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine

Vernadsky National Library of Ukraine, VNLU (Ukrainian: Національна бібліотека України імені В.І. Вернадського) is the main academic library and main scientific information centre in Ukraine, one of the world's largest (top twenty) national libraries. Its main building is located in the capital of the country – Kiev, Demiivka neighborhood.

The library contains about 15 million items. The library has the most complete collection of Slavic writing, archives of outstanding world and Ukrainian scientists and cultural persons. The holdings include the collection of the Presidents of Ukraine, archive copies of Ukrainian printed documents from 1917, and archives of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine.

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